Sirung

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 8.508°S
  • 124.13°E

  • 862 m
    2827 ft

  • 264270
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Weekly Report: 8 July-14 July 2015 Cite this Report


Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 July an ash plume from Sirung drifted 55 km W at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


Most Recent Bulletin Report: December 1987 (SEAN 12:12) Cite this Report


Fumaroles and crater lake normal after earthquake

A VSI observer visited the volcano on 12 December. Fumaroles and the crater lake were normal and showed no evidence of increased activity that might be attributed to the M 6.5 earthquake of 26 November (preliminary epicenter 8.35°S, 124.25°E). The only notable change in the crater was a fresh landslide scar that may have resulted from the earthquake.

Information Contacts: VSI.

Weekly Reports - Index


2015: July
2012: May | June | September
2004: May


8 July-14 July 2015 Cite this Report


Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 8 July an ash plume from Sirung drifted 55 km W at an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


1 July-7 July 2015 Cite this Report


Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 7 July an ash plume from Sirung rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 85 km SW.

Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


5 September-11 September 2012 Cite this Report


CVGHM reported that on 7 September the Alert Level for Sirung was lowered from 2 to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


13 June-19 June 2012 Cite this Report


CVGHM reported that during 1-13 June diffuse white plumes from Sirung rose 30-70 m above the crater. A sulfur odor was occasionally noted at the Sirung observation post. Based on seismic activity and visual observations, on 15 June CVGHM reiterated that the Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4).Visitors and tourists were not permitted to go within a 1.5 km radius of Sirung.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


23 May-29 May 2012 Cite this Report


CVGHM reported that during 13-18 May diffuse white plumes from Sirung rose 10-50 m above the crater. Seismicity was elevated during 12-17 May then decreased through 23 May, although levels remained above background. On 25 May the Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


9 May-15 May 2012 Cite this Report


CVGHM reported that on 8 May a three-hour long ash eruption from Sirung was accompanied by loud sounds and incandescence that reached 10 m above the crater. An ash plume rose 3.5 km above the crater and drifted N, producing ashfall up to 4 mm thick near the crater. During 9-12 May white plumes rose 30-50 m above the crater. A sulfur odor was reported in areas up to 3 km away on 12 May. That same day CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and recommended that visitors not approach the volcano within a 2.5 km radius.

Based on a report from a ground-based observer and analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC noted that on 12 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 95 km SW.

Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)


19 May-25 May 2004 Cite this Report


According to DVGHM, the news reports of an eruption at Sirung around 13 May were false. There was no activity at the volcano.

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)


12 May-18 May 2004 Cite this Report


According to a news article, Sirung began erupting "smoke and dust" around 13 May. A local government official reportedly said that hundreds of residents were evacuated from within 1 or 2 kilometers of the volcano. There were no reports of injuries or damage.

Source: ABC News - Australian Broadcasting Corporation


Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

12/1987 (SEAN 12:12) Fumaroles and crater lake normal after earthquake




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


December 1987 (SEAN 12:12) Cite this Report


Fumaroles and crater lake normal after earthquake

A VSI observer visited the volcano on 12 December. Fumaroles and the crater lake were normal and showed no evidence of increased activity that might be attributed to the M 6.5 earthquake of 26 November (preliminary epicenter 8.35°S, 124.25°E). The only notable change in the crater was a fresh landslide scar that may have resulted from the earthquake.

Information Contacts: VSI.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
264270

2012 CE

862 m / 2827 ft

8.508°S
124.13°E

Volcano Types

Complex
Caldera
Lava dome

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Crustal thickness unknown

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
5,966
19,334
69,744
418,756

Geological Summary

Sirung volcano is located at the NE end of a 14-km-long line of volcanic centers that form a peninsula at the southern end of Pantar Island. The low, 862-m-high volcano is truncated by a 2-km-wide caldera whose floor often contains one or more small lakes. Much of the volcano is constructed of basaltic lava flows, and the Gunung Sirung lava dome forms the high point on the caldera's western rim. A number of phreatic eruptions have occurred from vents within the caldera during the 20th century. Forested Gunung Topaki, the 1390-m high point of the volcanic chain, lies at the SW end and contains a symmetrical summit crater.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Kusumadinata K, 1979. Data Dasar Gunungapi Indonesia. Bandung: Volc Surv Indonesia, 820 p.

Neumann van Padang M, 1951. Indonesia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 1: 1-271.

Varekamp J C, van Bergen M J, Vroon P Z, Poorter R P E, Wirakusumah A D, Erfan R, Suharyono K, Sriwana T, 1989. Volcanism and tectoinics in the eastern Sunda arc, Indonesia. Netherlands J Sea Res, 24: 303-312.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2012 May 8 2012 May 12 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1970 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1965 Nov 2 1965 Nov 2 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1965 May 7 1965 May 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1964 Feb 8 1964 Oct 5 (in or after) Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1960 Mar 13 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1953 Jun Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1947 Apr 1947 May Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1934 Jun 14 1934 Jul 15 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1927 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1899 Mar ] [ 1899 Apr ] Uncertain 2  
[ 1852 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain 2  

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Siroeng | Pantar Api | Sereh, Gunung | Delaki, Gunung

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Topaki, Gunung Stratovolcano 1390 m 8° 31' 0" S 124° 6' 0" E

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Anunggola
    Anoengola
Crater 794 m
Kalikiir Crater 1020 m
Northern Crater Crater
Sombutang Crater 903 m
Tamoyang
    Tamojang
Crater 742 m

Photo Gallery


Steam clouds rise above a fumarole field on the flank of Gunung Sirung, south of Airmama village. The crater walls contain extensive areas of light-colored hydrothermally altered rock.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Sirung volcano, seen here from the north, lies at the NE end of a 14-km-long line of volcanic centers forming a peninsula at the southern end of Pantar Island. A 2-km-wide caldera at the summit has been the source of small phreatic eruptions during the 20th century. A lava dome (right) forms the 862-m-high summit of the volcano at the west side of the caldera.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The steaming summit caldera of Gunung Sirung volcano is seen here from the eastern caldera rim. Sirung volcano lies at the NE end of a 14-km-long line of volcanic centers forming a peninsula at the southern end of Pantar Island. A lava dome (center) at the western side of the caldera forms the summit of Gunung Sirung volcano; other cones along the chain to the SE increase in height. The 2-km-wide summit caldera has been the source of small phreatic eruptions during the 20th century.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The summit of 862-m-high Gunung Sirung volcano on Pantar Island is truncated by a 2-km wide caldera whose floor often contains one or more small lakes. A number of small phreatic eruptions have taken place in the 20th century from vents inside the caldera.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Steam rises from a fumarole in the crater complex B, seen here from the NE. The summit of Gunung Sirung is cut by many craters and explosion pits, five of which contain lakes.

Photo by L.D. Reksowirogo, 1972 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
The Gunung Sirung volcanic massif rises to the south of the villages of Kaka and Mauta. The historically active cone is located at the NE end of a 14-km-long chain of volcanic centers that forms a peninsula extending south into the Sawu Sea. The light-colored area (right center) is a fumarole field near Airmama village. Gunung Sopak, the 1318 m high point of the massif, forms the peak at the upper right.

Photo courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia, 1990.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Sirung Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.