Report on Aira (Japan) — April 1988
Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 4 (April 1988)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Aira (Japan) Explosions and air shocks; ash accumulation declines
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1988. Report on Aira (Japan). In: McClelland, L. (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 13:4. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN198804-282080.
31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
April's 19 recorded explosions brought the year's total to 104. No damage was reported. The maximum April ash cloud height was 2,000 m above Minami-dake crater, from the explosion at 0836 on the 20th. The month's ash accumulation was 222 g/m2 [at KLMO]. Air shocks were felt at the observatory from 18 of the 19 explosions.
Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.
Information Contacts: JMA.