Report on Gamalama (Indonesia) — March 1988
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 3 (March 1988)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Gamalama (Indonesia) Dark plumes; frequent earthquakes
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1988. Report on Gamalama (Indonesia). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 13:3. Smithsonian Institution. http://dx.doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN198803-268060.
0.8°N, 127.33°E; summit elev. 1715 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Since the 12 February ash eruption, dark "smoke" has frequently been reported from the crater. Seismic activity continued beneath the volcano, with about five volcanic and 75 deeper ("tectonic") earthquakes daily during March.
Geologic Background. Gamalama is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera, and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama's historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63.
Information Contacts: VSI.