Report on Galunggung (Indonesia) — February 1984
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 9, no. 2 (February 1984)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Galunggung (Indonesia) Small phreatic explosion
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1984. Report on Galunggung (Indonesia). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 9:2. Smithsonian Institution. https://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN198402-263140.
7.25°S, 108.058°E; summit elev. 2168 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
A phreatic explosion 9 January produced a cloud that was mostly steam with a little ash. Steam emission remained more vigorous than usual for about two days. Local volcanic tremor accompanied the activity but no significant increase in deeper seismicity was noted before or during the increased steam emission. Explosive activity was also reported 31 January but no details were available from the ground and weather clouds prevented satellite observations.
Explosive activity stopped after extrusion of a small lava flow onto the crater floor in early January 1983.
Further References. Hanstrum, B.N., and Watson, A.S., 1983, Case study of two eruptions of Mount Galunggung and an investigation of volcanic eruption cloud characteristics using remote sensing techniques: Australian Meteorological Magazine, v. 31, p. 171-177.
Sawada, Y., 1987, Study on analysis of volcanic eruption cloud image data obtained by the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS): Technical Reports of the Meteorological Research Institute (Japan), no. 22, 335 p..
Geologic Background. The forested slopes Galunggung in western Java are cut by a large horseshoe-shaped caldera breached to the SE that has served to channel the products of recent eruptions in that direction. The "Ten Thousand Hills of Tasikmalaya" dotting the plain below the volcano are debris-avalanche hummocks from the collapse that formed the breached caldera about 4200 years ago. Although historical eruptions, restricted to the central vent near the caldera headwall, have been infrequent, they have caused much devastation. The first historical eruption in 1822 produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that killed over 4000 people. More recently, a strong explosive eruption during 1982-1983 caused severe economic disruption to populated areas near the volcano.
Information Contacts: A. Sudradjat, VSI; W. Smith, FAA.