Report on Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) — 16 June-22 June 2004
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 June-22 June 2004
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Tengger Caldera (Indonesia). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 June-22 June 2004. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
7.942°S, 112.95°E; summit elev. 2329 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 15-17 June, low-level activity continued at the Bromo cone of Tengger caldera, with "thin smoke" emissions rising 25-150 m above the summit. Seismicity was dominated by emission earthquakes. EDM (electric distance meter) and GPS (global positioning system) techniques were used to measure deformation; 1-5 and 0.2-6.2 mm of deflation were recorded, respectively. The Alert Level at Tengger caldera remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Geologic Background. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.