South Island

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 2.63°N
  • 36.6°E

  • 800 m
    2624 ft

  • 222020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for South Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for South Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for South Island.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
222020

1888 CE

800 m / 2624 ft

2.63°N
36.6°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Tuff cone(s)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Phono-tephrite / Tephri-phonolite
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
1,959
98,303

Geological Summary

The southernmost and largest of the three volcanic islands in Lake Turkana, South Island contains numerous tuff cones. Fresh-looking lava flows, erupted from a N-S fissure extending the 11-km length of the island, form much of the eastern shoreline. South Island (sometimes referred to as Hohnel Island) rises 320 m above the lake to a height of 800 m and is part of a volcanic horst that extends 10 km to the north beneath the lake surface. Early stage tuff cone formation may have been associated with a high stand of Lake Turkana dated at about 10,000 years ago, and later subaerial activity postdates the last high stand of the lake about 3200 years ago. The dominantly basaltic lava flows are morphologically similar to the youthful Holocene flows of The Barrier volcano at the south end of Lake Turkana. An eruption from a scoria cone on South Island was witnessed during Count von Teliki's 1888 expedition.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Bloomer S H, Curtis P C, Karson J A, 1989. Geochemical variation of Quaternary basaltic volcanoes in the Turkana Rift, northern Kenya. J African Earth Sci, 8: 511-532.

Dunkley P N, Smith M, Allen D A, Darling W G, 1993. The geothermal activity and geology of the northern sector of the Kenya Rift Valley. Brit Geol Surv Res Rpt, SC/93/1: 1-185.

Karson J A, Curtis P C, 1994. Axial Quaternary volcanic centers in the Turkana rift, N. Kenya. J African Earth Sci, 18: 15-35.

Ochieng J O, Wilkinson A F, Kagasi J, Kimomo S, 1988. Geology of the Loiyangalani area. Rpt Mines Geol Dept Kenya, 107: 1-53.

Richard J J, Neumann van Padang M, 1957. Africa and the Red Sea. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI 4: 1-118.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1888 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Hohnel Island | von Hohnel Island

Photo Gallery


South Island (left center) is the southernmost and largest of the three volcanic islands in Lake Turkana. North is to the left in this Space Shuttle view. Fresh-looking lava flows, erupted from a fissure extending the 11-km length of the island, form much of the eastern (top) shoreline. The basaltic lava flows are morphologically similar to youthful Holocene flows of The Barrier volcano, whose lower flanks can be seen at the far right. An eruption from a scoria cone on South Island was witnessed during Count von Teliki's 1888 expedition.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS006-E-5095, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
South Island (right) is the southernmost and largest of the three volcanic islands in Lake Turkana. The island (sometimes referred to as Hohnel Island) contains numerous tuff cones and rises 320 m above the lake surface. Fresh-looking lava flows, erupted from a N-S fissure extending the 11-km length of the island, form much of the eastern shoreline. An eruption from a scoria cone on South Island was witnessed during Count von Teliki's 1888 expedition.

Photo by Doron, 1999 (http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:LakeTurkanaSouthIsland.jpg).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of South Island Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.