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Report on Aira (Japan) — February 1986

Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 11, no. 2 (February 1986)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.

Aira (Japan) Plumes detected on NOAA satellite images

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1986. Report on Aira (Japan). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 11:2. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN198602-282080.

Volcano Profile |  Complete Bulletin


Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Plumes . . . were recorded on images from the NOAA 9 polar orbiting weather satellite in January (table 8). Most plumes extended SE of the volcano.

Table 8. Lengths of plumes from Sakura-jima detected on NOAA 9 weather satellite images, January 1986.

Date Time Plume Length
11 Jan 1986 1416 150-160 km
12 Jan 1986 1409 40-50 km
20 Jan 1986 1424 25-30 km
22 Jan 1986 1401 160 km
27 Jan 1986 1446 180 km
28 Jan 1986 1446 180 km

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: Will Gould, NOAA/NESDIS/SDSD.