Report on Cleveland (United States) — 1 January-7 January 2014
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 1 January-7 January 2014
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2014. Report on Cleveland (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 1 January-7 January 2014. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
52.825°N, 169.944°W; summit elev. 1730 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
AVO reported that at 1229 on 28 December 2013 an explosion at Cleveland was detected on distant seismic and infrasound instruments. Although satellite images did not detect ash it was possible the explosion generated minor ash emissions. Elevated surface temperatures following the explosion were detected. Another similar explosion was detected at 1906 on 30 December, and a third brief explosion was detected at 1900 on 1 January 2014. Following the second and third explosions, satellite images detected distinct ash plumes, detached from the summit, drifting 75-100 km N at unknown altitudes. On 2 January AVO raised the Volcanic Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color Code to Orange. No further activity was detected during 3-7 January.
Geologic Background. The beautifully symmetrical Mount Cleveland stratovolcano is situated at the western end of the uninhabited, dumbbell-shaped Chuginadak Island. It lies SE across Carlisle Pass strait from Carlisle volcano and NE across Chuginadak Pass strait from Herbert volcano. Joined to the rest of Chuginadak Island by a low isthmus, Cleveland is the highest of the Islands of the Four Mountains group and is one of the most active of the Aleutian Islands. The native name, Chuginadak, refers to the Aleut goddess of fire, who was thought to reside on the volcano. Numerous large lava flows descend the steep-sided flanks. It is possible that some 18th-to-19th century eruptions attributed to Carlisle should be ascribed to Cleveland (Miller et al., 1998). In 1944 Cleveland produced the only known fatality from an Aleutian eruption. Recent eruptions have been characterized by short-lived explosive ash emissions, at times accompanied by lava fountaining and lava flows down the flanks.