Hakoneyama

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 35.233°N
  • 139.021°E

  • 1438 m
    4717 ft

  • 283020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

8 August-14 August 2001

Elevated seismicity had been recorded at Hakone during June 2001 to at least 8 August. The seismicity was associated with a small amount of inflation that was centered at the volcano. Earthquake hypocenters occurred at depths less than 5 km beneath the volcano. A small swarm was also recorded under the northern end of the Ashino-ko (caldera lake). JMA noted that the change in activity might not be a precursor to an eruption since similar activity has occurred in the past that was not followed by an eruption.

Source: Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)

Index of Weekly Reports


2001: August

Weekly Reports


8 August-14 August 2001

Elevated seismicity had been recorded at Hakone during June 2001 to at least 8 August. The seismicity was associated with a small amount of inflation that was centered at the volcano. Earthquake hypocenters occurred at depths less than 5 km beneath the volcano. A small swarm was also recorded under the northern end of the Ashino-ko (caldera lake). JMA noted that the change in activity might not be a precursor to an eruption since similar activity has occurred in the past that was not followed by an eruption.

Source: Volcano Research Center-Earthquake Research Institute (University of Tokyo)


Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

04/1991 (BGVN 16:04) Brief earthquake swarm in center of caldera


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

04/1991 (BGVN 16:04) Brief earthquake swarm in center of caldera

A swarm of ~300 earthquakes (M <= 2.5) was recorded between 1000 and 1300 on 22 April. Several of the earthquakes, located at 5 km depth in the central part of the caldera, were felt by area residents. Seismicity gradually declined, and had returned to normal by 24 April. No changes in surface activity were observed. Earthquake swarms have been recorded about once a year, including one in August 1990 (M <= 5.1), at the volcano's E foot. Hakone erupted phreatically about 3,000 years ago, and many fumaroles and hot springs remain active.

Information Contact: JMA.

Hakoneyama volcano is truncated by two overlapping calderas, the largest of which is 10 x 11 km wide. The calderas were formed as a result of two major explosive eruptions about 180,000 and 49,000-60,000 years ago. Scenic Lake Ashi lies between the SW caldera wall and a half dozen post-caldera lava domes that were constructed along a SW-NE trend cutting through the center of the calderas. Dome growth occurred progressively to the south, and the largest and youngest of these, Kamiyama, forms the high point of Hakoneyama. The calderas are breached to the east by the Hayakawa canyon. A phreatic explosion about 3000 years ago was followed by collapse of the NW side of Kamiyama, damming the Hayakawa valley and creating Lake Ashi. The latest magmatic eruptive activity about 2900 years ago produced a pyroclastic flow and a lava dome in the explosion crater, although phreatic eruptions took place as recently as the 12-13th centuries CE. Seismic swarms have occurred during the 20th century. Lake Ashi, along with major thermal areas in the caldera, forms a popular resort area SW of Tokyo.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1170 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) Owakudani, Hk-Ow 3-5 tephras
0050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE of Kamiyama, Hk-Ow2 tephra
1050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE of Kamiyama, Hk-Ow1 tephra
1200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) NW side of Kami-yama (Kanmuriga-take)
1400 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected) NW side of Kami-yama (Kanmuriga-take)
3700 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Radiocarbon (corrected) Futago-yama
6000 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Kami-yama, Hk-Km5 tephra

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Hakone


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Hakone Caldera


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Futagoyama
    Futago-yama
Dome 1065 m
Kamiyama
    Kami-yama
Dome 1438 m 35° 13' 48" N 139° 1' 26" E
Komagatake
    Komaga-take
Dome 1327 m
Kozukayama
    Kozuka-yama
Dome 859 m


Thermal
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Owakudani Thermal
Sounzan Thermal
Hakone volcano, seen here from the west, is a broad stratovolcano truncated by two large calderas. A group of dacitic lava domes was constructed in the center of the caldera. The highest dome, Kami-yama, forms the high point of the volcano, topped by the clouds in the center of the photo. The caldera was created during two large Pleistocene eruptions. The latest eruption at Hakone took place about 3000 years ago, although seismic swarms have occurred frequently during the 20th century.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
The slopes of a group of post-caldera dacitic lava domes rise at the left above Lake Ashi, which is constrained against the SW rim of Hakone caldera. Lake Ashi was formed when an avalanche from Kami-yama, the highest of the central lava domes, blocked river valleys that drain to the east through a breach in the caldera wall.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
Scenic Lake Ashi, seen here from the SE, occupies the SW corner of Hakone caldera. Hakone contains two calderas, the largest of which is 10 x 11 km wide. The arcuate caldera rim is at the left, and the slopes of a group of post-caldera cones form the right-hand shoreline. Post-caldera eruptions have constructed a half dozen lava domes along a SW-NE trend cutting through the center of the calderas. The latest eruption took place about 3000 years ago, although seismic swarms have occurred frequently during the 20th century.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1963 (Smithsonian Institution).
Aerial cable cars stretching across Owakudani provide a view of one of the many thermal areas in Hakone caldera. Hot spring resorts surround a complex of lava domes in the center of Hakone caldera, which is a popular vacation destination SW of Tokyo.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1963 (Smithsonian Institution).
Kami-yama, the highest of a group of lava domes forming the central cone complex of Hakone caldera, rises west of Ashinoko (Lake Ashi). The lake was formed about 3100 years ago when collapse of the NW side of Kami-yama dammed the Haya-kawa river valley at the north end of the lake (lower left). Dome and spine extrusion at Kami-yama about 200 radiocarbon-years later marks the last known eruptive activity of Hakone volcano.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Hakamata K, Sugiyama S, Imanaga I, Mannen K, Oki Y, 2005. K-Ar ages of Hakone volcano, Japan. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 50: 285-299 (in Japanese with English abs).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1996. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (second edition). Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 502 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 1975. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan. Tokyo: Japan Meteorological Agency, 119 p (in Japanese).

Japan Meteorological Agency, 2013. National Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes in Japan (fourth edition, English version). Japan Meteorological Agency.

Kobayashi M, Mannen K, Okuno M, Nakamura , Hakamata K, 2006. The Owakidani tephra group: a newly discovered post-magmatic eruption product of Hakano volcano, Japan. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 51: 245-256 (in Japanese with English abs).

Kobayashi M, Okuno M, Nakamura T, 1997. 14C ages of pyroclastic-flow deposits from central cones on the western slope of Old Somma of Hakone volcano, central Japan. Bull Volc Soc Japan (Kazan), 42: 355-358 (in Japanese).

Kudo T, Hoshizumi H, 2006-. Catalog of eruptive events within the last 10,000 years in Japan, database of Japanese active volcanoes. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/db099/eruption/index.html.

Kuno H, 1962. Japan, Taiwan and Marianas. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 11: 1-332.

Kuno H, Oki Y, Ogino K, Hirota S, 1970. Structure of the Hakone caldera as revealed by drilling. Bull Volc, 34: 713-725.

Nakano S, Yamamoto T, Iwaya T, Itoh J, Takada A, 2001-. Quaternary Volcanoes of Japan. Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.aist.go.jp/RIODB/strata/VOL_JP/.

Oki Y, Aramaki S, Nakamura K, Hakamata K, 1978. Volcanoes of Hakone, Izu and Oshima. Hakone: Hakone Town Office, 59 p.

Volcano Types

Complex
Caldera(s)
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
14,140
53,755
1,543,563
30,282,197

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Hakoneyama Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.