Taranaki [Egmont]

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 39.3°S
  • 174.07°E

  • 2518 m
    8259 ft

  • 241030
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Taranaki [Egmont].

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Taranaki [Egmont].

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Taranaki [Egmont].

The nearly symmetrical, steep-sided cone of Taranaki (also known as Egmont), is New Zealand's largest andesitic stratovolcano. Taranaki is surrounded by a ring plain of debris-avalanche and lahar deposits that and extend to the coast. The isolated volcanic center is located on the west coast of central North Island at the southern end of a volcanic arc extending NW along the Northland Peninsula. Taranaki is the youngest and SE-most of a group of three volcanoes beginning with the Pleistocene Kaitoke Range. Fanthams Peak breaks the symmetry of Taranaki on its south flank, and four lava domes are located on the lower north and south flanks. Multiple episodes of edifice collapse have occurred in the past 50,000 years. Explosive activity, sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows and lava dome growth, has occurred frequently throughout the Holocene. Taranaki's latest eruption took place in 1854 CE.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1854 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1800 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
1755 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Dendrochronology Tahurangi Ash
1700 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1655 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Dendrochronology Burrell Lapilli
1590 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1570 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1560 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1550 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1500 ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Newall Ash
1480 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1400 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1340 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1300 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1070 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0970 ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0820 ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0550 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Kaupokonui tephra
0520 ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0390 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0150 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
0100 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0040 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Maketawa Tephra
0150 BCE ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0420 BCE ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0590 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
1130 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Fanthams Peak, Manganui Tephra
1190 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Southern Beehive
1560 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1700 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Inglewood Tephra
2150 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Korito Tephra
2400 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
2450 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Mangatoki Tephra
2700 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Tariki tephra
2850 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
3250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Waipuku tephra
5120 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
6050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
7000 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kaponga-f tephra
7270 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
7330 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Kaponga-e tephra
7650 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kaponga-b tephra

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Egmont


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Fanthams Peak Cone 1962 m 39° 19' 0" S 174° 3' 58" E


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Beehives, the Dome 952 m 39° 20' 13" S 174° 3' 29" E
Dome, the Dome 1048 m 39° 16' 0" S 174° 2' 0" E
Skinner Hill Dome 1311 m 39° 17' 0" S 174° 3' 0" E
Symmetrical Taranaki (Egmont) volcano dominates the western coast of New Zealand's North Island. The 2518-m stratovolcano, seen here from the south, is surrounded by a ring plain of debris avalanche and lahar deposits produced by repetitive collapse of the volcanic edifice. Taranaki (Egmont) has been active throughout the Holocene. The latest eruption of Taranaki took place in 1854 AD.

Photo by Jim Cole (University of Canterbury).
Tarankai (Egmont) volcano has a breached summit crater that is occupied by a partially destroyed lava plug. This view from the SE shows the stacked lava flows that form much of the cone, with the vegetated slopes of the parasitic volcano, Fanthams Peak, at the left. Both Taranaki, the Maori name, and Egmont, the name assigned by Captain Cook, are used for the volcano.

Photo by Chris Newhall, 1986(U.S. Geological Survey).
Grass-covered conical hills dot the plains around Mount Taranaki (Egmont), on New Zealand's North Island. Small hills such as these, often located in lowland areas well beyond the flanks of a volcano, were once thought to be cinder cones or small secondary vents produced by explosions when a lava flow passed over a body of water. They now are known to be hummocks of massive debris avalanches produced by volcanic landslides. Debris-avalanche deposits originating from repetitive collapse surround the volcano to distances of about 40 km.

Photo by Don Swanson, 1984 (U.S. Geological Survey).
The pasture-covered, hilly terrain in the foreground is part of a vast ring plain of debris-avalanche and lahar deposits that surrounds Mount Taranaki (Egmont). Repetitive collapse of the volcano during the late Pleistocene and Holocene produced debris avalanches that reached the western coast, nearly 40 km from the volcano.

Photo by Dan Miller (U.S. Geological Survey).
An aerial view from the south shows Mount Taranaki (Egmont), with its parasitic volcano of Fanthams Peak at the lower right. The summit of Taranaki contains a partially destroyed lava dome; four other lava domes are located low on the south and north flanks. Taranaki volcano collapsed and rebuilt itself repetitively during the late Pleistocene and Holocene.

Photo by Jim Cole, 1971 (University of Canterbury).
Taranaki volcano, seen here from the SW, rises to 2518 m above the Taranaki ring plain, with its parasitic volcano Fanthams Peak on the left. Taranaki (Egmont) is the youngest and SE-most of a group of volcanoes beginning with the Kaitoke Range, near the west coast of North Island. Tarananki has been active during the past 125,000 years. Its most recent activity, during the 15th to 19th centuries, included the eruption of airfall tephra, pyroclastic flows that traveled to the NW, and emplacement of the summit lava dome.

Photo by Chris Newhall, 1986 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Mount Taranaki volcano is the centerpiece of Egmont National Park on the western side of the North Island of New Zealand. Farmlands surrounding the volcano extend to the boundaries of the national park, leaving a circular pattern prominent from space. The Pleistocene Kaitoke Range forms the topographic high WNW of Taranaki.

Photo courtesy of NASA (www.earthobservatory.nasa.gov).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Alloway B, Neall V E, Vucetich C G, 1995. Late Quaternary (post 28,000 year B.P.) tephrostratigraphy of northeast and central Taranaki, New Zealand. J Roy Soc New Zeal, 25: 385-458.

Carroll L D, Gamble J A, Houghton B F, Thordarson T, Higham T F G, 1997. A radiocarbon age determination for Mount Edgecumbe (Putauaki) volcano, Bay of Plenty, New Zealand. New Zeal J Geol Geophys, 40: 559-562.

Downey W S, Kellett R J, Smith I E M, Price R C, Stewart R B, 1994. New paleomagnetic evidence for the recent eruptive activity of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 60: 15-27.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Locke C A, Cassidy J, 1997. Egmont volcano, New Zealand: three-dimensional structure and its implications for evolution. J Volc Geotherm Res, 76: 149-161.

Nairn I A, Cole J W, 1975. New Zealand. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 22: 1-156.

Neall V E, 1971. Volcanic domes and lineations in Egmont National Park. New Zeal J Geol Geophys, 14: 71-81.

Neall V E, 1979. New Plymouth, Egmont North, Egmont South and Manaia. New Zeal Dept Sci Ind Res, 1:50,000 geol map, 3 sheets and notes.

Neall V E, Alloway B V, 1986. Quaternary volcaniclastics and volcanic hazards of Taranaki (Tour Guide C3). New Zeal Geol Surv Rec, 12: 101.

Neall V E, Alloway B V, 1991. Volcanic hazards at Egmont volcano. New Zeal Ministry Civil Defense, Volc Hazards Inf Ser, 1: 1-31.

Neall V E, Stewart R B, Smith I E M, 1986. History and petrology of the Taranaki volcanoes. Roy Soc New Zeal Bull, 23: 257-263.

Platz T, Cronin S J, Cashman K V, Stewart R B, Smith I E M, 2007. Transition from effusive to explosive phases in andesite eruptions - a case-study from the AD1655 eruption of Mt. Taranaki, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 161: 15-34.

Price R C, McCulloch M T, Smith I E M, Stewart R B, 1992. Pb-Nd-Sr isotopic compositions and trace element characteristics of young volcanic rocks from Egmont volcano and comparisons with basalts and andesites from the Taupo volcanic zone, New Zealand. Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 56: 941-953.

Shane P, 2005. Towards a comprehensive distal andesitic tephrostratigraphic framework for New Zealand based on eruptions from Egmont volcano. J Quat Sci, 20: 45-57.

Turner M B, Bebbington M S, Cronin S J, Stewart R B, 2009. Merging eruption datasets: building an integrated Holocene eruptive record for Mt Taranaki, New Zealand. Bull Volc, 71: 903-918.

Turner M B, Cronin S J, Bebbington M S, Platz T, 2008a. Developing probabilistic eruption forecasts for dormant volcanoes: a case study from Mt Taranaki, New Zealand. Bull Volc, 70: 507-515.

Turner M B, Cronin S J, Smith I E, Stewart R B, Neall V E, 2008b. Eruption episodes and magma recharge events in andesitic systems: Mt Taranaki, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 177: 1063-1076.

Ui T, Kawachi S, Neall V E, 1986. Fragmentation of debris avalanche material during flowage; evidence from the Pungarehu Formation, Mount Egmont, New Zealand. J Volc Geotherm Res, 27: 255-264.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Minor
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
200
230
77,381
104,499

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Taranaki [Egmont] Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.