Amsterdam Island

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 37.83°S
  • 77.52°E

  • 881 m
    2890 ft

  • 234001
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit

  • Volcano

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Amsterdam Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Amsterdam Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Amsterdam Island.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption



Unknown - Evidence Credible

881 m / 2890 ft


Volcano Types

Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)


Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km

Geological Summary

The elliptical 7 x 10 km Amsterdam Island is the northernmost subaerial volcano on the Antarctic Plate. The basaltic volcano is located near the axis of the East Indian Ocean Ridge adjacent to the Indian Plate. Amsterdam volcano was formed during two episodes of cone growth accompanied by the formation of small calderas. The caldera of the youngest eruptive center, 2 km ENE of the earlier one, contained a lava lake that fed several stages of lava outflows. Minor late-stage eruptions formed more than two dozen scoria cones and many small lava flows. No historical eruptions are known, although the fresh morphology of the latest volcanism at Dumas Crater on the NE flank suggests it may have occurred as recently as a century ago (Nougier, 1982).


The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Gunn B M, Abranson E C, Nougier J, Watkins N D, Hajash A, 1971. Amsterdam Island, an isolated volcano in the southern Indian Ocean. Contr Mineral Petr, 32: 79-92.

LeMasurier W E, Thomson J W (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of the Antarctic Plate and Southern Oceans. Washington, D C: Amer Geophys Union, 487 p.

Nougier J, 1982. Volcanism of Saint Paul and Amsterdam Islands (TAAF): some aspects of volcanism along plate margins. In: Craddock C (ed) {Antarctic Geoscience}, Madison: Univ Wisconsin Press, p 755-765.

The Global Volcanism Program is not aware of any Holocene eruptions from Amsterdam Island. If this volcano has had large eruptions (VEI >= 4) prior to 10,000 years ago, information might be found on the Amsterdam Island page in the LaMEVE (Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions) database, a part of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Antonelli Cone
Brulot Cone
Chaudron Cone
Dives, Mont De La Stratovolcano 881 m 37° 51' 0" S 77° 31' 0" E
Dumas Cone
Fernand Stratovolcano
Forneau Cone
Hebert Cone
Museau De Tanche Cone
Olympe Cone
Venus Cone
Vulcain Cone


Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Grande Marmite Crater 37° 50' 0" S 77° 31' 0" E

Photo Gallery

Amsterdam Island has an asymmetrical profile as seen from the SSE in this plate from the SMS Gazelle expedition. The flat-lying area left of the summit of the island is the remnant of a paleo-caldera; cliffs at the left expose remnants of the Fernand paleo-volcano. Deposits from a younger volcano cover most of the island, and more than two dozen pyroclastic cones dot its flanks.

Plate from the SMS Gazelle expedition (courtesy of NOAA Photo Library).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

There are no samples for Amsterdam Island in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences Rock and Ore collection.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Amsterdam Island Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.