Report on Aira (Japan) — 3 September-9 September 2014
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 3 September-9 September 2014
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2014. Report on Aira (Japan). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 3 September-9 September 2014. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
During 1-9 September JMA maintained Alert Level 3 for Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano. There were 23 explosions recorded from Showa crater from 1 to 4 September; during 5-7 September there were 18 explosions.
During 3-7 September JMA reported ash eruptions, causing the Tokyo VAAC to issue regular advisories; however, ash was not visible in satellite images. At 0437 on 9 September, ash was visible in satellite images and reached 3,300 m (11,000 ft) a.s.l. drifting S. On 2 and 3 September, ballistics reached 1,300-1,800 m above the crater. Nighttime incandescence was detected during 4-5 September from Showa crater. Volcanic earthquakes and tremor were detected during 1-8 September.
Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.