Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — 16 October-22 October 2013
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 October-22 October 2013
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2013. Report on Klyuchevskoy (Russia). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 16 October-22 October 2013. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
KVERT reported that a strong explosion from a new cinder cone low on Kliuchevskoi’s SW flank occurred between 2020 and 2030 on 11 October. An ash plume rose to altitudes of 6-7 km (19,700-23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E.
Activity increased on 15 October, prompting KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red at 1311. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 140 km SSW. Phreatic explosions on the SW flank generated ash plumes that rose 3-4 km (9,800-13,100 ft) a.s.l. Satellite images showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. at 1419 and drifting 103 km SSW. Activity increased again; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 9 km (29,500 ft) a.s.l. at 1655 and 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. afterwards. Ash plumes drifted SSW and S. At 2056 KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange and noted that although activity had slightly decreased it still remained high. Ash plumes rose 8 km (26,200 ft) a.s.l. and drifted ENE. Phreatic explosions at the SW flank continued, as well as lava flows on the SW, W, and SE flanks.
At 0815 on 16 October satellite images detected ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 2-3 km (6,600-9,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 480 km NNW. Activity again increased and at 1143 KVERT issued a notice stating that the Aviation Color Code was again being raised to Red. Seismic data indicated that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Clouds prevented direct observations but satellite images showed ash plumes drifting NW. At 1624 satellite images showed ash plumes drifting WSW at altitudes of 7-7.5 km (23,000-24,600 ft) a.s.l. Strombolian and Vulcanian explosions continued. Activity again slightly decreased; the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Minor ashfall was reported in Mayskoe Village.
During 16-17 October the melting of the Bogdanovich glacier due to the volcanic activity caused increased water flow in the Studenaya River, which destroyed part of a road near Kozyrevsk village (about 50 km W).
On 18 October the Aviation Color Code was again raised to Red but lowered to Orange later that day. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 20-100 km SE. Strombolian activity continued and several lava flows continued to effuse onto the W, SW, and SE flanks. At 0559 on 19 October ash plumes observed in satellite images drifted 630 km SE at altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. Ash plume altitudes fluctuated between 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. later that day. A large amount of ash continued to drift 600 km SE. At 0100 on 21 October a sharp decrease in seismicity was detected and only fumarolic activity was observed. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange.
Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.