Report on Papandayan (Indonesia) — 20 November-26 November 2002
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 20 November-26 November 2002
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2002. Report on Papandayan (Indonesia). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 20 November-26 November 2002. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
7.32°S, 107.73°E; summit elev. 2665 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 22-25 November at Papandayan small-scale continuous ash-and-gas explosions occurred, sending plumes to 300-600 m above the volcano. Tremor, tectonic earthquakes, and shallow and deep-volcanic earthquakes were recorded. An eruption on the 20th produced a NE-directed blast that sent material as far as 2 km away from the crater, burning the crater-facing sides of trees as far as 400 m away. The eruption covered the area around the volcano in 4-8 cm of ash. Papandayan remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a 4-km-wide exclusion zone.
Geologic Background. Papandayan is a complex stratovolcano with four large summit craters, the youngest of which was breached to the NE by collapse during a brief eruption in 1772 and contains active fumarole fields. The broad 1.1-km-wide, flat-floored Alun-Alun crater truncates the summit of Papandayan, and Gunung Puntang to the north gives a twin-peaked appearance. Several episodes of collapse have created an irregular profile and produced debris avalanches that have impacted lowland areas. A sulfur-encrusted fumarole field occupies historically active Kawah Mas ("Golden Crater"). After its first historical eruption in 1772, in which collapse of the NE flank produced a catastrophic debris avalanche that destroyed 40 villages and killed nearly 3000 people, only small phreatic eruptions had occurred prior to an explosive eruption that began in November 2002.