Report on Colima (Mexico) — 29 December-4 January 2005
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 December-4 January 2005
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2004. Report on Colima (Mexico). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 29 December-4 January 2005. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
According to the Washington VAAC, on 30 December an ash plume was visible at Colima on satellite imagery. The plume rose to ~7 km a.s.l. and extended as far as ~37 km E. Late on 30 December a second steam-and-ash plume rose to ~7 km a.s.l. and extended E. On 1 January an eruption produced a steam-and-ash plume that reached ~5.5 km a.s.l. and extended ~33 km N.
Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.