Inielika

Photo of this volcano
Google Earth icon
  Google Earth Placemark
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.73°S
  • 120.98°E

  • 1559 m
    5114 ft

  • 264090
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

25 April-1 May 2001

VSI reported that during 16-23 April seismic activity increased at Inielika in comparison to the previous week. Seismographs recorded five deep volcanic, ten shallow volcanic, and eleven tectonic earthquakes. Inielika is at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The previous report of significant volcanic activity occurred on 11 January 2001 when minor explosions began.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)

Index of Weekly Reports


2001: January | February | April

Weekly Reports


25 April-1 May 2001

VSI reported that during 16-23 April seismic activity increased at Inielika in comparison to the previous week. Seismographs recorded five deep volcanic, ten shallow volcanic, and eleven tectonic earthquakes. Inielika is at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4). The previous report of significant volcanic activity occurred on 11 January 2001 when minor explosions began.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


7 February-13 February 2001

During 6-11 February, Inielika volcano remained active and the VSI reported no significant change in volcanic activity. An ash plume was observed rising 25-500 m above the volcano and there was a slight increase in the number of deep volcanic earthquakes in comparison to the previous week. The Alert Level at the volcano was reduced from 3 to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


31 January-6 February 2001

The VSI reported that during 23-29 January no explosive activity occurred, but a plume of white ash rose 100-500 m above the crater. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


17 January-23 January 2001

The VSI reported that during 16-22 January ongoing explosions sent ash 100-1,000 m above the crater rim. Ash was deposited within a 10-20 m radius around the crater; lapilli with a maximum diameter of 50 cm were deposited out to ~500 m around the crater. Observations on 21 January revealed that two new large craters formed, to the SE and the NW. The SE crater was 50 m in diameter and 10 m deep. The NW crater was 20 m in diameter, open to the NW, and 1.1 m deep. The volcano remained at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


10 January-16 January 2001

A minor explosion on 11 January 2001 at 1915 produced an ashfall deposit less than 0.5 mm thick in Bajawa (~8 km from the source). On 13 January 2001 at 0700 three explosions occurred, sending a plume ~300-1,000 m above the crater rim; it moved eastward towards Toa village and southward towards Boya village, Bajawa, and Bolodio city. Thundering sounds were heard from the observatory (~7.5 km from the summit). Continuous tremor was recorded with an amplitude of 2 mm and 59 explosion earthquake events had been registered as of 15 January. Inielika is at Alert Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

12/2000 (BGVN 25:12) Explosions eject tephra in first eruption since 1905

01/2001 (BGVN 26:01) Explosive activity declines; new images of the summit area

09/2001 (BGVN 26:09) Small February-March 2001 ash plumes and generally low seismicity


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

All times are local (= UTC + 8 hours)

12/2000 (BGVN 25:12) Explosions eject tephra in first eruption since 1905

A minor explosion occurred at 1915 on 11 January 2001. The explosion ejected ash that coated Bajawa (~8 km from the summit) with an ash layer less than 0.5 mm thick. Increased activity after 11 January prompted the VSI to set the volcano's hazard status to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). Three explosions occurred at about 0700 on 13 January, sending ash 300-1,000 m above the crater rim. Workers at the volcano's observatory post, located ~7.5 km from the summit, subsequently heard thundering sounds. Ash, which appeared dense and light in color, blew E to Toa and S to Boya, Bolodio, and Bajawa. By 15 January, a seismograph recorded continuous tremor with an amplitude of 2 mm in addition to 59 explosion earthquakes with amplitudes of 2-14 mm.

Ash emission was ongoing as of 16 January, and ranged from 100 to 1,000 m above the summit. VSI workers observed two new large craters trending SE-NW. The top of the SE crater measured 50 m in diameter, narrowed to 25 m at its base, and was 10 m deep. It emitted an audible sound and ejected an ash plume from its N wall with variable pressure. Winds tended to blow ash toward the S. The NW crater was 20 m in diameter and 1.1 m deep. The temperature of a fumarole measured 95°C, and nearby ground temperature measured 89°C.

During 16-22 January, explosions produced both ash and lapilli. Light gray ash fell around the main crater within a 10-20 m radius. Lapilli, which had a maximum size of 50 cm, fell up to 500 m from the main crater.

Information Contact: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

01/2001 (BGVN 26:01) Explosive activity declines; new images of the summit area

The following report covers Inielika's activity during 23 January-5 February 2001. The VSI issued three photographs showing Inielika's summit area (figures 1-3). No explosions occurred during 23-29 January, unlike earlier in the month (BGVN 25:12). Instead, a white gas-and-steam plume rose 100-500 m above the summit. Volcanic earthquakes, tectonic earthquakes, and continuous tremor with amplitudes varying from 0.3 to 1.2 mm occurred.

Figure 1. A gas-and-steam plume exiting from one of Inielika's craters on 11 January 2001. Courtesy of VSI.
Figure 2. View of Inielika's summit crater lakes as seen on 11 January 2001. The lake in the center foreground is green, and the lake behind and to the left of it is a dark color. A light-colored plume issues from a vent on the right side of the image. Which of the volcano's ten craters these represent remains uncertain. Courtesy of VSI.
Figure 3. A recently formed vent (arrow) seen in a crater on Inielika's summit on 11 January 2001. Courtesy of VSI.

Activity remained relatively similar during the following week of 30 January-5 February. A gas-and-steam plume rose 25-500 m above the summit. The number of deep volcanic (A-type) earthquakes increased with respect to the previous week, and tremor was no longer continuous. The VSI maintained Inielika's hazard status at Level 3 (on a scale of 1-4) as of 5 February.

Information Contacts: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

09/2001 (BGVN 26:09) Small February-March 2001 ash plumes and generally low seismicity

Since the decline in eruptive activity that occurred during 23 January-5 February 2001 (BGVN 26:01), variable seismicity has prevailed. Ash plumes were observed in February and March reaching 10-500 m above the volcano. The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) reported varying amounts of seismicity (table 1). VSI has not reported new eruptive activity at Inielika since May 2001.

Table 1. Seismic activity detected at Inielika during February through May 2001. Courtesy of VSI.

    Date (2001)     Earthquakes

                      Deep     Shallow    Tectonic
                    volcanic   volcanic
                    (A-type)   (B-type)

    06 Feb-11 Feb      23          7         10
    20 Feb-26 Feb      34         15         32
    27 Feb-05 Mar      57         19         51
    06 Mar-12 Mar      30          6         18
    12 Mar-18 Mar       4          1         13
    19 Mar-23 Mar       3         --          9
    27 Mar-01 Apr       6         --         --
    02 Apr-08 Apr       4         --         11
    09 Apr-15 Apr       7          4          6
    16 Apr-23 Apr       5         10         11
    25 Apr-01 May       5         10         11

Information Contact: Dali Ahmad, Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI), Jalan Diponegoro No. 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (Email: dali@vsi.esdm.go.id, URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/).

Inielika is a broad, low volcano in central Flores Island that was constructed within the Lobobutu caldera. The complex summit of the 1559-m-high volcano contains ten craters, some of which are lake filled, in a 5-sq-km area north of the city of Bajawa. The largest of these, Wolo Runu and Wolo Lega North, are 750 m wide. The first historical eruption of Inielika, a phreatic explosion that formed a new crater, did not occur until 1905 and was the volcano's only eruption during the 20th century. Another eruption took place about a century later, in 2001. A chain of Pleistocene cinder cones, the Bajawa cinder cone complex, extends southward to Inierie.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2001 Jan 11 2001 Mar (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit crater complex
1905 Nov 1905 Nov Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Inie Lika


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Boki, Wolo Crater 1408 m
Inielika, Wolo Crater 1559 m
Lega, Wolo Crater 1550 m
Lobobutu Pleistocene caldera
Loboleke, Wolo Crater 1371 m
Runu, Wolo Crater 1538 m
Saga, Wolo Crater 1366 m
Wawolika, Wolo Crater 1759 m
Wawomuda Crater
This view from the east shows the N-S-trending crater complex of Inielika volcano. At the extreme left is Wolo Lega crater, and the 1905 crater is located just right of center. The high point at the center of the photo is Wawolika cone.

Photo published in Kemnerling 1929, "Vulkanen van Flores" (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The Inielika chain of craters stretches across the Bajawa Highlands in this view from the NE. On the extreme left horizon is Wolo Runu, along the center horizon are the lake-filled Wolo Lega craters with the flat-topped cones of Wolo Itakai and Wolo Ata behind them. On the right horizon is Lobobutu cone. Other craters occupy the foreground. The sharp-topped peak at left center is Gunung Inierie volcano, the highest on the island of Flores.

Photo published in Kemnerling 1929, "Vulkanen van Flores" (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
A brief phreatic eruption in November 1905 lasting only 5 hours formed this crater at Inielika volcano. The 125-m-wide crater cut the floor of Wolo Inielika crater, one of many craters along a N-S-trending ridge at Inielika volcano. This marked the only historical eruption at Inielika.

Photo by E. Weissenborn (published in Kemnerling 1929, "Vulkanen van Flores," courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
A N-S-trending chain of cones and craters in the Bajawa Highlands forms the summit of Inielika volcano, seen here from the east. Ten craters, some of which contain crater lakes, dot the complex summit region, and others occupy the flanks of the volcano. Most slopes of the volcano, like other areas in the Bajawa Highlands, are covered by needle-like alang-alang grass. The only known historical eruption from Inielika was a phreatic explosion in 1905 that formed a new crater.

Photo by Ruska Hadian, 1970 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Two of the many summit craters of Inielika volcano can be seen in the left foreground. Inielika is a broad, low volcano in central Flores Island that was constructed within the Lobobutu caldera. The complex summit of the 1559-m-high volcano contains ten craters, some of which are lake filled. The first historical eruption of Inielika, a phreatic explosion that formed a new crater, did not occur until 1905 and was the volcano's only eruption during the 20th century. Sharp-topped Inierie volcano is the prominent peak on the right horizon.

Photo by Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Kemmerling G L L, 1929. Vulkanen van Flores. Vulk Seism Meded Dienst Mijnw Ned-Indie, 10: 1-138.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Muraoka H, Yasukawa K, Urai M, Takahashi M, Nasution A, Takashima I, 2002. 2001 fissure-forming eruption of Inie Lika volcano, central Flores, Indonesia. Bull Geol Surv Japan, 53: 175-182.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Sucipta I G B E, Takashima I, Muraoka H, 2006. Morphometric age and petrological characteristics of volcanic rocks from the Bajawa cinder cone complex, Flores, Indonesia. J Mineral Petr Sci, 101: 48-68.

Sudradjat A, 1977. . (pers. comm.).

Volcano Types

Complex

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Crustal thickness unknown

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
4,601
27,281
162,299
818,815

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Inielika Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.