Sinabung

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  • Last Known Eruption
  • 3.17°N
  • 98.392°E

  • 2460 m
    8069 ft

  • 261080
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Most Recent Weekly Report: 24 September-30 September 2014


According to news articles a pyroclastic flow at Sinabung traveled 2 km SE down the flanks at 1343 on 24 September. The height of a corresponding ash plume could not be determined because it rose into the cloud cover. About 4,700 people remained in evacuation shelters. On 30 September at 1720 an ash plume rose 2 km and a pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km.

Sources: Associated Press, Xinhua, Okezone


Most Recent Bulletin Report: January 2014 (BGVN 39:01)


Eruption continues; 17 people die from pyroclastic flows

Ash plumes and elevated seismicity continued to occur at Galeras during April-December 2013. Monitoring efforts based in Pasto, Colombia, were led by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC). SGC maintained Alert Level III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity") during this reporting period.

SGC maintained a wide monitoring network for Galeras that included geophysical, geochemical, meteorological, and optical instrumentation. Seismic monitoring consisted of broadband, short-period, and acoustic instruments with 12-15 instruments total operating during April-December 2013. Additional geophysical instruments included electronic tiltmeters, telemetered GPS stations, electromagnetic stations, and a network of geophones for flood detection and early warning. Gas monitoring efforts included telemetered ScanDOAS stations and also stations dedicated to diffuse radon emissions. Other permanent stations around the volcanic edifice included anemometers and webcameras. Monthly technical reports frequently highlighted geochemical analysis of local hotsprings. In this report, we highlight seismicity, gas monitoring, and ash plumes that have been correlated with earthquakes, particularly tremor.

Seismicity. During this reporting period, seismicity from Galeras was typically dominated by tremor (table 13). Tremor events became less numerous toward the end of the year, although total duration remained high (an average of 6 hours per month).

Table 13. Seismicity at Galeras during April-December 2013. Earthquake counts are for four types of events: volcano-tectonic (VT), long-period (LP), tremor (TRE) expressed both in terms of # of events and duration, and hybrid (HYB); events labeled "Unclassified" were described by SGC as earthquakes that did not correspond to the current categories. Tornillos did not occur during this reporting period. Courtesy of SGC.

 

Month

VT

LP

TRE

HYB

Total Duration
of Tremor

Range ML
(VT)

Depths
(km)

Hypocenters Located

Unclassified

2013

Apr.

12

116

234

13

14 hours

-0.2-2.7

5-14

42

2016

May

19

60

111

16

8 hours

 

1-15

56

1804

Jun.

17

45

55

2

4 hours

-0.1-2.2

2-12

47

907

Jul.

33

38

41

6

2 hours

 

1-21

59

745

Aug.

21

30

76

3

5 hours

0.2-1.3

1.5-7.5

22

1082

Sept.

6

13

72

0

4.5 hours

 

1.5-7.5

20

748

Oct.

56

21

103

4

8 hours

-0.4-3.8

0-13

109

1383

Nov.

35

10

146

8

6 hours

 

1-12

66

1286

Dec.

18

12

86

9

5.5 hours

0-1.7

1-11

36

962

Seismic swarms were only detected on four different days in April, May, and October 2013 (table 14). A swarm that started on 22 May at 1916 consisted of 129 long-period (LP) earthquakes, and was followed by 11 minutes of tremor. SGC noted that ash emissions were likely associated with the activity. Two acoustic signals were also detected that day, at 2239 and 2315.

Table 14. Seismic swarms from Galeras were rare events, occurring on four different days during this reporting period of April-December 2013. Courtesy of the SGC.

Date and time # Eqs
25 April at 0943 and 1120 101
22 May at 1916 129
4-5 October na

Local reports of seismic shaking. In April 2013, one earthquake was felt in the town of Pasto. At 0532 on 2 April, an M 2.7 VT earthquake was recorded, located 12.8 km NE of the crater.

An M 2.2 earthquake that occurred at 1158 on 7 June was reported by local populations in Pasto. This earthquake was located 9 km NE of the crater at a depth of 10 km with respect to the summit.

Three earthquakes were detected in July and felt by residents of Pasto; they occurred on 24 (M 3.2 and 2.5) and 29 (M 2.9) July with depths of 5 and 11 km. The earthquakes on 24 July were located ~5.5 km SE of the crater; the event on 29 July was located 21 km NE of Galeras.

An M 3.8 earthquake occurred at 1713 on 15 October; this earthquake was felt by residents within different sectors of Pasto as well as the municipalities of Nariño and La Florida. The earthquake was located 7 km NE of Galeras with a depth of 5.5 km.

In November, one earthquake was felt by local populations in the San Ignacio sector of Pasto as well as other sectors of Nariño. This M 3.9 earthquake occurred at 1236 on 10 November with a depth of 9 km and was located 4.5 km NE of Galeras.

Gas monitoring. During this reporting period, minor amounts of ash occasionally accompanied gas emissions typically rising from the N and W sectors of the volcano, and dispersed figure 128). SGC reported that an average of five tremors correlated with observed gas-and-ash emissions each month (figure 129).

Figure 128. Two webcameras simultaneously captured an ash plume rising from Galeras on 13 December 2013. The top photo was acquired by the Bruma webcam, located on the SW rim of the crater; the bottom photo was taken from the observatory located in Pasto (~10 km E of the summit). Courtesy of SGC.
Figure 129. SGC correlated tremor from Galeras with an explosion of ash on 11 April 2013. (Left) A tremor signal was detected at 1645 with a duration of 2.6 minutes. (Right) The video camera located at the observatory in Pasto captured an impulsive ash plume. Each image has an increased optical zoom focused on the summit; the look direction is approximately W. Courtesy of SGC.

As a part of an ongoing international monitoring project, the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC), SGC maintained ScanDOAS instruments at three different locations NW of the edifice (see the instrumentation map in Bulletin 37:04, figure 116). During April-December SO2 flux rarely exceeded 1,000 tons/day. The maximum value, considered relatively high for Galeras, was 1,475 tons/day and recorded on 29 September 2013.

Information Contacts: Indonesian Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM)(also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi-PVMBG), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Indonesian National Agency for Disaster Management (Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana-BNPB), Gedung Graha 55 Jl. Tanah Abang II No. 57, 10120, Jakarta Pusat (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); CBC.CA News (http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/); Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com); MODVOLC, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); and NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards).

Index of Weekly Reports


2014: January | February | March | April | June | July | September
2013: September | October | November | December
2010: August | September

Weekly Reports


24 September-30 September 2014

According to news articles a pyroclastic flow at Sinabung traveled 2 km SE down the flanks at 1343 on 24 September. The height of a corresponding ash plume could not be determined because it rose into the cloud cover. About 4,700 people remained in evacuation shelters. On 30 September at 1720 an ash plume rose 2 km and a pyroclastic flow traveled 3.5 km.

Sources: Associated Press; Xinhua; Okezone


17 September-23 September 2014

PVMBG reported that RSAM values from Sinabung were low and stable during 12-20 September. Earthquake signals indicating lava-dome instability were recorded and had increased from 96 to 110 events/day since the 5-11 September period. Seismicity also continued to signify growth of the main lava flow on the flanks; incandescent lava was visible at the top, middle, and front of the lava flow. The length of the lava flow was 2.9 km on 6 September. White and sometimes bluish plumes rose as high as 1 km above the lava dome. Pyroclastic flows traveled 2.5 km SE on 15 September and 2 km S on 18 September. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


9 July-15 July 2014

CVGHM reported a white plume that was occasionally brown and blue reaching 100-2,000 m above Sinabung’s crater during 8-14 July. Pyroclastic flows were observed on 10 and 12 July from the W side of the crater. On 10 July, the hot flows reached a maximum of 3 km S while the flows on 12 July extended 3-4 km S. A spokesman from the national disaster management agency noted that hot ashfall occurred in several places around the Karo district, but did not merit further evacuations. CVGHM reported that SO2 emissions were measured once during 8-14 July and yielded 1,252 tonnes/day; during the elevated activity of 11-18 January 2014 values were as high as 3,796 tonnes/day. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); GlobalPost.com


25 June-1 July 2014

After more than a month of dome growth and lava flows, PVMBG reported that Sinabung erupted explosively again on 29 June. The eruption plume rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l. and pyroclastic flows extended 4.5 km SE. Visual observations were impeded by inclement weather. About 14,000 persons remain evacuated since September 2013. The Alert Level remains at 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Xinhua


18 June-24 June 2014

PVMBG reported visual monitoring of Sinabung during 1-17 June from the Ndokum Siroga village (~8.5 km of the summit). Dome growth continued and was accompanied by a lava flow that was frequently visibly incandescent. The observatory noted that the lava flow (particularly avalanches from the flow front) presented a threat to areas S and SE within a 5 km radius from the summit. During this reporting period, seismicity was dominated by tremor associated with avalanches, and there was minor deformation. Alert Level 3 was maintained (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


16 April-22 April 2014

Based on webcam images, satellite images, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 April an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km W.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


2 April-8 April 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 23 March-8 April based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose at most 1.2 km above the lava dome. Lava had traveled 2.5 km down the flanks as of 6 April and was incandescent at various locations. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 2 km S and 500 m SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied but were relatively insignificant. The Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km on the S and SE flanks, and 3 km in the other directions.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


26 March-1 April 2014

Based on webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 29 March an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. Meteorological cloud cover prevented satellite views. Gas emissions were noted on 30 March.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 March-25 March 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 15-22 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose 500 m above the lava dome daily, and as high as 1 km on 21 March. Lava had traveled 2.4 km down the flanks as of 20 March and was incandescent at various areas. Incandescent material originating from the edges of the lava dome and flow traveled up to 1.5 km S and 200 m SE. A pyroclastic flow traveled 3 km S on 17 March. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome decreased slightly. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day, indicating no new magma. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


12 March-18 March 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 8-15 March based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Dense white plumes rose from the lava dome daily, as high as 1 km on most days; plumes rose 2 km on 12 March. Incandescent material originating from various parts of the lava dome traveled up to 2 km S and SE. Tremor and volcanic earthquakes were detected, and signals representing avalanches from the unstable and still-growing dome increased. Sulfur dioxide emissions varied between 300 and 598 tons per day. Observations on 13 March showed that lava from the dome had flowed 2.4 km downslope. The report also noted that three people burned during a pyroclastic flow on 1 February later died in the hospital bringing the total number of casualties from that day to 17. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


5 March-11 March 2014

Based on wind data, satellite images, and webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 4-7 and 9-11 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3.7-4 km (12,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W and SW. Ash plumes drifted 35-165 km SW and W during 6 and 9-11 March.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


26 February-4 March 2014

Based on wind data, webcam images, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 25 February-1 March and 3-4 March ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-4 km (10,000-13,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-55 km E, NE, N, NW, W, and SW.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 February-25 February 2014

On 19 February BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung continued to return to their homes. Based on wind data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 19 and 21-22 February ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-35 km NE and SW. Ash plumes were visible in webcam images during 23-25 February; ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. on 25 February and drifted 45 km E. On 24 February BNPB noted that 16,361 people remained in 34 evacuation shelters. Dense white plumes rose 100-300 m above the dome and incandescent material as far as 2 km SE from the dome was observed.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


12 February-18 February 2014

Based on webcam images, Indonesian Met office notices, wind data, and ground reports, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 12-13 and 15-18 February ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 25-95 km N, NE, and E. On 16 February BNPB reported that villagers outside of the 5-km evacuation zone around Sinabung continued to return to their homes.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 February-11 February 2014

Based on reports from PVMBG, BNPB reported on 8 and 9 February that seismicity at Sinabung continued to be dominated by hybrid earthquakes, indicating pressure below the crater and a growing lava dome. Earthquakes associated with avalanches increased. The 9 February report noted that the number of displaced people reached 32,351 (9,991 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Refugees from 17 villages outside the 5-km radius were allowed to return to their homes, starting with four villages during the first phase.

Source: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


29 January-4 February 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 24-31 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. On 24 January dense white plumes rose as high as 1 km. During 25-26 and 28-31 January dense grayish-white plumes rose 0.1-1.5 km; on 27 January plumes rose 4 km. Each day pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km SE and S. Incandescent material was observed 0.2-1.5 km SE of the vent. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to decrease. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.

Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported on 31 January that since activity at Sinabung had not increased residents from 16 villages outside of the 5-km radius were allowed to return to their homes. At 1030 on 1 February a large dome collapse generated pyroclastic flows that traveled 4.5 km S, killing 15 and injuring two people that had entered the 5-km exclusion zone without permission. On 4 February the number of displaced people reached 31,739 (9,915 families) in 42 evacuation centers, many from outside of the exclusion zone.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


22 January-28 January 2014

Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that between 1200 and 1800 on 23 January pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5 km down Sinabung's S flank. The number of displaced people reached 28,715 (9,045 families) in 42 evacuation centers. Based on webcam views, satellite images, ground reports, and altitude and drift directions derived from wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 22-23 and 25-27 January ash plumes rose to an altitude 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 35-185 km N, NE, and E.

Sources: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


15 January-21 January 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 10-17 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day brownish white or gray and white ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed on the S and SE flanks as far as 3 km. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes continued to drop, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


8 January-14 January 2014

PVMBG described activity at Sinabung during 3-10 January based on observations from a post in the Ndokum Siroga village, 8.5 km away. Each day ash plumes rose as high as 5 km, pyroclastic flows traveled 0.5-4.5 km E, SE, and S, and incandescent material was observed as far as 2 km SE and E. Roaring was periodically heard and burned trees on the S flank were noted on 4 January. Seismicity remained high, with constant tremor, hybrid earthquakes indicating a growing lava dome, and volcanic earthquakes. The number of low-frequency earthquakes dropped dramatically, however. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 7 km on the SE flank and 5 km elsewhere. Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of hybrid earthquakes decreased on 11 January and volcanic earthquakes increased. Ash plumes rose 1-5 km and drifted W, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1-4.5 km SE and 1 km E. Several villages in the Namanteran district reported ashfall. The 11 January report noted that the number of displaced people reached 25,516 (7,898 families) in 38 evacuation centers.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


1 January-7 January 2014

Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that during 30-31 December 2013 Sinabung continued to be very active. Ash plumes rose as high as 7 km above the lava dome, pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 3.5 km SE, and incandescent avalanches traveled 1.5 km SE. On 3 January the lava dome continued to grow and collapse. Pyroclastic flows occurred 172 times and traveled 2-4 km SE, and ash plumes rose 2-6 km. Two villages located 6.5 km SE, Jerawa and Desa Pintu Besi, were evacuated. On 4 January pyroclastic flows were larger and more frequent. They continued to travel up to 5 km SE as well as 3.5 km SSE. Ash plumes rose 2-4 km. On 5 January the number of hybrid earthquakes increased, indicating a growing lava dome, and pyroclastic flows traveled 1.5-4.5 km SE. During 4-5 January pyroclastic flows were recorded 426 times. On 7 January ash plumes rose 1-6 km and drifted SW, and pyroclastic flows continued to travel 1.5-4.5 km SE. The number of refugees reached 22,145.

Source: Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


25 December-31 December 2013

PVMBG reported that seismicity at Sinabung increased during 21-26 December and indicated rising magma and lava-dome growth. Observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted dense white plumes rising 70-1,200 m above the crater. Roaring was also periodically heard. A lava dome in the North Crater, visible on 24 December, was 56 m high and 210 m wide. During 25-26 December plumes were white and gray, and rose 300-400 m above the crater. On 26 December the lava-dome volume was estimated to be over 1 million cubic meters, with a growth rate of 3.5 cubic meters per second. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Visitors and tourists were prohibited from approaching the crater within a radius of 5 km.

On 30 December Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that the number of displaced people reached 19,126 (5, 979 families). They also noted that activity at Sinabung had increased. Collapsing parts of the lava dome generated block-and-ash flows as well as pyroclastic flows which traveled as far as 3.5 km down the SE flank. Explosions and pyroclastic flows generated ash plumes that rose at least 6 km above the crater.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


18 December-24 December 2013

Based on webcam images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km W. During 23-24 December ash plumes recorded by the webcam rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


11 December-17 December 2013

PVMBG reported that observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away, noted gray plumes rising 1 km above Sinabung on 6 December. Grayish-white plumes rose as high as 400 m on 7 December, and dense white plumes also rose as high as 400 m the next day. Dense grayish-to-white plumes rose 70-200 m on 9 December. White plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater during 10-13 December. Tremor during 6-13 December was recorded continuously, with varying amplitude. The number of low-frequency earthquakes significantly increased on 7 December, and the number of hybrid earthquakes increased the next day. RSAM values had steadily increased since 28 November. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


4 December-10 December 2013

Based on webcam data, wind data, satellite image analysis, and PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 4 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N. Later that day and during 5-6 December ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km (7,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NW. On 10 December an ash plume rose to an altitude of 5.5 km (18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 75 km NW. A few hours later an ash plume rose to an altitude of 11.6 km (38,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 90 km NW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


27 November-3 December 2013

Based on webcam data and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-31 November and 2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km (10,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l. Ash plumes drifted 150 km W during 30-31 November and 55 km Won 2 December. On 3 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.2 km (27,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. According to a news report on 2 December, landslides killed nine people in the Gundaling village, 12 km E.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); Associated Press


20 November-26 November 2013

PVMBG reported three explosions from Sinabung on 17 November. The first explosion, at 2024, generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW, and a pyroclastic flow that traveled 500 m down the SE flank. At 2152 a dense ash plume from an explosion rose 500 m and drifted SW. Incandescent material was ejected 50 m away from the crater. At 2252 an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW. At 0704 on 18 November an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 8 km and drifted SW. A pyroclastic flow also traveled 800 m down the SE flank.

On 19 November at 2155 a dense ash plume rose 10 km, drifted SW, and exhibited lightning. Pyroclastic flows again traveled 500 m SE. Multiple explosions on 20 November (at 0240, 0405, 0529, 0619, and 0641) generated ash plumes that rose to heights between 1 and 3.5 km. An explosion at 1716 was detected by the seismic network but cloud cover prevented observations of possible plumes. White plumes rose 100 m on 21 and 23 November; misty conditions prevented visual observations on 22 November. On 23 November scoria fell in the Sigarang-garang and Desa Kuta villages in the NNE. Two explosions on 24 November, at 0043 and 0232, were detected but not visually observed. Ash plumes rose 8 km and drifted NNE at 0727, rose 1 km at 0812, and rose 3 km at 0855. Since Sinabung's activity continued to increase, PVMBG raised the Alert Level to 4 (on a scale of 1-4) on 24 November. PVMBG noted that residents and tourists were not to approach the crater within a 5-km radius, and that remaining residents in 17 villages around the volcano were to be evacuated. On 25 November Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB) reported that 17,713 people, out of the 20,270 residents living within 5 km, had been evacuated to 31 shelters.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB)


13 November-19 November 2013

Based on webcam data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 150 km NW and W. According to a news article, a pyroclastic flow traveled 1.2 km down the SE flank on 14 November, prompting more evacuations from villages near the base of the volcano. The article noted that more than 7,000 people had been evacuated from 10 villages.

An explosion observed with the webcam on 18 November produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km (25,000 ft) a.s.l. About 30 minutes later an ash plume also visible in satellite images rose to an altitude of 11.3 km (37,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65 km W. Four hours later satellite images showed ash plumes at an altitude of 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l. to the W of Sinabung and at an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. On 19 November the webcam recorded an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. over the crater. A news article stated that later that night that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l.

A news article from 20 November noted that volcanologists updated the hazard map for Sinabung. The second-tier disaster-prone area, previously defined as a radius of 2-3 km from Sinabung’s crater, was expanded to 4-5 km.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); Jakarta Post; Jakarta Post; Jakarta Post


6 November-12 November 2013

Based on information from the Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, webcam data, wind data, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. The next day an ash plume rose to the same altitude but was not observed in satellite images due to meteorological cloud cover. According to webcam views an eruption on 8 November produced a low-level ash plume. The Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, the webcam, and satellite data detecting sulfur dioxide indicated two explosions on 10 November. The first one, at 0720, generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The altitude of the second plume, from an explosion at 1600, was unknown. An ash plume on 11 November rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted less than 20 km SW. The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted almost 40 km NW.

According to a news article posted on 12 November, more than 5,000 people from seven villages had evacuated their homes in recent days. The article noted that the government had called for an evacuation of people living within a 3-km radius of Sinabung, but people outside of that zone had also been evacuating.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); Agence France-Presse (AFP)


30 October-5 November 2013

An eruption began at 0126 on 3 November that generated ash plumes up to 7 km a.s.l. (~23,000 ft) and triggered evacuations from communities within 3 km of the volcano (approximately 1,681 residents); the ash plume drifted W. Rumbling sounds that lasted up to 10 minutes long were noted by staff at the Sinabung Observation Post (~8.5 km from the volcano). News agencies reported that this was the second largest eruption since the 24 October event that displaced more than 3,300 people.

The Alert Level was increased from Level II (Watch) to Level III (Alert) at 0300. A second eruption occurred in the afternoon. PVMBG reported that Sinabung had been erupting more frequently and with increasing energy.

PVMBG reported that elevated seismicity, including events of continuous tremor, was ongoing since 29 October. Relatively small ash explosions were also reported prior to the larger events on 3 November. During 29 October-2 November plumes rose to 200-2,000 m above the summit. Gas measurements conducted during 31 October and 1-2 November showed an SO2 flux of 226-426 tons per day; this was a general decrease in emissions. During 31 October ashfall was noted on the SE flank up to 1 km from the summit.

PVMBG reported that an eruption occurred at 1423 on 5 November. This event lasted for 20 minutes and generated an ash plume up to 3,000 m above the crater that drifted SW. Rumbling sounds were also noted by staff at the observation post. Pyroclastic flows were observed at 1431; the flows extended 1 km down the SE flank. No casualties were reported due to the event. The evacuated residents remained displaced on 5 November.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Associated Press


23 October-29 October 2013

PVMBG reported that after 29 September, the day the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4), seismicity at Sinabung declined but continued to fluctuate through 22 October. White plumes were seen rising 100-300 m from the crater. On 22 October plumes were also grayish and rose 250 m. Vents appeared on the N flank and produced dense white plumes that rose 70 m. On 23 October landslides at two locations were observed, and explosions occurred at 1619 and 1651. Plumes rose from the summit crater and from a fracture formed on 15 October near Lau Kawar. Fog prevented observations for a period after the explosions; once the fog cleared dense gray plumes were observed. A third explosion occurred at 2100. On 24 October an explosion at 0550 generated an ash plume that rose 3 km and caused ashfall in areas S. Another explosion was detected at 0612. According to a news article about 3,300 people that evacuated their homes were mostly from two villages within 3 km of Sinabung, in the Karo district.

Based on information from the Indonesian Meteorological Office, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption at 1737 on 26 October generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. At 0700 and 1200 on 27 October a webcam showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifting over 35 km NE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); Associated Press


18 September-24 September 2013

According to the Darwin VAAC, the webcam recording activity at Sinabung showed on 18 September that ash had dissipated. The VAAC also noted that PVMBG confirmed Sinabung was degassing and not emitting any ash. According to a news article, about 6,000 people that had evacuated after the 15 September eruption started to return home on 22 September. The article noted that the volcano was continuing to emit ash.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); The Jakarta Post


11 September-17 September 2013

CVGHM reported that seismicity at Sinabung fluctuated in 2012-2013, including during July-September 2013. During 1-14 September dense white plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater, and at 0255 on 14 September incandescence from the crater was observed. According to news articles an eruption at 0245 on 15 September produced an ash plume and ashfall in Sukameriah (50 km NE), Kutarayat, Kutagugung (16 km SW), and Berastagi (14 km E). About 3,000 people evacuated from areas within a 3-km radius of the volcano, and several flights at Medan's airport (55 km NW) were canceled. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

An eruption at 1203 on 17 September ejected tephra and a dense ash plume that rose higher than the plume from 15 September. According to the Darwin VAAC, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 55 km SE. On 18 September a low-level ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC); United Press International; Agence France-Presse (AFP); The Jakarta Post


22 September-28 September 2010

CVGHM reported that on 22 September a white plume from Sinabung rose as high as 100 m above the crater. On 23 September the Alert Level was lowered to 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


15 September-21 September 2010

Based on information from CVGHM and views through a web camera, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 15-18 September ash plumes from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W. CVGHM reported a slow rate of inflation during 15-18 September followed by deflation during 19-21 September. Fog mostly prevented visual observations. On 20 September diffuse white plumes rose 30 m above the crater and drifted NE. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


8 September-14 September 2010

CVGHM reported that during 8-11 September Sinabung emitted white-to-gray plumes that rose 30-100 m above the crater and generally drifted E. Deformation measurements during 8-14 September showed a slow rate of inflation. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and the CVGHM web camera, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 and 14 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km (14,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4).

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 September-7 September 2010

According to news articles, about 6,000 of the approximately 30,000 people that evacuated the area around Sinabung after the eruption during 29-30 August returned home within a few days because activity had decreased. The Darwin VAAC reported a large explosion on 3 September, based on information from CVGHM. News reports stated that the explosion vibrated homes and trees on the flanks, and generated a 3-km-high ash plume. CVGHM reported that another large explosion on 7 September produced an ash plume that rose 5 km above the crater and drifted SE. Strong vibrations caused by the explosion were detected as far away as 8 km SE.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Associated Press; The Jakarta Post; CNN


25 August-31 August 2010

CVGHM reported that on 28 August Sinabung emitted diffuse white plumes that rose 20 m and showed no signs of increased activity. On 29 August rumbling was heard, prompting authorities to contact and move people living within a 6-km-radius of the volcano. Later that day, an explosion produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater, and the Alert Level was raised to 4 (on a scale of 1-4). Media footage of the eruption at one point showed two closely spaced ash plumes from vents near the summit; the ash plumes caused domestic flights to be diverted. The next day a second, more powerful, explosion generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater. The number of people media sources reported had evacuated ranged from 20,000 to 30,000. Ash fell in nearby areas and a strong sulfur odor was reported. Nighttime video showed incandescent material descending the flank of the volcano.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Associated Press; Daily Mail


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

07/2010 (BGVN 35:07) First Holocene eruption; ash explosions during August-September 2010

03/2011 (BGVN 36:03) Decreased activity following August-September 2010 eruption

04/2013 (BGVN 38:04) 30 August 2010?Two simultaneous ash plumes from adjacent vents

09/2013 (BGVN 38:09) 17,000 evacuees as mid- to late-2013 eruption emits pyroclastic flows

01/2014 (BGVN 39:01) Eruption continues; 17 people die from pyroclastic flows




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


07/2010 (BGVN 35:07) First Holocene eruption; ash explosions during August-September 2010

This report documents the first confirmed Holocene eruption at Sinabung, beginning on 27 August 2010 (figure 1). Sinabung is an elongated stratovolcano in the Karo plateau of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, ~ 80 km NNW of Toba. By 23 September the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) had reported six distinct eruptions (table 1), with another two (12 and 14 September) described by analysts at the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Figure 1. [Photos of the Sinabung eruption during 30 August-3 September 2010.] (top) Plume [on the evening of 3 September deflected by winds down the E flank], but spreading and rising at distance. (bottom) Dual plumes discharging [on 30 August, viewed from the NE], the one at left dropping minor ash in the near-source region. Note portions of antenna, presumably from the instrument telemetry system. The emission of dual plumes appears in photos and videos on the internet. Photo credit to Rahmanto (CVGHM).

Table 1. Date and time of Sinabung explosive eruptions reported by CVGHM as of 22 September 2010.

    Date           Time    Comment

    27 Aug 2010    1830    First known eruption in historical time begins.
    29 Aug 2010    0010    Activity not described.
    30 Aug 2010    0623    Low plumes (see text); press reports stated about six hours of
                             eruption and two fatalities (see text).
    03 Sep 2010    0438    Described as a "large eruption" in VAAC report but volcanic ash not
                             identifiable in satellite imagery.
    03 Sep 2010    1759    Large (off-scale) seismic signal, followed by tremor.
    06 Sep 2010    2337    "7 September" eruption?rising to altitude of 5 to 8 km, the largest
                             eruption yet seen (see subsection below).
    12 Sep 2010    0732    Based on web camera, Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume to 4.3-4.6 km
                             (FL140-FL150).
    14 Sep 2010    0915    Based on web camera, Darwin VAAC assessed ash plume to 4.3 km
                             altitude, drifting E.

Although widespread press reports indicated that the last eruption occurred in 1600, this statement is incorrect. CVGHM reported that Sinabung had no radiocarbon dates documented after 1600, but that solfataric activity was observed at the summit in 1912.

An initial phreatic eruption reported by CVGHM occurred on 27 August 2010 following heavy rainfall. Later activity ejected juvenile material and was clearly magmatic. Ash and scoria fell to the E and SE, covering the villages of Sukameriah, Gangpitu, Sigarang-Garang, Sukadebi, and Susuk. On 28 August, only a cloud of sparse white smoke was observed, rising to a height of 20 m.

On 29 August observers heard a rumbling noise. The hazard status was changed to Alert Level 4 (on a scale of 1-4), resulting in authorities relocating people living within a 6 km radius of the volcano. At 1000 on 29 August a continuous eruptive signal was recorded, with amplitudes ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 mm. During the following night of 29-30 August activity became visible, and plumes reached 1,500 m above the crater rim. An explosion several hours later produced a white to medium dark plume. Subsequent explosions sent plumes to heights of ~ 100 m.

Footage of the eruption on 29 August showed two closely spaced ash plumes from vents near the summit. The ash plumes caused domestic flights to be diverted and the local Medan airport was closed. The next day (30 August) a second, more powerful, explosion generated an ash plume that rose 2 km above the crater. Media sources reported that 20,000-30,000 residents had evacuated as ash fell in nearby areas and a strong sulfur odor was reported. Nighttime video showed incandescent material descending an undisclosed flank of the volcano. One news report described six hours of activity on 30 August as "... raining ash and debris across several miles and killing two villagers who suffered respiratory and cardiac problems." Although these fatalities were commonly noted in press reports, the cause of these fatalities (and whether linked to the eruption or coincidental) remained uncertain.

The Darwin VAAC, based on information from CVGHM, reported a large explosion on 3 September. News reports stated that the explosion caused vibrations of homes and trees on the flanks, and generated a 3-km-high ash plume. According to news articles, during 31 August-7 September about 6,000 evacuees had been able to return home because activity had decreased.

CVGHM described the 7 September explosion as the largest of the eruptive episode. It produced a gray-to-black ash plume that rose to a nominal ~ 5 km above the crater and drifted SE. Strong vibrations caused by the explosion were detected as far away as ~ 8 km SE. Andrew Tupper (Darwin VAAC) noted that the plume rose soon after midnight on the 7th and presented huge difficulties for both visual and satellite observations. The 5-km plume altitude estimate came from ground observers (time of observation unknown), but a pilot report noted the altitude as ~ 8 km altitude (FL250, 25,000 feet, over the M300 route). A Volcanic Ash Advisory noted those values and traced the report to CVGHM and observations around 0530 on the 7th (local time and date).

Monitoring campaign. Although there is no continuous monitoring at Sinabung, there is a hazard map to provide guidance to local officials (figure 2). CVGHM installed a near-real-time video monitoring system (see Information Contacts) to assess the volcano's behavior during this active episode. Monitoring included four seismic stations high on the mountain with data telemetered to the observation post. Other monitoring included tilt (from a station at 1,200 m elevation), deformation (electronic distance measuring surveying three reflectors measured from Sukanalu Teran village, 4 km from the summit), and sulfur-dioxide emissions (mini-DOAS, and environmental monitoring using a Drager X-am 7000 in residential areas).

Figure 2. Hazard map of Sinabung showing two zones, an inner "danger zone" and an outer "alert zone." Courtesy of CVGHM.

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/; Camera: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/aktivitas_merapi.php?page=aktivitas-merapi&subpage=kamera-g-sinabung); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Associated Press; Daily Mail; Jakarta Post; CNN.

03/2011 (BGVN 36:03) Decreased activity following August-September 2010 eruption

Sinabung, which sits 80 km NNW of Toba caldera, produced its first confirmed historical eruption in August 2010 (BGVN 35:07). We present clarifications on our previous report, some seismic data from the interval 2-4 September 2010 that included large local tectonic earthquakes, episodes of continuous volcanic tremor, and the return of calm after mid-September 2010.

Clarifications. Kus Hendratno (of the Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) provided additional information about the first figure in our last Sinabung report (BGVN 35:07), which we had captioned as undated.

The upper photo, taken from the SW, showed the second eruption on 3 September (in the evening) and shows a plume he considered to be deflected down the E flank by strong winds blowing down-slope. The lower photo was taken on 30 August from the NE. Hedratno did not know the date that the eruption ended.

In addition, we described the 27 August 2010 eruption as the "first Holocene eruption" in BGVN 35:07. There was an unconfirmed historical eruption in 1881, and there may yet emerge evidence for other Holocene eruptions. Thus, we now prefer to refer to the 27 August eruption as the first confirmed historical eruption.

Additional information about 2-4 September 2010 activity. Table 2 presents some basic data on 2 to 4 September seismicity. These data are but a portion of a 4 September report by Agus Budianto (head of a geophysical team that responded to the crisis). The seismic data reflect both the presence of volcanic earthquakes, earthquakes interpreted as associated with emissions, far tectonic earthquakes, and tremor. The latter continued in all but one 6-hour time slot on the table, and in two cases, 1800-2400 on the 3rd and 0000-0600 on the 4th, tremor reached dominant amplitudes of 50 mm.

Table 2. Details about seismicity observed at Sinabung during 2-4 September 2010. Terminology as follows: "12@3-63 mm" refers to 12 earthquakes with amplitudes of 3-63 mm; "5-15 s," to duration times. Courtesy of Agus Budianto (affiliation listed in Information contacts).

Date (2010)TimeVolcanic earthquakesShallow volcanic earthquakesEmission earthquakeTremor amplitudes
02 Sep 0000-0600 12 at 3-63 mm; 5-15 s; S & P 0.5-4 s 7 at 3.5-10 mm; 3.5-6 s 2 at 2-6 mm; 48-53 s  
  0600-1200 12 at 6-44 mm; 4.5-16 s; S&P 1-4 s 6 at 2-4 mm; 5-11 s Continous (3 mm)
  1200-1800 5 at 9-75 mm; 5-11 s; S&P, 0.5-4s Continous (3 mm)
  1800-2400 Continous
 
03 Sep 0000-0600 Continous
 
  0600-1200 Continous
 
  1200-1800 Continous
 
  1800-2400 21 at 10-30 mm; 10-30 s; S&P 0.5-1.5 s Continous
 
04 Sep 0000-0600 2 at 21.5-25 mm;14-15 s; S&P 2.5-3 1 at 18.5 mm; 5 s Continous
 
  0600- 1200 6 at 9-100 mm; 10-32.5 s; S&P 1.5-2 4 at 2.5 mm; 7.5-9.5 s Continous (7 mm)
  1200-1800 1 at 50mm; 17 s;S&P 1.5s Continous (8 mm)

During 2-4 September, fog often obscured the view.

An eruption at 0438 on 3 September was accompanied by a roaring sounds and vibrations that were felt up to 8 km SE. A thick black plume erupted up to 3 km above the crater and drifted E. An eruption on the same day during the hours 1759 to 1801 also caused a roaring sound and weak vibrations that were felt up to 8 km away.

Visual observations showed several periods of the eruption; early in the eruption, a black plume soared as high as 1 km above the crater and drifted E. Then, a plume that appeared "clotted" moved approximately 2 km down the E slopes, with most of the ash falling on the E slope. Finally, a plume rose vertically and took the shape of a mushroom.

Electronic distance measurements after the eruption at 1759 on 3 September 2010 showed deflation (up to 4.5 mm).

On 4 September, the weather was clear, and a thick white plume was visible reaching up to 50 m above the crater and drifting as far as 100 m down the E slope.

Activity during mid- to late-September 2010. CVGHM reported a few noteworthy eruptions, emissions, and changes occurred after early September. During 8-11 September observers saw white-to-gray plumes rising 30-100 m above the crater and generally drifting E. Deformation measurements during 8-14 September showed a slow rate of inflation. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and the CVGHM web camera, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 12 and 14 September ash plumes rose to altitudes of 4.3-4.6 km altitude.

During 15 September-21 September 2010, based on information from CVGHM and views through a web camera, the Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes rising to an altitude of 4.3 km and drifting W. CVGHM reported a slow rate of inflation during 15-18 September followed by deflation during 19-21 September. Fog mostly prevented visual observations. On 20 September diffuse white plumes rose 30 m above the crater and drifted NE.

On 22 September a white plume rose as high as 100 m above the crater. The decrease in activity based on visual observations, seismicity, deformation, and SO2 concentration prompted CVGHM to lower the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 23 September, where it remained through at least mid-March 2011.

Information Contacts: Kus Hendratno, Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/; Camera URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/aktivitas_merapi.php?page=aktivitas-merapi&subpage=kamera-g-sinabung); Agus Budianto, Kementerian Energi Dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Republik Indonesia, Badan Geologi, Jalan Diponegoro No. 57 Bandung 40122 Indonesia.

04/2013 (BGVN 38:04) 30 August 2010?Two simultaneous ash plumes from adjacent vents

Our previous report on Sinabung (BGVN 36:03) discussed the decreased activity following the 27 August-September 2010 eruption (BGVN 35:07). That was Sinabung's first confirmed Holocene eruption (although there was an unconfirmed eruption in 1881). The decrease in activity since that event prompted Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) to lower the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 23 September, where it remained through at least mid-March 2011. Sinabung is the highest mountain in North Sumatra and sits 80 km NNW of the Toba caldera.

This report includes a more recently available post eruption photo (figure 3). That photo was taken from an aircraft on 13 May 2011 and posted by Johnny Siahaan on Flickr (Siahaan, 2010).

Figure 3. Aerial photo taken 13 May 2011 showing summit area craters and deeply incised upper flanks at Sinabung, as seen in the aftermath of the late 2010 eruption. A thin white plume rises from the summit area. Photo posted by Johnny Siahaan.

This report also includes aspects of the eruption (Siahaan, 2010) during August-September 2010 (BGVN 35:07), including video of the Mt. Sinabung. Johnny Siahaan's video of 30 August 2010 shows a scene with two separate ash plumes rising together (figure 4). The larger plume emitted laterally (almost horizontally) but convection of the hot ash and gasses bent it into the vertical well out over the flank of the volcano. The other plume was initially smaller, escaping from an adjacent but distinct area of the summit, and rising nearly vertically. The two plumes appear to merge at altitude and then bend in the wind. What looks like an older plume in the distance near the beginning of the video rose and was strongly sheared in the wind. The "look direction" of the video was not stated.

Figure 4. Two separate ash plumes rising from two vents at Sinabung. Photo courtesy of Johnny Siahaan's Youtube video, 30 August 2010.

References: Siahaan, J, Image 1414, Sinabung Flickr (URL: http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnnysiahaan/5735509397/)

Siahaan, J, 30 August 2010, Mount Sinabung Eruption, Youtube video(URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dMSkvYRxLwA )

Siahaan, J, 30 August 2010, Gunung Sinabung Meletus, Youtube video (URL: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dMSkvYRxLwA )

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/; Camera: URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/aktivitas_merapi.php?page=aktivitas-merapi&subpage=kamera-g-sinabung). (The preceeding "Camera" link is a camera aimed at Sinabung on a continuous basis).

09/2013 (BGVN 38:09) 17,000 evacuees as mid- to late-2013 eruption emits pyroclastic flows

In several issues of the Bulletin (BGVN 35:07, 36:03, and 38:04) we described the first confirmed eruption at Sinabung volcano (figure 1), which began 27 August 2010. This report notes ongoing eruptions along with more evacuations, more pyroclastic flows, and plumes as tall as 10 km.

Figure 5. A map centered on Indonesia, showing the location of Sinabung volcano on Sumatra Island near the NW end of the long line of active volcanoes (black triangles) in that country. Sinabung lies 35 km NNW from the nearest margin of the crater lake of Toba, the largest identified volcanic caldera on Earth. Courtesy of U.S. Geological Survey.

The Indonesian Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM) reported that seismicity at Sinabung fluctuated during 2012 and through September 2013. During early September 2013, dense white plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater, and, on 14 September, incandescence from the crater was observed. Although this and several other instances of incandescence from the volcano's crater were reported during this eruption period, no MODVOLC thermal alerts were measured.

An estimated 16,000 people live within 10 km of the Sinabung volcano. Many photos of the volcano during this eruption can be found in an article from The Atlantic (Taylor, 2013). Some of the photos disclosed plumes otherwise little documented.

According to news articles, an eruption at 0245 on 15 September produced an ash plume and ashfalls in the towns of Sukameriah (50 km NE), Kutarayat (location uncertain), Kutagugung (16 km SW), and Berastagi (14 km E). About 6,000 people were evacuated from areas within a 3-km radius of the volcano, and several flights at Medan's airport (55 km NW) were canceled. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to III.

An eruption at 1203 on 17 September 2013 ejected tephra and a dense ash plume that rose higher than the plume seen on 15 September. According to the Darwin VAAC, on 17 September, a pilot observed an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km and drifted 55 km SE. On 18 September a low-level ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted SE, dissipating later that day. The VAAC also noted that CVGHM had confirmed that Sinabung was degassing but not emitting any ash. The evacuees started to return home on 22 September.

Seismicity at Sinabung declined but continued to fluctuate through 22 October. White plumes were seen rising 100-300 m from the crater. On 29 September 2013, the Alert Level was lowered to II.

On 22 October grayish plumes rose 250 m. Vents appeared on the N flank and produced dense white plumes that rose 70 m. On 23 October landslides at two locations were observed, and explosions occurred at 1619 and 1651 hours. Plumes rose from the summit crater and from a fracture formed on 15 October near Lau Kawar, a lake at the foot of Sinabung. Fog prevented observations for a period after the explosions; once the fog cleared dense gray plumes were observed. A third explosion occurred at 2100 hours. On 24 October at 0550 and 0612 explosions s generated ash plumes, and at least one rose 3 km and deposited ashfall in areas S. Based on information from the Indonesian Meteorological Office, the Darwin VAAC reported that an eruption at 1737 on 26 October 2013 generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.9 km. At 0700 and 1200 hours on 27 October a webcam showed an ash plume rising to an altitude of 3.7 km and drifting over 35 km NE.

CVGHM reported elevated seismicity including continuous tremor ongoing since 29 October 2013. Relatively small ash explosions were also reported prior to the larger events on 3 November. During 29 October-2 November plumes rose to 200-2,000 m above the volcano's summit. Gas measurements conducted by CVGHM during 31 October and on 1-2 November showed a sulfur dioxide (SO2) flux of 226-426 tons per day; this was a general decrease in emissions compared to those measured routinely during the year In addition, remote sensing data suggested the formation of a new vent sometime between 29 October and 2 November 2013 near the NE summit crater.

During 31 October ashfall was noted on the SE flank up to 1 km from the summit. CVGHM reported that explosions occurred on 3 November at 0126 and 1615, both generating ash plumes up to altitudes of 7 km that drifting W. These triggered evacuations from communities within 3 km of the volcano (~1,681 residents). Rumbling sounds that lasted up to 10 min were noted by staff at the Sinabung Observation Post (~8.5 km from the volcano). News agencies reported that this was the second largest eruption since the 24 October event that displaced more than 3,300 people. The Alert Level was increased from Level II (Watch) to Level III (Alert) at 0300 on the 31st.

Another eruption was reported by CVGHM at 1423 hours on 5 November 2013. This event lasted for 20 minutes and generated an ash plume up to 3,000 m above the crater that drifted SW. Pyroclastic flows were observed at 1431 hours on 5 November that extended 1 km down the SE flank. No casualties were reported.

Based on information from the Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, webcam data, wind data, and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 6 November 2013 an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3 km (figure 2). In addition, a glowing spot was seen near Sinabung's summit.

Figure 6. Sinabung erupts and emits a pyroclastic flow on 6 November 2013. Glowing material appears just below the summit. Hundreds of residents were evacuated to safer areas as the volcano erupted anew following the earlier September 2013 eruptions. Courtesy of Atar/AFP/Getty Images; appeared in Taylor (2013).

The next day an ash plume rose to the same altitude but was not observed in satellite images because of meteorological cloud cover. Webcam images showed an eruption on 8 November that produced a low-level ash plume. The Jakarta Meteorological Watch Office, the webcam, and satellite data detecting SO2 indicated two explosions on 10 November. The first one, at 0720, generated an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km. The altitude of the second plume, from an explosion at 1600, was unknown.

An ash plume on 11 November rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted less than 20 km SW (figure 3). The next day an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3.7 km and drifted almost 40 km NW.

Figure 7. A press photo taken at Sinabung on 11 November 2013. A larger pyroclastic flow seems poised to descend from the summit area behind two smaller, adjacent pyroclastic flows. A narrow columnar cloud hangs over the summit. Courtesy of AP Photo/Dedy Zulkifli; appeared in Taylor (2013).

Based on webcam data and satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 13-14 November an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 3.7 km and drifted almost 150 km NW and W. A pyroclastic flow traveled 1.2 km down the SE flank on 14 November, prompting more evacuations from villages near the base of the volcano.

An explosion observed with the webcam on 18 November 2013 produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 7.6 km. About 30 minutes later an ash plume also visible in satellite images rose to an altitude of 11.3 km and drifted 65 km W. Four hours later satellite images showed fresh ash plumes at an altitude of 9.1 km to the W of Sinabung and at an altitude of 4.6 km over the crater. On 19 November the webcam recorded an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 4.6 km over the crater. A news article stated that later that night that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 10 km.

A news article from 20 November noted that volcanologists updated the previous hazard map for Sinabung (see figure in BGVN 35:07). The second-tier disaster-prone area, previously defined as a radius of 2-3 km from Sinabung's crater, was expanded to 4-5 km.

CVGHM reported three explosions from Sinabung on 17 November 2013. The first explosion, at 2024, generated an ash plume that rose 500 m and drifted SW, and a pyroclastic flow that traveled 500 m down the SE flank.

At 2152 hours that day a dense ash plume from an explosion rose 500 m and drifted SW. Incandescent material was ejected 50 m away from the crater. At 2252 an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted SW. At 0704 on 18 November an explosion generated an ash plume that rose 8 km and drifted SW. A pyroclastic flow also traveled 800 m down the SE flank.

On 19 November at 2155 a dense ash plume rose 10 km, drifted SW, and exhibited lightning. Pyroclastic flows again traveled 500 m SE. Multiple explosions on 20 November (at 0240, 0405, 0529, 0619, and 0641) generated ash plumes that rose to heights between 1 and 3.5 km. An explosion at 1716 was detected by the seismic network but cloud cover prevented observations of possible plumes. White plumes rose 100 m on 21 and 23 November, but misty conditions prevented visual observations on 22 November. On 23 November scoria fell in the Sigarang-garang and Desa Kuta villages in the NNE. Two explosions on 24 November, at 0043 and 0232 hours, were detected but not visually observed. Ash plumes rose 8 km and drifted NNE at 0727, rose 1 km at 0812, and rose 3 km at 0855. Since Sinabung's activity continued to increase, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to IV on 24 November. CVGHM noted that residents and tourists were advised not to approach the crater within a 5-km radius. Remaining residents in 17 villages around the volcano were to be evacuated.

CBC.CA.News reported that on 25 November 2013, "6 new eruptions in the morning sent lava and searing gas tumbling up to 1.5 km down the slopes of Mount Sinabung" causing villagers to evacuate. This description apparently refers to pyroclastic flows. Volcanic material erupted as high as 2 km above the crater. The Indonesian National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB) reported that 17,713 people, out of the 20,270 residents had been evacuated to 31 shelters.

Based on webcam data and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 28-31 November and 2 December ash plumes from Sinabung rose to altitudes of 3-5.5 km. Ash plumes drifted 150 km W during 30-31 November and 55 km W on 2 December. On 3 December ash plumes rose to an altitude of 8.2 km and drifted W. According to a news report on 2 December, landslides triggered by torrential rain buried houses and killed nine people in Gundaling village, 12 km E. On 4 December an ash plume from Sinabung rose to an altitude of 8.2 km and drifted N. Later that day and during 5-6 December ash plumes rose to altitudes of 3-3.7 km and drifted NW. CVGHM reported that observers in Ndokum Siroga, about 8.5 km away from the volcano, noted gray plumes rising 1 km above Sinabung on 6 December. They also saw grayish-white and dense white plumes as high as 400 m on 7 and 8 December, respectively. Dense grayish-to-white plumes rose 70-200 m on 9 December. White plumes rose 100-150 m above the crater during 10-13 December. Tremor during 6-13 December was recorded continuously, with varying amplitude. The number of low-frequency earthquakes significantly increased on 7 December, and the number of hybrid earthquakes increased the next day. RSAM (real-time seismic amplitude measurement) values of energy steadily increased since 28 November. The Alert Level remained at IV.

In conclusion, seismicity and images of ash plumes and pyroclastic flows suggest that the current eruption of Sinabung volcano began around 14-15 September 2013 and has continued through at least 11 December 2013.

Reference: Taylor, A., 18 November 2013, In Focus: The Eruptions of Mount Sinabung, The Atlantic (URL: http://www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2013/11/the-eruptions-of-mount-sinabung/100630/).

Information Contacts: Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM)(also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi-PVMBG), National Agency for Disaster Management (Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana-BNPB), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); CBC.CA News web site (http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/); The Atlantic (URL: http://www.theatlantic.com); ReliefWeb (a specialized digital service of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs-OCHA) (URL: reliefweb.int); and Volcano Discovery web site (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com).

01/2014 (BGVN 39:01) Eruption continues; 17 people die from pyroclastic flows

Ash plumes and elevated seismicity continued to occur at Galeras during April-December 2013. Monitoring efforts based in Pasto, Colombia, were led by the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC). SGC maintained Alert Level III (Yellow; "changes in the behavior of volcanic activity") during this reporting period.

SGC maintained a wide monitoring network for Galeras that included geophysical, geochemical, meteorological, and optical instrumentation. Seismic monitoring consisted of broadband, short-period, and acoustic instruments with 12-15 instruments total operating during April-December 2013. Additional geophysical instruments included electronic tiltmeters, telemetered GPS stations, electromagnetic stations, and a network of geophones for flood detection and early warning. Gas monitoring efforts included telemetered ScanDOAS stations and also stations dedicated to diffuse radon emissions. Other permanent stations around the volcanic edifice included anemometers and webcameras. Monthly technical reports frequently highlighted geochemical analysis of local hotsprings. In this report, we highlight seismicity, gas monitoring, and ash plumes that have been correlated with earthquakes, particularly tremor.

Seismicity. During this reporting period, seismicity from Galeras was typically dominated by tremor (table 13). Tremor events became less numerous toward the end of the year, although total duration remained high (an average of 6 hours per month).

Table 13. Seismicity at Galeras during April-December 2013. Earthquake counts are for four types of events: volcano-tectonic (VT), long-period (LP), tremor (TRE) expressed both in terms of # of events and duration, and hybrid (HYB); events labeled "Unclassified" were described by SGC as earthquakes that did not correspond to the current categories. Tornillos did not occur during this reporting period. Courtesy of SGC.

 

Month

VT

LP

TRE

HYB

Total Duration
of Tremor

Range ML
(VT)

Depths
(km)

Hypocenters Located

Unclassified

2013

Apr.

12

116

234

13

14 hours

-0.2-2.7

5-14

42

2016

May

19

60

111

16

8 hours

 

1-15

56

1804

Jun.

17

45

55

2

4 hours

-0.1-2.2

2-12

47

907

Jul.

33

38

41

6

2 hours

 

1-21

59

745

Aug.

21

30

76

3

5 hours

0.2-1.3

1.5-7.5

22

1082

Sept.

6

13

72

0

4.5 hours

 

1.5-7.5

20

748

Oct.

56

21

103

4

8 hours

-0.4-3.8

0-13

109

1383

Nov.

35

10

146

8

6 hours

 

1-12

66

1286

Dec.

18

12

86

9

5.5 hours

0-1.7

1-11

36

962

Seismic swarms were only detected on four different days in April, May, and October 2013 (table 14). A swarm that started on 22 May at 1916 consisted of 129 long-period (LP) earthquakes, and was followed by 11 minutes of tremor. SGC noted that ash emissions were likely associated with the activity. Two acoustic signals were also detected that day, at 2239 and 2315.

Table 14. Seismic swarms from Galeras were rare events, occurring on four different days during this reporting period of April-December 2013. Courtesy of the SGC.

Date and time # Eqs
25 April at 0943 and 1120 101
22 May at 1916 129
4-5 October na

Local reports of seismic shaking. In April 2013, one earthquake was felt in the town of Pasto. At 0532 on 2 April, an M 2.7 VT earthquake was recorded, located 12.8 km NE of the crater.

An M 2.2 earthquake that occurred at 1158 on 7 June was reported by local populations in Pasto. This earthquake was located 9 km NE of the crater at a depth of 10 km with respect to the summit.

Three earthquakes were detected in July and felt by residents of Pasto; they occurred on 24 (M 3.2 and 2.5) and 29 (M 2.9) July with depths of 5 and 11 km. The earthquakes on 24 July were located ~5.5 km SE of the crater; the event on 29 July was located 21 km NE of Galeras.

An M 3.8 earthquake occurred at 1713 on 15 October; this earthquake was felt by residents within different sectors of Pasto as well as the municipalities of Nariño and La Florida. The earthquake was located 7 km NE of Galeras with a depth of 5.5 km.

In November, one earthquake was felt by local populations in the San Ignacio sector of Pasto as well as other sectors of Nariño. This M 3.9 earthquake occurred at 1236 on 10 November with a depth of 9 km and was located 4.5 km NE of Galeras.

Gas monitoring. During this reporting period, minor amounts of ash occasionally accompanied gas emissions typically rising from the N and W sectors of the volcano, and dispersed figure 128). SGC reported that an average of five tremors correlated with observed gas-and-ash emissions each month (figure 129).

Figure 128. Two webcameras simultaneously captured an ash plume rising from Galeras on 13 December 2013. The top photo was acquired by the Bruma webcam, located on the SW rim of the crater; the bottom photo was taken from the observatory located in Pasto (~10 km E of the summit). Courtesy of SGC.
Figure 129. SGC correlated tremor from Galeras with an explosion of ash on 11 April 2013. (Left) A tremor signal was detected at 1645 with a duration of 2.6 minutes. (Right) The video camera located at the observatory in Pasto captured an impulsive ash plume. Each image has an increased optical zoom focused on the summit; the look direction is approximately W. Courtesy of SGC.

As a part of an ongoing international monitoring project, the Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC), SGC maintained ScanDOAS instruments at three different locations NW of the edifice (see the instrumentation map in Bulletin 37:04, figure 116). During April-December SO2 flux rarely exceeded 1,000 tons/day. The maximum value, considered relatively high for Galeras, was 1,475 tons/day and recorded on 29 September 2013.

Information Contacts: Indonesian Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM)(also known as Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi-PVMBG), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://portal.vsi.esdm.go.id/joomla/); Indonesian National Agency for Disaster Management (Badan Nacional Penanggulangan Bencana-BNPB), Gedung Graha 55 Jl. Tanah Abang II No. 57, 10120, Jakarta Pusat (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); CBC.CA News (http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/); Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com); MODVOLC, Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://hotspot.higp.hawaii.edu/); and NASA Earth Observatory (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards).

Gunung Sinabung is a Pleistocene-to-Holocene stratovolcano with many lava flows on its flanks. The migration of summit vents along a N-S line gives the summit crater complex an elongated form. The youngest crater of this conical, 2460-m-high andesitic-to-dacitic volcano is at the southern end of the four overlapping summit craters. An unconfirmed eruption was noted in 1881, and solfataric activity was seen at the summit and upper flanks of Sinabung in 1912. No confirmed historical eruptions were recorded prior to explosive eruptions during August-September 2010 that produced ash plumes to 5 km above the summit.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Sep 15 2014 Sep 20 (continuing) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
2010 Aug 27 2010 Sep 18 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1881 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Sinaboeng | Sinabun

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Sigala, Batu Crater
The conical Sinabung volcano, seen here from the east, rises above farmlands on the Karo Plateau. Gunung Sinabung contains four summit craters, the southernmost of which is the youngest. Many prominent lava flows appear on the flanks of the volcano. No confirmed historical eruptions are known from Gunung Sinabung.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Sinabung volcano, seen from Gurukinayan village on the south, shows prominent lava flows on its flanks and a dramatic summit spine. The summit of Gunung Sinabung is much less frequently visited than neighboring Sabayak volcano to the NE.

Photo by S. Wikartadipura, 1982 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Sinabung volcano, seen here from Tigapancur village, is a prominent conical stratovolcano that rises above the Karo Plateau in NW Sumatra. Levees of massive lava flows (left-center) are prominent on the flanks of the volcano. No confirmed historical eruptions are known.

Photo by S. Wikartadipura, 1982 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Cameron N R, Aspden J A, Bridge D M, Djunuddin A, Ghazali S A, Harahap H, Hariwidjaja S, Johari, Kartawa W, Keats W, Ngabito H, Rock N M S, Whandoyo R, 1982. Geologic map of the Medan quadrangle, Sumatra. Geol Res Devel Centre Indonesia, 1:250,000 map and 26 p text.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
997
13,801
163,630
7,646,863

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Sinabung Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.