Ebulobo

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.82°S
  • 121.18°E

  • 2124 m
    6967 ft

  • 264100
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 21 August-27 August 2013


CVGHM reported that observers at Ebulobo's observation post in Ekowolo (Boa Wae District) noted that during August white plumes rose as high as 30 m. Volcanic tremor was detected starting on 10 August. At night during 21-23 August incandescence was visible on the N side of the summit (incandescence was last observed in 2011). The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-4) on 23 August. Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 1.5-km-radius of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: November 2013 (BGVN 38:11)


August 2013–glowing areas and hot plumes

Our last report (CSLP 19-69) discussed a summit eruption at Ebulobo stratovolcano, near the S coast of Central Flores island, that in 1969 had emitted ash and steam as well as "fire" (generally taken as incandescence but also possibly flames). CVGHM (Center for Volcanology and Mitigation of Geologic Disasters), issued a report on Ebulobo on 26 August 2013 informing readers that during August 2013, observers noted one or more hot emissions escaping from the crater. The resulting plume was of sparse consistency, white in color, under weak pressure, and it rose to 5-30 m above the peak. "Smoke" was noted.

The CVGHM report noted that on the night of 21 August 2013, observers on the volcano's N side saw incandescence at the summit area. Observations during the night of 22-23 August revealed points of glowing remained unchanged. The glowing was considered anomalous, having not been seen since 2011. The exact cause of the incandescent regions was not reported No new fissures, lava flows or pyroclastic flows were reported. The glowing later terminated as discussed in an October follow up report.

During June 2013, the system recorded the earthquakes shown in table 1.

Table 1. A summary of seismicity recorded at Ebulobo. Dashes signify cases without reported data. Extracted from the 26 August and 17 October CVGHM reports.

Month (2013) Shallow (VB) Deep volcanic (VA) Low-frequency (long period) Local tectonic (TL) Long distance (TJ)
June -- 12 1 18 47
July -- 19 1 18 38
August -- 57 -- 45 60
September 2 62 -- 27 67
1-16(?) October 2 13 7 7 35

During 1-22 August 2013, the seismic system also recorded tremor with maximum amplitudes in the range of 0.5-15 mm.

Ebulobo (figure 1) has a dedicated observation post and two seismic instruments as discussed further below.

Figure 1. Ebulobo as seen in a photo taken 9 June 2009. Copyrighted photo by Andrzej-Muda.

Glow diminishes and Alert Level drops (to I). During September-October white plumes rose as high as 100 m above the crater. Despite that, the glowing area had remained absent after 27 August. On 17 October CVGHM scaled back the Alert from II to I (Normal, on a scale that reaches IV).

More background. The following was extracted from CVGHM reporting.

"Ebulobo Volcano is located in the district of Nagekeo, province of Nusa Tenggara Timur. Eruptions of Ebulobo generally have consisted of lava streams that quickly formed mounds but have never so far resulted in sudden eruptive outbursts that produced a symmetrically shaped mass to the volcano. Ebulobo's eruptions have occurred between 3 and 58 years. In its historical record, its latest eruptive activity took place in 1941 and consisted of a lava stream.

"Observation of Ebulobo's activity is carried out from its monitoring post in the village of Ekowolo, sub-district of Boa Wae and is done visually and according to tremor events. The monitoring is done by means of a Type VR-60 seismograph and a Type L4C seismometer. The readings are transmitted by a telemetric system."

Information Contacts: Center for Volcanology and Mitigation of Geologic Disasters (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL:http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); and the National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB), Gedung Graha 55 Jl. Tanah Abang II No. 57 Postal Code: 10120, Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/).

Index of Weekly Reports


2013: August

Weekly Reports


21 August-27 August 2013

CVGHM reported that observers at Ebulobo's observation post in Ekowolo (Boa Wae District) noted that during August white plumes rose as high as 30 m. Volcanic tremor was detected starting on 10 August. At night during 21-23 August incandescence was visible on the N side of the summit (incandescence was last observed in 2011). The Alert Level was raised to 2 (on a scale of 0-4) on 23 August. Residents and tourists were not permitted within a 1.5-km-radius of the crater.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

02/1969 (CSLP 19-69) Summit eruption with "fire and steam" and ash

11/2013 (BGVN 38:11) August 2013–glowing areas and hot plumes




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


02/1969 (CSLP 19-69) Summit eruption with "fire and steam" and ash

Card 0432 (28 February 1969) Summit eruption with "fire and steam" and ash

"Mount Ebu Lobo . . . has begun activity, with fire and steam on summit and ash eruption."

Information Contacts: Djajadi Volcanological Service via the American Embassy, Djarkata, Indonesia.

11/2013 (BGVN 38:11) August 2013–glowing areas and hot plumes

Our last report (CSLP 19-69) discussed a summit eruption at Ebulobo stratovolcano, near the S coast of Central Flores island, that in 1969 had emitted ash and steam as well as "fire" (generally taken as incandescence but also possibly flames). CVGHM (Center for Volcanology and Mitigation of Geologic Disasters), issued a report on Ebulobo on 26 August 2013 informing readers that during August 2013, observers noted one or more hot emissions escaping from the crater. The resulting plume was of sparse consistency, white in color, under weak pressure, and it rose to 5-30 m above the peak. "Smoke" was noted.

The CVGHM report noted that on the night of 21 August 2013, observers on the volcano's N side saw incandescence at the summit area. Observations during the night of 22-23 August revealed points of glowing remained unchanged. The glowing was considered anomalous, having not been seen since 2011. The exact cause of the incandescent regions was not reported No new fissures, lava flows or pyroclastic flows were reported. The glowing later terminated as discussed in an October follow up report.

During June 2013, the system recorded the earthquakes shown in table 1.

Table 1. A summary of seismicity recorded at Ebulobo. Dashes signify cases without reported data. Extracted from the 26 August and 17 October CVGHM reports.

Month (2013) Shallow (VB) Deep volcanic (VA) Low-frequency (long period) Local tectonic (TL) Long distance (TJ)
June -- 12 1 18 47
July -- 19 1 18 38
August -- 57 -- 45 60
September 2 62 -- 27 67
1-16(?) October 2 13 7 7 35

During 1-22 August 2013, the seismic system also recorded tremor with maximum amplitudes in the range of 0.5-15 mm.

Ebulobo (figure 1) has a dedicated observation post and two seismic instruments as discussed further below.

Figure 1. Ebulobo as seen in a photo taken 9 June 2009. Copyrighted photo by Andrzej-Muda.

Glow diminishes and Alert Level drops (to I). During September-October white plumes rose as high as 100 m above the crater. Despite that, the glowing area had remained absent after 27 August. On 17 October CVGHM scaled back the Alert from II to I (Normal, on a scale that reaches IV).

More background. The following was extracted from CVGHM reporting.

"Ebulobo Volcano is located in the district of Nagekeo, province of Nusa Tenggara Timur. Eruptions of Ebulobo generally have consisted of lava streams that quickly formed mounds but have never so far resulted in sudden eruptive outbursts that produced a symmetrically shaped mass to the volcano. Ebulobo's eruptions have occurred between 3 and 58 years. In its historical record, its latest eruptive activity took place in 1941 and consisted of a lava stream.

"Observation of Ebulobo's activity is carried out from its monitoring post in the village of Ekowolo, sub-district of Boa Wae and is done visually and according to tremor events. The monitoring is done by means of a Type VR-60 seismograph and a Type L4C seismometer. The readings are transmitted by a telemetric system."

Information Contacts: Center for Volcanology and Mitigation of Geologic Disasters (CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL:http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); and the National Agency for Disaster Management (BNPB), Gedung Graha 55 Jl. Tanah Abang II No. 57 Postal Code: 10120, Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/).

Ebulobo, also referred to as Amburombu or Keo Peak, is a symmetrical stratovolcano in central Flores Island. The summit of 2124-m-high Gunung Ebulobo cosists of a flat-topped lava dome. The 250-m-wide summit crater of the steep-sided volcano is breached on three sides. The Watu Keli lava flow traveled from the northern breach to 4 km from the summit in 1830, the first of only four recorded historical eruptions of the volcano.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1969 Feb 27 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1941 Aug 23 ± 8 days Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1938 May 1938 Jun Confirmed   Historical Observations
1924 Nov Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1910 Apr 10 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1888 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1830 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Keo Peak | Amboelombo | Ebu Lobo | Amburembu | Ebo Lobo | Eboeloba | Amburombu
Gunung Ebulobo (also known as Amburombu or Keo Peak) towers above the village of Boa Wae, located below the NW flank of the volcano. Ebulobo is a symmetrical 2124-m-high stratovolcano in central Flores Island with a flat-topped summit lava dome. Historical eruptions, recorded since 1830, include lava emission down the north flank and explosive eruptions from the summit crater.

Photo by Willem Rohi, 1991 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Conical Gunung Ebulobo, also known as Amburombu or Keo Peak, rises above the highlands at Toda Belu, SW of the volcano. Directly below the summit of Ebulobo is Roa volcano, and on the right horizon is Taka volcano. Dominantly explosive eruptions have been recorded from the symmetrical Ebulobo volcano since the 19th century.

Photo published in Kemnerling 1929, "Vulkanen van Flores" (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
A lava dome occupies the sumit of Ebulobo volcano, also known as Amburombu or Keo Peak. The summit crater, seen here from the south, is breached in three directions.

Photo published in Kemnerling 1929, "Vulkanen van Flores" (courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Kemmerling G L L, 1929. Vulkanen van Flores. Vulk Seism Meded Dienst Mijnw Ned-Indie, 10: 1-138.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Stolz A J, Varne R, Davies, G R, Wheller G E, Foden J D, 1990. Magma source components in an arc-continent collision zone: the Flores-Lembata sector, Sunda arc, Indonesia. Contr Mineral Petr, 105: 585-601.

Sudradjat A, 1977. . (pers. comm.).

Wheller G E, Varne R, Foden J D, Abbott M J, 1987. Geochemistry of Quaternary volcanism in the Sunda-Banda arc, Indonesia, and three-component genesis of island-arc basaltic magmas. J Volc Geotherm Res, 32: 137-160.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Crustal thickness unknown

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
1,278
24,149
140,204
674,614

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Ebulobo Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.