Sorikmarapi

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 0.686°N
  • 99.539°E

  • 2145 m
    7036 ft

  • 261120
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 28 December-3 January 2012


CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Sorikmarapi on 30 December from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: August 1996 (BGVN 21:08)


During May, "smoke" in vicinity reaches 10-km altitude

On the morning of 5 May 1996, Qantas Airlines reported "smoke" over Sumatra near Sorikmarapi to just above 10 km altitude. However, in a satellite pass about 2 hours earlier there was no evidence of an eruption.

Information Contacts: Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, P.O. Box 735, Darwin NT 0801, Australia.

Index of Weekly Reports


2011: December

Weekly Reports


28 December-3 January 2012

CVGHM lowered the Alert Level for Sorikmarapi on 30 December from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


7 December-13 December 2011

CVGHM reported increased seismicity from Sorik Marapi during 1-12 December and white plumes rose 40-50 m above the summit. CVGHM raised the Alert Level on 12 December from 1 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4) based on seismic data.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

06/1986 (SEAN 11:06) Dark ash plume

07/1986 (SEAN 11:07) No new explosions

08/1987 (SEAN 12:08) Seismicity and fumarole temperatures increase

07/1989 (SEAN 14:07) Thermal activity; no shallow seismicity

12/1989 (GV11 89:12) Phreatic explosion ejects mud

08/1996 (BGVN 21:08) During May, "smoke" in vicinity reaches 10-km altitude




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


06/1986 (SEAN 11:06) Dark ash plume

. . . on 5 July at 1520, a large dark ash plume was observed from Sibangor Tonga observation post. No additional explosions were recorded on 5 or 6 July.

Information Contacts: L. Pardyanto, Olas, Kaswanda, A. Sudradjat, and T. Casadevall, VSI.

07/1986 (SEAN 11:07) No new explosions

The ash plume from the 5 July explosion reached 700 m above the summit. No additional explosions have been recorded.

Information Contacts: L. Pardyanto, Olas, Kaswanda, Suratman, A. Sudradjat, and T. Casadevall, VSI.

08/1987 (SEAN 12:08) Seismicity and fumarole temperatures increase

Temperatures increased at two fumaroles during August: from 104 to 197°C at the N crater, and from 95 to 108°C at Sibangor Julu. White fume was almost continuously present, rising to ~100 m above the crater. In late August, seismic activity began to increase. By early September, near-surface earthquakes averaged ~7/day and deeper, tectonic earthquakes averaged ~40/day.

Information Contacts: VSI.

07/1989 (SEAN 14:07) Thermal activity; no shallow seismicity

Normal activity continued in late July, with a weak gas plume reaching 5-10 m above the crater. The temperature of the crater solfatara was 185-190°C, while two surrounding solfataric areas measured 108-110°C and 97-115°C. Twenty-nine tectonic earthquakes (but no volcanic shocks) were recorded.

Information Contacts: VSI.

12/1989 (GV11 89:12) Phreatic explosion ejects mud

[A single phreatic explosion rose 25 m above the Sibangor Tonga crater, spreading mud in a 5-m radius.]

Information Contacts: VSI.

08/1996 (BGVN 21:08) During May, "smoke" in vicinity reaches 10-km altitude

On the morning of 5 May 1996, Qantas Airlines reported "smoke" over Sumatra near Sorikmarapi to just above 10 km altitude. However, in a satellite pass about 2 hours earlier there was no evidence of an eruption.

Information Contacts: Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, P.O. Box 735, Darwin NT 0801, Australia.

Sorikmarapi is a forested stratovolcano with a 600-m-wide summit crater containing a crater lake and substantial sulfur deposits. A smaller parasitic crater (Danau Merah) on the upper SE flank also contains a crater lake; these two craters and a series of smaller explosion pits occur along a NW-SE line. Several solfatara fields are located on the eastern flank. Phreatic eruptions have occurred from summit and flank vents during the 19th and 20th centuries.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1996 May 5 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1986 Jul 5 1986 Jul 14 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1970 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1917 May 20 1917 May 20 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1893 Jan 4 1893 Jan 4 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East flank (Sibanggor Julu)
1892 May 21 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and east flank (Jurang Siunik)
[ 1888 Feb ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1879 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1866 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1829 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Sorieq Berapi | Seret Berapi | Sorikmerapi

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kulabu Cone 0° 41' 0" N 99° 29' 0" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Jurang Siunik Crater
Merah, Danau Crater 2063 m

Thermal

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Sibangor Julu
    Sibanggor Djulu
Thermal
Sorikmarapi, seen here from the west, is a forested stratovolcano with a steep-sided, 600-m-wide summit crater containing a crater lake and substantial sulfur deposits. Another crater lake is located on the upper SE flank and several small explosion craters occur within the main crater and on the outer flanks. Small explosive eruptions have been documented from summit and flank vents in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Photo by Tom Casadevall, 1987 (U.S. Geological Survey).
Sorikmarapi volcano rises above older mountains that have impeded its growth to the north. The truncated summit contains a crater lake and a chain of smaller NW-SE-trending craters. Historical eruptions have been recorded from both summit and flank vents since the 19th century.

Anonymous photo, 1991.

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Rock N M S, Aldiss D T, Aspden J A, Clarke M C G, Djunuddin A, Kartawa W, Miswar S J, Thompson R, Whandoyo, 1983. Geologic map of the Lubuksikaping quadrangle, Sumatra. Geol Res Devel Centre Indonesia, 1:250,000 map and 60 p text.

Rock N M S, Syah H H, Davis A E, Hutchison D, Styles M T, Lena R, 1982. Permian to Recent volcanism in northern Sumatra, Indonesia: a preliminary study of its distribution, chemistry, and peculiarities. Bull Volc, 45: 127-152.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
203
1,469
90,257
1,831,957

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Sorikmarapi Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.