Kikai

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 30.789°N
  • 130.308°E

  • 704 m
    2309 ft

  • 282060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

29 May-4 June 2013

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 4 June an ash plume from Kikai drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



 Available Weekly Reports


2013: May
2004: March | May | August | September
2002: May | June
2001: July


29 May-4 June 2013

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 4 June an ash plume from Kikai drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


22 September-28 September 2004

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Kikai on 25 September at 0937 produced a plume to a height of ~1.5 km a.s.l. that extended W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


11 August-17 August 2004

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Kikai around 1105 on 13 August produced a plume to a height of ~1.2 km a.s.l. The plume drifted NW.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


26 May-1 June 2004

Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that Kikai erupted on 1 June at 1330. The resultant ash cloud rose to an unknown height and drifted W.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


24 March-30 March 2004

Based on information from the Japanese Meteorological Agency, the Tokyo VAAC reported that Kikai erupted on 24 March at 1755 and on 25 March at 0715, producing plumes that reached a height of ~1.5 km a.s.l. and extended S and NW, respectively. No ash was visible on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


3 March-9 March 2004

Based on information from the Japanese Meteorological Agency, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption at Kikai on 5 March at 0922 produced a N-drifting plume to ~1.5 km a.s.l. No ash was detected on satellite imagery.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)


5 June-11 June 2002

According to JMA's report on 6 June, discolored plumes, associated with volcanic tremor, had intermittently issued from Kikai's summit since 11 May. In addition, the number of small volcanic earthquakes had increased since 29 May. Discolored plumes were observed from Mishima village on the Ryukyu Islands and ash fell on residential areas during 3-5 June. The Air Force Weather Agency reported that low-level plumes were visible on satellite imagery during 1-4 June.

Sources: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) via the Volcano Research Center, US Air Force Weather Agency


29 May-4 June 2002

The Air Force Weather Agency reported that plumes were visible on satellite imagery emanating from Kikai during 24-28 May. The thin plumes drifted to the S on the 24th, SE on the 25th and 26th, S on the 27th, and E on the 28th. The plumes were estimated to be lower than 3 km a.s.l. Ash was seen from the island of Yaku-shima on 26 May during 1600-1800. After 29 May the area was covered with meteorological clouds, preventing satellite observations.

Source: US Air Force Weather Agency


25 July-31 July 2001

Continuous volcanic tremor was recorded at Satsuma-Iwo-jima during 20 to at least 23 July. A seismometer about 700 m SW of Iwo-dake crater recorded 50-100 earthquakes daily, in comparison to 30-90 earthquakes recorded daily during December 2000 and March 2001. Small amounts of volcanic tremor were also occasionally recorded. The Iwo-jima Branch of the Mishima Village Office reported that ash fell during 19-21 July. Faint ashfall and small volcanic tremor had occurred since December 2000.

Source: Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2013 Jun 4 2013 Jun 4 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
2004 Mar 5 2004 Oct Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Iwo-dake
2003 Feb (?) 2003 Oct Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Iwo-dake
2002 May 11 2002 Jul Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Iwo-dake
2000 Oct 2001 Dec Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Iwo-dake
2000 Jan 2000 Mar Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Iwo-dake
1998 Apr 25 1999 Aug Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Iwo-dake
1997 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Iwo-dake
1988 Jan 18 1988 Jan 18 Confirmed 1 Historical Observations Iwo-dake
1934 Sep 19 1935 Aug (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations 2 km east of Tokara-Iwo-Jima
[ 1914 Feb 13 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Tokara-Iwo-jima
1430 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Iwo-dake
1340 ± 30 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Iwo-dake, K-Iw-P2 tephra
1030 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Iwo-dake, K-Sk-u-4 tephra
1010 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Iwo-dake, K-Sk-u-3 tephra
0830 ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Iwo-dake, K-Iw-P1 tephra
0750 (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Iwo-dake
0390 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Iwo-dake
0280 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Iwo-dake
1090 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Inamura-dake
1830 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Inamura-dake, In-I tephra
2450 BCE ± 1000 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Old Iwo-dake, OIo2a,b tephras
3250 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Old Iwo-dake, OIo1a,b tephras
4350 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 7 Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Kikai caldera, Akahoya tephra

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Hedenquist J W, Aoki M, Shinohara H, 1994. Flux of volatiles and ore-forming metals from the magmatic-hydrothermal system of Satsuma Iwojima volcano. Geology, 22: 585-588.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Machida H, 1990. Frequency and magnitude of catastrophic explosive volcanism in the Japan region during the past 130 ka: implications for human occupance of volcanic regions. Geol Soc Aust Symp Proc, 1: 27-36.

Machida H, Arai F, 1981. Late Quaternary large eruptions recorded in distal areas around Japan. IAVCEI Tokyo Mtg Abs, p 214-215.

Maeno F, Taniguchi H, 2006. Silicic lava dome growth in the 1934-1935 Showa Iwo-jima eruption, Kikai caldera, south of Kyushu, Japan. Bull Volc, 68: 673-688.

Maeno F, Taniguchi H, 2005. Eruptive history of Satsuma Iwo-jima Island, Kikai caldera, after a 6.5 ka caldera-forming eruption. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 50: 71-85 (in Japanese with English abs).

Maeno F, Taniguchi H, 2007. Spatiotemporal evolution of a marine caldera-forming eruption, generating a low-aspect ratio pyroclastic flow, 7.3 ka, Kikai caldera, Japan: implication from near-vent eruptive deposits. J Volc Geotherm Res, 167: 212-238.

Matsushima N, Kazahaya K, Saito G, Shinohara H, 2003. Mass and heat flux of volcanic gas discharging from the summit crater of Iwodake volcano, Satsuma-Iwojima, Japan, during 1996-1999. J Volc Geotherm Res, 126: 285-301.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Ono K, Soya T, Hosono T, 1982. Geology of the Satsuma-Io-Jima district. Geol Surv Japan, 1:50,000 geol map and text (in Japanese).

Saito G, Kazahaya K, Shinohara H, Stimac J, Kawanabe Y, 2001. Variation of volatile concentration in a magma system of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano deduced from melt inclusion analyses. J Volc Geotherm Res, 108: 11-31.

Ui T, Kobayashi T, 1988. Catastrophic pyroclastic flow eruption at Kikai caldera, 6300 years ago. Kagoshima Internatl Conf Volc Abs, p 396.

Kikai is a mostly submerged, 19-km-wide caldera near the northern end of the Ryukyu Islands south of Kyushu. Kikai was the source of one of the world's largest Holocene eruptions about 6300 years ago. Rhyolitic pyroclastic flows traveled across the sea for a total distance of 100 km to southern Kyushu, and ashfall reached the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. The eruption devastated southern and central Kyushu, which remained uninhabited for several centuries. Post-caldera eruptions formed Iodake lava dome and Inamuradake scoria cone, as well as submarine lava domes. Historical eruptions have occurred in the 20th century at or near Satsuma-Iojima (also known as Tokara-Iojima), a small 3 x 6 km island forming part of the NW caldera rim. Showa-Iojima lava dome (also known as Iojima-Shinto), a small island 2 km east of Tokara-Iojima, was formed during submarine eruptions in 1934 and 1935. Mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have occurred during the past few decades from Iodake, a rhyolitic lava dome at the eastern end of Tokara-Iojima.