Nisyros

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 36.586°N
  • 27.16°E

  • 698 m
    2289 ft

  • 212050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

8 January-14 January 2003

According to a news article, the crater of Nisyros was declared off limits to visitors, due to increasing temperatures and growing surface cracks. Evangelos Layios, the director of Athens University's geophysics laboratory, stated, ". . . earthquakes in 1995-96 triggered changes in the general condition of the volcano. For example, the hydrothermal system has increased in [temperature] from 210 to 315 degrees Celsius, there is continuous microseismic activity as well as changes on the surface of the ground." The ban on visitors was prompted by a crack on the volcano that almost tripled in length over the past year to 139 m.

Source: Kathimerini News

Index of Weekly Reports


2003: January

Weekly Reports


8 January-14 January 2003

According to a news article, the crater of Nisyros was declared off limits to visitors, due to increasing temperatures and growing surface cracks. Evangelos Layios, the director of Athens University's geophysics laboratory, stated, ". . . earthquakes in 1995-96 triggered changes in the general condition of the volcano. For example, the hydrothermal system has increased in [temperature] from 210 to 315 degrees Celsius, there is continuous microseismic activity as well as changes on the surface of the ground." The ban on visitors was prompted by a crack on the volcano that almost tripled in length over the past year to 139 m.

Source: Kathimerini News


The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Nisyros.

The easternmost volcano of the Aegean arc forms the 9-km-wide island of Nisyros, which is truncated by a 3-4 km wide caldera. The island was constructed during the past 150,000 years, with three cone-building stages including explosive and effusive andesitic eruptions and effusive and extrusive dacitic and rhyolitic activity. The age of the caldera is variously considered to be <24,000 years before present (BP) (Keller et al., 1990) and >44,000 years BP (Limburg and Varekamp, 1991). Five large post-caldera lava domes completely fill the western part of the caldera. The NE-most (Boriatiko) and SW-most (Karaviotis) lava domes and flows are significantly younger than the other domes. A sixth post-caldera dome, outside the SW caldera rim, produced lava flows that reached the coast. Historical phreatic eruptions occurred from craters within the caldera between 1422 and 1888. Intense hydrothermal activity continues in the form of many fumaroles on the caldera floor and hot springs along the coast.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1888 Sep 25 ± 4 days Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Polyvotis Micros
1873 Jun 1873 Sep 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Plegathon and Polyvotis
1871 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Plegathon and Polyvotis
1422 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Achelone Vent
Acheolus Vent
Agios Joannis Vent 588 m
Alexandros Vent
Andreas Vent
Kaminakia Vent
Logothetis Vent
Phlegethon Vent
Polybotes Vent
Polyvotis Megalos
    Megalos Polybotes
Vent
Polyvotis Micros
    Mikros Polybotes
    Polybotes Micros
    Micros Polybotes
Vent
Stefanos
    Stephanos
Vent 110 m


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Boriatiko Vouno Dome
Karaviotis Dome
Kratioti Dome
Lofos Dome
Profitis Ilias
    Profit Elias
Dome 698 m
Trapezina Dome


Thermal
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Emborio Thermal
Kailia Thermal
Nikia Thermal
Piria Thermal
The ash cone and crater in the foreground were formed during an eruption on the caldera floor in 1871. Phreatic explosions ejected ash and lapilli that covered the caldera floor, destroying fruit gardens. Five explosion craters pocket the 800 x 1400 m wide caldera floor. Post-caldera lava domes form the horizon.

Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).
Mount Hagi Ilias lava dome occupies the western side of a 3-4 km wide caldera at the summit of Nisyros volcano, the easternmost of the Aegean arc. The age of the caldera is variously considered to be <24,000 years before present (BP) and >44,000 years BP. Five large post-caldera lava domes completely fill the western part of the caldera. Historical phreatic eruptions occurred within the caldera between 1422 and 1888.

Photo by Ichio Moriya (Kanazawa University).
The crescent-shaped island of Yali (upper left) lies above and to the left of Nisyros Island (lower right) in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper left). Yali contains two distinct segments connected by a narrow isthmus formed of modern reef sediments and consists of rhyolitic obsidian domes at the NE end and pumice-fall deposits at the SW end. A 3-4 km wide caldera, much of the western side of which is filled by post collapse lava domes, is visible on historically active Nisyros Island.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS006-E-30975, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Brombach T, Caliro S, Chiodini G, Fiebig J, Hunziker J C, Raco B, 2003. Geochemical evidence for mixing of magmatic fluids with seawater, Nisyros hydrothermal system, Greece. Bull Volc, 65: 505-516.

Caliro S, Chiodini G, Galluzzo D, Granieri D, La Rocca M, Saccorotti G, Ventura G, 2005. Recent study of Nisyros volcano (Greece) inferred from structural, geochemical and seismological data. Bull Volc, 67: 358-369.

Di Paola G M, 1974. Volcanology and Petrology of Nisyros Island (Dodecanese, Greece). Bull Volc, 38: 944-987.

Francalanci L, Varekamp J C, Vougioukalakis G, Defant M J, Innocenti F, Manetti P, 1995. Crystal retention, fractionation and crustal assimilation in a convecting magma chamber, Nisyros volcano, Greece. Bull Volc, 56: 601-620.

Georgalas G C, 1962. Greece. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 12: 1-40.

Keller J, 1980. The island of Vulcano. Soc Italiana Min Petr, 36: 368-413.

Keller J, 1982. Mediterranean Island Arcs. In: Thorpe R S (ed) {Andesites}, New York: John Wiley Sons, p 307-326.

Keller J, Rehren T, Stadlbauer E, 1990. Explosive volcanism in the Hellenic arc: a summary and review. In: Hardy D (ed) {Thera and the Aegean World III}, London: Thera Foundation, 2: 13-26.

Lagios E, Sakkas V, Parcharidis I, Dietrich V, 2005. Ground deformation of Nisyros volcano (Greece) for the period 1995-2002: results from DInSAR and DGPS observations. Bull Volc, 68: 201-214.

Limburg E M, Varekamp J C, 1991. Young pumice deposits on Nisyros, Greece. Bull Volc, 54: 68-77.

Marini L, Principe C, Chiodini G, Cioni R, Fytikas M, Marinelli G, 1993. Hydrothermal eruptions of Nisyros (Dodecanese, Greece). Past events and present hazard. J Volc Geotherm Res, 56: 71-94.

Sachpazi M, Kontoes C, Voulgaris N, Laigle M, Vougioukalakis G, Sikioti O, Stavrakakis G, Baskoutas J, Kalogeras J, Lepine J C, 2002. Seismological and SAR signature of unrest at Nisyros caldera, Greece. J Volc Geotherm Res, 116: 19-33.

Tibaldi A, Pasquare F A, Papanikolaou D, Nomikou P, 2008. Discovery of a huge sector collapse at the Nisyros volcano, Greece, by on-land and offshore geological-structure data. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 485-499.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Dacite
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Rhyolite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
672
680
14,285
461,031

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Nisyros Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.