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Report on Aira (Japan) — June 1988

Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 6 (June 1988)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.

Aira (Japan) Largest one-day ash accumulation since 1969

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 1988. Report on Aira (Japan). In: McClelland, L (ed.), Scientific Event Alert Network Bulletin, 13:6. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.SEAN198806-282080.

Volcano Profile |  Complete Bulletin


Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


The number of recorded summit crater explosions declined to six in June, for a 6-month total of 122. A pair of explosions on 16 June deposited the largest amount of ash (2,671 g/m2) since measurements began in 1969 at KLMO . . . . The month's total ash accumulation was 3,541 g/m2. The largest previous ash accumulation at the observatory was 2,476 g/m2 on 29 July 1985. The 16 June plume was the month's highest (2.6 km). Four June explosions produced air shocks.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: JMA.