Towada

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 40.51°N
  • 140.88°E

  • 1011 m
    3316 ft

  • 283271
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Towada.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Towada.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Towada.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0915 Aug 17 Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Goshikiiwa (NE rim Nakanoumi crater)
0750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Nakanoumi, To-B tephra
4150 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa (Nakanoumi), To-C tephra
5550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa, To-D' tephra
6250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa, To-D tephra; Oguni Pumice
7250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa, To-E tephra; Nambu Pumice
8250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa, To-F tephra
9490 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Nakanoumi, To-G tephra; Shingo Pumice

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Photo Gallery


The 11-km-wide lake-filled Towada caldera formed during as many as six major explosive eruptions over a 40,000-year period ending about 13,000 years ago. This view from the south shows the western and northern caldera rims, which rise up to 500 m above the lake. Its bottom is 380 m below the lake surface. Major post-caldera eruptions occurred every 1-2000 years throughout the Holocene.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The jagged peninsula cutting across the center of the photo is the SW rim of Nakanoumi caldera. The 3-km-wide caldera was formed about 5400 years ago during the largest Holocene eruption from Towada volcano. The eruption was followed by collapse of the Goshikiiwa volcano, which had grown on the southern floor of Towada caldera. Breaching of the NW side of Goshikiiwa volcano allowed the waters of Lake Towada to fill the new caldera. Clouds drape the western rim of Towada caldera in the background.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The rounded lava dome at the upper right is Ogura-yama. It was formed at the end of the last eruption of Towada volcano, in 915 CE. Three ash-and-pumice eruptions were accompanied by the emplacement of the ca. 5 cu km Kemanai pyroclastic flow, which covered several large wooden buildings along the Yonesawa River. The Ogura-yama lava dome was constructed along the NE rim of the Nakanoumi caldera, whose SW rim forrms the peninsula in the center of the photo. The northern wall of Towada caldera appears in the distance.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The dramatic 11-km-wide, lake-filled Towada caldera, whose far northern wall is seen here in the distance, was created during a series of major explosive eruptions over a 40,000-year period ending about 13,000 years ago. The peninsula cutting across the center of the photo is the rim of Nakanoumi caldera, formed by collapse of Goshikiiwa volcano, which was constructed in the SSE corner of Towada caldera. The rounded Ogura-yama lava dome at the upper right was the source of the latest eruption of Towada in 915 CE.

Photo by Yukio Hayakawa (Gunma University).
See title for photo information.
A roadcut west of the Ninokura dam reveals a spectacular exposure of eruptive deposits from Towada volcano. The thick light-colored unit at the base is the Hachinohe ignimbrite, which was deposited about 13,000 years ago during the last of a series of explosive eruptions that resulted in the incremental formation of Towada's 11-km-wide caldera. The thinner light- and dark-colored deposits above the Hachinohe ignimbrite were produced by post-caldera eruptions, the most recent of which took place in 915 CE.

Photo by Yukio Hayakawa (Gunma University).
See title for photo information.
The spectacular 11-km-wide Towada caldera, seen in an aerial view from the east, formed during as many as six major explosive eruptions over a 40,000-year period ending about 13,000 years ago. The two peninsulas extending into the caldera lake are the rims of Nakanoumi caldera, truncating Goshikiiwa stratovolcano, which grew in the SSE section of the caldera. The rounded lava dome that was constructed at the tip of lower peninsula is Ogura-yama, the source of the latest eruption in 915 CE.

Copyrighted photo by Yoshihiro Ishizuka (Japanese Quaternary Volcanoes database, RIODB, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/strata/VOL_JP/EN/index.htm and Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.gsj.jp/).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


The following 2 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 116397-3 Pumice
NMNH 116397-4 Pumice

Affiliated Sites