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Report on Kilauea (United States) — 25 June-1 July 2014

Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 25 June-1 July 2014
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert

Please cite this report as:

Global Volcanism Program, 2014. Report on Kilauea (United States). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 25 June-1 July 2014. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.

Volcano Profile |  Weekly Report (25 June-1 July 2014)


Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


During 25 June-1 July HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. Gas emissions remained elevated. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas; smaller particles may have been dropped several kilometers away.

During 25-26 June, lava flows from the N and NE spatter cones at Pu'u 'O'o Crater were active and persistent glow emanated from spatter cones on the N, SE, and S portions of the crater floor, and from a small lava lake in the NE spatter cone. On 27 June the crater floor slowly subsided and new lava erupted on the N flank. During 27-30 June lava flowed from four locations on the NE flank, advancing to about 1 km NE. Spatter cones collapsed varying amounts. A 28 June satellite image showed that the 27 June lava flows had expanded in area and extended no more than 1.6 km NE of Pu'u 'O'o cone. During 25-27 June there were multiple active breakouts in the interior of the Kahauale`a 2 flow at the north base of Pu'u 'O'o and distant broad smoke plumes, with multiple glowing points visible at night from both near and distant breakouts. Only one stationary glowing spot was seen during 28-30 June on a nearby breakout from the Kahauale`a 2 flow, and little to no smoke from the distal end of that flow, suggesting that the flow was cutoff and dead.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)