Report on Arenal (Costa Rica) — 2 November-8 November 2005
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 2 November-8 November 2005
Managing Editor: Gari Mayberry
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2005. Report on Arenal (Costa Rica). In: Mayberry, G (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 2 November-8 November 2005. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Explosive activity began at Arenal on 2 November at 1454. A pyroclastic flow was generated at 1502 and movement continued for ~10 minutes. During a visit to the volcano the next day, OVISICORI-UNA scientists found that the mid-sized pyroclastic flow traveled down the volcano's W flank, producing an ash cloud that drifted SE. An area was impacted that extended from the volcano's summit to about 1,000 m a.s.l. on Arenal's W flank. The pyroclastic flow occurred in an area that is closed to visitors. During the previous several months lava flows on the volcano's SW flank had been growing rapidly.
Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.