Report on Santa Maria (Guatemala) — 24 April-30 April 2013
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 24 April-30 April 2013
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Report on Santa Maria (Guatemala). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 24 April-30 April 2013. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
14.757°N, 91.552°W; summit elev. 3745 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
INSIVUMEH reported that on 23 April two explosions were accompanied by white plumes that rose 800 m above Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex and drifted SW. The next day explosions produced ash plumes that rose 600 m and drifted SSW. Avalanches were generated by active lava flows on the SW flank. Explosions were heard on 25 April but cloud cover prevented visual confirmation. On 28 April a small explosion generated a white plume that rose 500 m and drifted NE. Explosions on 29 April produced ash plumes that rose 800 m and drifted SE, causing ashfall in San Jose, La Quina, and areas near Calahuache.
Geologic Background. Symmetrical, forest-covered Santa María volcano is one of the most prominent of a chain of large stratovolcanoes that rises dramatically above the Pacific coastal plain of Guatemala. The stratovolcano has a sharp-topped, conical profile that is cut on the SW flank by a 1.5-km-wide crater. The oval-shaped crater extends from just below the summit to the lower flank and was formed during a catastrophic eruption in 1902. The renowned Plinian eruption of 1902 that devastated much of SW Guatemala followed a long repose period after construction of the large basaltic-andesite stratovolcano. The massive dacitic Santiaguito lava-dome complex has been growing at the base of the 1902 crater since 1922. Compound dome growth at Santiaguito has occurred episodically from four westward-younging vents, the most recent of which is Caliente. Dome growth has been accompanied by almost continuous minor explosions, with periodic lava extrusion, larger explosions, pyroclastic flows, and lahars.