Damavand

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 35.951°N
  • 52.109°E

  • 5670 m
    18598 ft

  • 232010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: October 1999 (BGVN 24:10) Cite this Report


Morphology and brief description of summit from visiting excursion

On 1 August 1999, a group from the Societe de Volcanologie Geneve ascended the ice- and rock-covered summit. On the way up the N flank they saw vertical coal deposits below 2,450 m elevation, reaching thicknesses of tens of meters. Above 4,000 m elevation huge blocks were seen that appeared to have traveled from ~1 km above. Just below the summit were large sulfur-bearing blocks that appear to be mixed with a clay- like material. Within 100 m of the N rim of the summit chunks of pure sulfur were observed. The circular summit crater was ~150 m in diameter. In the center of the crater lay a small frozen lake approximately 40 m across. From the N rim of the summit, an active fumarole could be seen to the south.

Information Contacts: D. Zurcher and R. Haubrichs, Societe de Volcanologie Geneve (SVG), C.P. 6423, CH-1211, Geneve 6, Switzerland (Bulletin de la SVG, October 1999, p. 6 (in French)).

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Damavand.

Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

09/1993 (BGVN 18:09) Fumarolic vent on the crater rim; sulfur deposits

10/1999 (BGVN 24:10) Morphology and brief description of summit from visiting excursion




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


September 1993 (BGVN 18:09) Cite this Report


Fumarolic vent on the crater rim; sulfur deposits

A visit to the summit area . . . on 12 July 1993 revealed a small, powerful fumarolic vent on the S rim of the crater that was emitting SO2-rich gases at a temperature of ~50°C. Sulfur deposits also covered the surrounding slopes. The summit crater was ~150 m wide and 20 m deep, with a 40-m-diameter frozen lake in the bottom, surrounded by patches of snow. . . . there is no permanent glacier because of the dry climate. However, the upper slopes do contain scattered areas of hardened perennial snow (névés).

Information Contacts: J. Sesiano, Univ de Genève.


October 1999 (BGVN 24:10) Cite this Report


Morphology and brief description of summit from visiting excursion

On 1 August 1999, a group from the Societe de Volcanologie Geneve ascended the ice- and rock-covered summit. On the way up the N flank they saw vertical coal deposits below 2,450 m elevation, reaching thicknesses of tens of meters. Above 4,000 m elevation huge blocks were seen that appeared to have traveled from ~1 km above. Just below the summit were large sulfur-bearing blocks that appear to be mixed with a clay- like material. Within 100 m of the N rim of the summit chunks of pure sulfur were observed. The circular summit crater was ~150 m in diameter. In the center of the crater lay a small frozen lake approximately 40 m across. From the N rim of the summit, an active fumarole could be seen to the south.

Information Contacts: D. Zurcher and R. Haubrichs, Societe de Volcanologie Geneve (SVG), C.P. 6423, CH-1211, Geneve 6, Switzerland (Bulletin de la SVG, October 1999, p. 6 (in French)).

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
232010

5350 BCE

5670 m / 18598 ft

35.951°N
52.109°E

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Major
Trachyandesite / Basaltic trachy-andesite
Minor
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
27
2,295
59,171
11,945,981

Geological Summary

Damavand volcano towers dramatically 70 km to the NE above Iran's capital city of Tehran and 70 km south of the Caspian Sea. The 5670-m-high stratovolcano is the highest volcano in the Middle East. A younger cone has been constructed during the past 600,000 years over an older edifice, remnants of which were previously interpreted as a caldera wall. Flank vents are rare, and activity at the dominantly trachyandesite volcano has been concentrated at the summit vent, which has produced a series of radial lava flows. Lava effusion has dominated at Damavand; pyroclastic activity has been limited and the only major explosive event produced a welded ignimbrite about 280,000 years ago. The youngest activity has consisted of the eruption of a series of lava flows from the summit vent that cover the western side of the volcano. The youngest dated lava flows were emplaced about 7000 years ago. No historical eruptions are known from Damavand, but hot springs are located on the volcano's flanks, and fumaroles are found at the summit crater.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Blumenthal M M, van der Kaaden G, Vlodavetz V I, 1964. Turkey & Caucasus. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 17: 1-23.

Davidson J, Hassanzadeh J, Berzins R, Stockli D F, Bashukooh B, Turrin B, Pandamouz A,, 2004. The geology of Damavand volcano, Alborz Mountains, northern Iran. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 116: 16-29.

Gansser A, 1966. Iran. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 17: 1-20.

Katsui Y (ed), 1971. List of the World Active Volcanoes. Volc Soc Japan draft ms, (limited circulation), 160 p.

Liotard J M, Dautria J M, Bosch D, Condomines M, Mehdizadeh H, Ritz J-F, 2008. Origin of the absarokite-banakite association of the Damavand volcano (Iran): trace elements and Sr, Nd, Pb isotope constraints. Internat J Earth Sci, 97:89-102.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
5350 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Uranium-series

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Demavend | Demawend

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ab E Garm Thermal
Ask Thermal
Baidjan Thermal

Photo Gallery


Damavand volcano in the Elbruz mountains, about 80 km NE of Iran's capital city Tehran, is seen here from the volcano's southern flank, at an altitude of 3500 m. The summit of the 5670-m-high stratovolcano contains a well-preserved, 150-m-wide crater with a small frozen lake. Despite its altitude, the region is too arid to support permanent glaciers on Damavand. Young lava flows from the summit and flank vents cover the west side of the volcano.

Photo by J. Sesiano, 1998 (University of Geneva).
Winter snows highlight morphological features of Damavand volcano in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper left). Lava flows with prominent levees can be seen at the bottom of the image, and a small well-preserved crater can be seen at the summit. The volcano is located about 80 km NE of the capital city of Tehran and is a popular destination for outdoor recreation.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS010-E-13393, 2005 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
Conical snow-capped Damavand volcano is the highest volcano in the Middle East. It towers dramatically 70 km to the NE above Iran's capital city of Tehran. Activity at the 5670-m-high stratovolcano has been dominated by lava effusion. Young lava flows erupted from the summit vent blanket the western side of the volcano, and the youngest dated lava flows were erupted about 7000 years ago. No historical eruptions are known from Damavand, but hot springs are located on the volcano's flanks and fumaroles are found at the summit crater.

Photo by Arad Mojtahedi, 2006 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Damavand_in_winter.jpg).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Damavand Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.