North Island

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 4.07°N
  • 36.05°E

  • 520 m
    1706 ft

  • 222001
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for North Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for North Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for North Island.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
222001

Unknown - Evidence Credible

520 m / 1706 ft

4.07°N
36.05°E

Volcano Types

Tuff cone(s)

Rock Types

Major
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
21
21
7,326
180,900

Geological Summary

The small, 2-km-wide North Island in Lake Turkana is the northernmost and smallest of three volcanic islands in the lake. North Island is the summit of Kenya's northernmost rift valley volcano and is primarily composed of trachyandesitic-to-trachytic phreatomagmatic deposits from overlapping eroded tuff cones or tuff rings. The center of the island consists of a young tuff ring about 1 km in diameter nested inside an older tuff ring. Two fresh unvegetated lava flows that reach the lake shore from the central tuff ring form lava deltas at the northern and western sides of the island; the northern delta is about 900 m wide. The two blocky lava flows are younger than a terrace that formed less than 10,000 years ago during the last major high-water level of Lake Turkana (Key and Watkins, 1988). Geothermal activity occurs along a curvilinear ridge on the southern half of the island and on wave-cut platforms and beaches on the SW shoreline.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Bloomer S H, Curtis P C, Karson J A, 1989. Geochemical variation of Quaternary basaltic volcanoes in the Turkana Rift, northern Kenya. J African Earth Sci, 8: 511-532.

Brown F H, Carmichael I S E, 1971. Quaternary volcanoes of the Lake Rudolf region: II. The lavas of North Island, South Island and The Barrier. Lithos, 4: 305-323.

Brown F H, Carmichael I S E, 1969. Quaternary volcanics of the Lake Rudolf Region, 1. The Korath Range. Lithos, 2: 239-260.

Dunkley P N, Smith M, Allen D A, Darling W G, 1993. The geothermal activity and geology of the northern sector of the Kenya Rift Valley. Brit Geol Surv Res Rpt, SC/93/1: 1-185.

Karson J A, Curtis P C, 1994. Axial Quaternary volcanic centers in the Turkana rift, N. Kenya. J African Earth Sci, 18: 15-35.

Key R M, Watkins R T, 1988. Geology of the Sabarei area. Rpt Mines Geol Dept Kenya, 111: 1-57.

Smith M, 1991. (pers. comm.).

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from North Island. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the North Island page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for North Island.

Photo Gallery


North Island in the north-central part of elongated Lake Turkana is the northernmost and smallest of three volcanic islands in the lake. The two fresh unvegetated lava flows from a central tuff ring reach the lakeshore and form lava deltas. The broad northern flow (left) originated from a vent on the flank of the tuff ring and produced a 900-m-wide, lobate delta. The western flow (lower right) moved from the central vent through a breach in the western crater wall. Fumarolic activity occurs along the light-colored ridge at the top and along the SW coast.

Photo by Martin Smith, 1993 (copyright British Geological Survey, NERC).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of North Island Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.