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Damavand

Photo of this volcano
  • Iran
  • Middle East and Indian Ocean
  • Stratovolcano
  • 5350 BCE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 35.951°N
  • 52.109°E

  • 5670 m
    18598 ft

  • 232010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: October 1999 (BGVN 24:10) Citation IconCite this Report

Morphology and brief description of summit from visiting excursion

On 1 August 1999, a group from the Societe de Volcanologie Geneve ascended the ice- and rock-covered summit. On the way up the N flank they saw vertical coal deposits below 2,450 m elevation, reaching thicknesses of tens of meters. Above 4,000 m elevation huge blocks were seen that appeared to have traveled from ~1 km above. Just below the summit were large sulfur-bearing blocks that appear to be mixed with a clay- like material. Within 100 m of the N rim of the summit chunks of pure sulfur were observed. The circular summit crater was ~150 m in diameter. In the center of the crater lay a small frozen lake approximately 40 m across. From the N rim of the summit, an active fumarole could be seen to the south.

Information Contacts: D. Zurcher and R. Haubrichs, Societe de Volcanologie Geneve (SVG), C.P. 6423, CH-1211, Geneve 6, Switzerland (Bulletin de la SVG, October 1999, p. 6 (in French)).

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Damavand.

Bulletin Reports - Index

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

09/1993 (BGVN 18:09) Fumarolic vent on the crater rim; sulfur deposits

10/1999 (BGVN 24:10) Morphology and brief description of summit from visiting excursion




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


September 1993 (BGVN 18:09) Citation IconCite this Report

Fumarolic vent on the crater rim; sulfur deposits

A visit to the summit area . . . on 12 July 1993 revealed a small, powerful fumarolic vent on the S rim of the crater that was emitting SO2-rich gases at a temperature of ~50°C. Sulfur deposits also covered the surrounding slopes. The summit crater was ~150 m wide and 20 m deep, with a 40-m-diameter frozen lake in the bottom, surrounded by patches of snow. . . . there is no permanent glacier because of the dry climate. However, the upper slopes do contain scattered areas of hardened perennial snow (névés).

Information Contacts: J. Sesiano, Univ de Genève.


October 1999 (BGVN 24:10) Citation IconCite this Report

Morphology and brief description of summit from visiting excursion

On 1 August 1999, a group from the Societe de Volcanologie Geneve ascended the ice- and rock-covered summit. On the way up the N flank they saw vertical coal deposits below 2,450 m elevation, reaching thicknesses of tens of meters. Above 4,000 m elevation huge blocks were seen that appeared to have traveled from ~1 km above. Just below the summit were large sulfur-bearing blocks that appear to be mixed with a clay- like material. Within 100 m of the N rim of the summit chunks of pure sulfur were observed. The circular summit crater was ~150 m in diameter. In the center of the crater lay a small frozen lake approximately 40 m across. From the N rim of the summit, an active fumarole could be seen to the south.

Information Contacts: D. Zurcher and R. Haubrichs, Societe de Volcanologie Geneve (SVG), C.P. 6423, CH-1211, Geneve 6, Switzerland (Bulletin de la SVG, October 1999, p. 6 (in French)).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 1 Holocene eruptive periods.

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
5350 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Uranium-series
Deformation History

There is data available for 1 deformation periods. Expand each entry for additional details.


Deformation during 2003 - 2008 [Variable (subsidence / horizontal); Observed by InSAR]

Start Date: 2003 Stop Date: 2008 Direction: Variable (subsidence / horizontal) Method: InSAR
Magnitude: Unknown Spatial Extent: Unknown Latitude: Unknown Longitude: Unknown

Remarks: MT-InSAR reveals long-term, gravity-driven deformation at Damavand volcano.

Figure (see Caption)

A: Deformation field velocity in line-of-sight (LOS) direction of satellite, as obtained in descending geometry. B: LOS deformation as obtained in ascending viewing geometry. Area of Damavand volcano and approximate trace of active regional tectonic faults are marked by black and red dashed lines, respectively, and locations of global positioning system (GPS) stations at Polor city (PLOR) and Absard city (ABSD) are shown. Red star?the volcano summit. C, D: Comparison between InSAR (interferometric synthetic aperture radar) displacement time series and GPS time series at ABSD. E, F: InSAR time series in descending and ascending orbit at eastern and western flank, respectively. Note that because ascending and descending data are not simultaneously acquired, LOS displacement displayed on these graphs cannot be directly compared to vertical and horizontal velocities in Figure 3.

From: Shirzaei et al. 2011.


Reference List: Shirzaei et al. 2011.

Full References:

Shirzaei, M., T. R. Walter, H. R. Nankali, and E. P. Holohan, 2011. Gravity-driven deformation of Damavand volcano, Iran, detected through InSAR time series. Geology, 39, p. 251-254.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Damavand.

Photo Gallery

Damavand volcano in the Elbruz mountains, about 80 km NE of Iran's capital city Tehran, is seen here from the volcano's southern flank, at an altitude of 3500 m. The summit of the 5670-m-high stratovolcano contains a well-preserved, 150-m-wide crater with a small frozen lake. Despite its altitude, the region is too arid to support permanent glaciers on Damavand. Young lava flows from the summit and flank vents cover the west side of the volcano.

Photo by J. Sesiano, 1998 (University of Geneva).
See title for photo information.
Winter snows highlight morphological features of Damavand volcano in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper left). Lava flows with prominent levees can be seen at the bottom of the image, and a small well-preserved crater can be seen at the summit. The volcano is located about 80 km NE of the capital city of Tehran and is a popular destination for outdoor recreation.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS010-E-13393, 2005 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
See title for photo information.
Conical snow-capped Damavand volcano is the highest volcano in the Middle East. It towers dramatically 70 km to the NE above Iran's capital city of Tehran. Activity at the 5670-m-high stratovolcano has been dominated by lava effusion. Young lava flows erupted from the summit vent blanket the western side of the volcano, and the youngest dated lava flows were erupted about 7000 years ago. No historical eruptions are known from Damavand, but hot springs are located on the volcano's flanks and fumaroles are found at the summit crater.

Photo by Arad Mojtahedi, 2006 (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Damavand_in_winter.jpg).
See title for photo information.
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.

Publisher: Soviet Ministry
Country: USSR
Year: 1984
Series: B1754
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of
Publisher: Soviet Ministry
Country: USSR
Year: 1984
Series: B1754
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of
Title: Iran, Iraq, USSR (SW)
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: Mid-E
Year: 1982
Series: ONC
Map Type: Navigation
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Iran, Iraq, USSR (SW)
Title: Southwest Asia
Publisher: US Central Intelligence Agency
Country: Mid-E
Year: 1980
Map Type: Geographic
Scale: 1:3,000
Map of Southwest Asia
Title: Savalan Mountain
Publisher: USAF Aeronautical Chart and Information Service
Country: Iran
Year: 1956
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Savalan Mountain
Title: Mt. Karbush
Publisher: USAF Aeronautical Chart and Information Service
Country: Iraq
Year: 1955
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Mt. Karbush
Title: Chalus
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Iran
Year: 1952
Series: AMS K502
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Chalus
Title: Chalus
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Iran
Year: 1952
Series: AMS K502
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Chalus
Title: Lar Valley Kuh-I-Demavend
Publisher: UK Royal Engineers (512 Field Survey Company)
Country: Iran
Year: 1946
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:25,000
Map of Lar Valley Kuh-I-Demavend
Title: Clermont-Ferrand
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: France
Year: 1943
Series: AMS M661
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Clermont-Ferrand
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Damavand in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

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