Report on Chaiten (Chile) — 19 November-25 November 2008
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 19 November-25 November 2008
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2008. Report on Chaiten (Chile). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 19 November-25 November 2008. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
42.833°S, 72.646°W; summit elev. 1122 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
On 25 November SERNAGEOMIN reported that continuous emissions of gas and ash from Chaitén produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 2.6-3.1 km (8,500-10,200 ft) a.s.l. A lateral explosion was observed on the web camera on 17 November. Based on observations of satellite imagery, SIGMET notices, and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 19-21, 23, and 25 November ash plumes continuously rose to altitudes 1.8-2.4 km (6,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ESE, SE, and S.
Geologic Background. Chaitén is a small, glacier-free caldera with a compound Holocene lava dome located 10 km NE of the town of Chaitén on the Gulf of Corcovado. Early work had identified only a single explosive eruption during the early Holocene prior to the major 2008 eruption, but later work has identified multiple explosive eruptions throughout the Holocene. A rhyolitic obsidian lava dome occupies much of the caldera floor. Obsidian cobbles from this dome found in the Blanco River are the source of prehistorical artifacts from archaeological sites along the Pacific coast as far as 400 km from the volcano to the N and S. The caldera is breached on the SW side by a river that drains to the bay of Chaitén. The first historical eruption, beginning in 2008, produced major rhyolitic explosive activity and growth of a lava dome that filled much of the caldera.