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Towada

Photo of this volcano
  • Japan
  • Japan, Taiwan, Marianas
  • Caldera
  • 915 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 40.51°N
  • 140.88°E

  • 1011 m
    3316 ft

  • 283271
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Towada.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Towada.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Towada.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 8 Holocene eruptive periods.

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0915 Aug 17 Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Goshikiiwa (NE rim Nakanoumi crater)
0750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Nakanoumi, To-B tephra
4150 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa (Nakanoumi), To-C tephra
5550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa, To-D' tephra
6250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa, To-D tephra; Oguni Pumice
7250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa, To-E tephra; Nambu Pumice
8250 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Goshikiiwa, To-F tephra
9490 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Radiocarbon (corrected) Nakanoumi, To-G tephra; Shingo Pumice
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Towada.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Towada.

Photo Gallery

The 11-km-wide lake-filled Towada caldera formed during as many as six major explosive eruptions over a 40,000-year period ending about 13,000 years ago. This view from the south shows the western and northern caldera rims, which rise up to 500 m above the lake. Its bottom is 380 m below the lake surface. Major post-caldera eruptions occurred every 1-2000 years throughout the Holocene.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The jagged peninsula cutting across the center of the photo is the SW rim of Nakanoumi caldera. The 3-km-wide caldera was formed about 5400 years ago during the largest Holocene eruption from Towada volcano. The eruption was followed by collapse of the Goshikiiwa volcano, which had grown on the southern floor of Towada caldera. Breaching of the NW side of Goshikiiwa volcano allowed the waters of Lake Towada to fill the new caldera. Clouds drape the western rim of Towada caldera in the background.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The rounded lava dome at the upper right is Ogura-yama. It was formed at the end of the last eruption of Towada volcano, in 915 CE. Three ash-and-pumice eruptions were accompanied by the emplacement of the ca. 5 cu km Kemanai pyroclastic flow, which covered several large wooden buildings along the Yonesawa River. The Ogura-yama lava dome was constructed along the NE rim of the Nakanoumi caldera, whose SW rim forrms the peninsula in the center of the photo. The northern wall of Towada caldera appears in the distance.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1977 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The dramatic 11-km-wide, lake-filled Towada caldera, whose far northern wall is seen here in the distance, was created during a series of major explosive eruptions over a 40,000-year period ending about 13,000 years ago. The peninsula cutting across the center of the photo is the rim of Nakanoumi caldera, formed by collapse of Goshikiiwa volcano, which was constructed in the SSE corner of Towada caldera. The rounded Ogura-yama lava dome at the upper right was the source of the latest eruption of Towada in 915 CE.

Photo by Yukio Hayakawa (Gunma University).
See title for photo information.
A roadcut west of the Ninokura dam reveals a spectacular exposure of eruptive deposits from Towada volcano. The thick light-colored unit at the base is the Hachinohe ignimbrite, which was deposited about 13,000 years ago during the last of a series of explosive eruptions that resulted in the incremental formation of Towada's 11-km-wide caldera. The thinner light- and dark-colored deposits above the Hachinohe ignimbrite were produced by post-caldera eruptions, the most recent of which took place in 915 CE.

Photo by Yukio Hayakawa (Gunma University).
See title for photo information.
The spectacular 11-km-wide Towada caldera, seen in an aerial view from the east, formed during as many as six major explosive eruptions over a 40,000-year period ending about 13,000 years ago. The two peninsulas extending into the caldera lake are the rims of Nakanoumi caldera, truncating Goshikiiwa stratovolcano, which grew in the SSE section of the caldera. The rounded lava dome that was constructed at the tip of lower peninsula is Ogura-yama, the source of the latest eruption in 915 CE.

Copyrighted photo by Yoshihiro Ishizuka (Japanese Quaternary Volcanoes database, RIODB, http://riodb02.ibase.aist.go.jp/strata/VOL_JP/EN/index.htm and Geol Surv Japan, AIST, http://www.gsj.jp/).
See title for photo information.
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.

Title: Computer Generated Geologic Map of Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1990
Series: No 22
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:2,000,000
Map of Computer Generated Geologic Map of Japan
Title: China, Japan, Soviet Union
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: Japan, USSR, China
Year: 1988
Series: ONC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of China, Japan, Soviet Union
Title: Japan, Soviet Union
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: Japan, USSR
Year: 1987
Series: TPC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of Japan, Soviet Union
Title: (A) Q Maps of Japan Landforms, Geol, Tect: NEast
Publisher: Univ of Tokyo Press & Japan Association for Quaternary Research
Country: Japan
Year: 1987
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of (A) Q Maps of Japan Landforms, Geol, Tect: NEast
Publisher: Soviet Ministry
Country: USSR
Year: 1984
Series: B1754
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of
Title: Historical Japan
Publisher: National Geographic Society
Country: Japan
Year: 1984
Series: National Geographic
Map Type: Geographic
Scale: 1:2,982,000
Map of Historical Japan
Title: Geol Map of Japan/ Geol Atlas
Publisher: Geol Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1982
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Geol Map of Japan/ Geol Atlas
Title: North Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Series: CIM 1:1 mil
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of North Japan
Title: North Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of North Japan
Title: North Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1980
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of North Japan
Title: Geological Map of Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1978
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Geological Map of Japan
Title: Geological Map of Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1978
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Geological Map of Japan
Title: Distribution Map of Hot Springs in Japan
Publisher: Geological Survey of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1975
Series: 1:2,000,000
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:2,000,000
Map of Distribution Map of Hot Springs in Japan
Title: (Japanese) Geol map of Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1974
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of (Japanese) Geol map of Japan
Title: Landform Classification
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown (Land)
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Landform Classification
Title: Land Use
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown (Land)
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Land Use
Title: Population Distribution
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Population Distribution
Title: River Systems
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1972
Series: from Natl Atlas Japan
Map Type: Unknown
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of River Systems
Title: North Japan
Publisher: Geographical Survey Institute of Japan
Country: Japan
Year: 1966
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of North Japan
Title: Aomori
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1955
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Aomori
Title: Hachinohe
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1955
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Hachinohe
Title: Hakodate
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1954
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Hakodate
Title: Hakodate
Publisher: US Army Map Service
Country: Japan
Year: 1943
Series: AMS
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Hakodate
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 2 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections, and may be availble for research (contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager). Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description Lava Source Collection Date
NMNH 116397-3 Pumice -- --
NMNH 116397-4 Pumice -- --
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