Ksudach

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 51.8°N
  • 157.53°E

  • 1079 m
    3539 ft

  • 300050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Ksudach.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Ksudach.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Ksudach.

Ksudach is unique among Kamchatka volcanoes in its morphology and geologic history. It is a large, low-angle stratovolcano, constructed of alternating basaltic-andesitic lavas and dacitic pyroclastics, and is truncated by an intricate complex of five calderas. An array of post-caldera structures is truncated by later calderas, the last three of which formed during the Holocene, about 7900 and 5000 BCE and about 240 CE. The latter eruption was the second largest in Kamchatka during the Holocene, and produced about 20 cu km of rhyodacitic airfall tephra and 3-4 cu km of pyroclastic flows. The eastern part of the caldera complex contains two lakes, the northern of which forms an embayment in Stubel Crater, a low-angle cone that began forming about 1600 years ago in the youngest caldera. The only historical eruption, in 1907, originated from Stubel Crater and was one of Kamchatka's largest in historical time.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1907 Mar 28 (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Stubel, KSht3 tephra
1750 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Stubel, KSht2 tephra
1000 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Stubel, KSht1 tephra
0700 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0350 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) Stubel
0240 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 6 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach V caldera, Tephra layer KS1
0200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
3000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Tephra layer KSbt
4100 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
4550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
4750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology SW part of caldera IV (Paryashchiy Utes)
4900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS2
5200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS3
5600 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
7900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach III caldera, Tephra layer KS4

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Kskhudach | Ksudatsch | Voniuchi Khrebet | Vonyuchi Khrebet | Sjadukta | Wonjutschij Chrebet


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Kamenistaya Cone 1047 m


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Stubel Crater
    Shtyubel'
    Schtjubelja
Maar 630 m 51° 49' 0" N 157° 32' 0" E


Domes
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Chernyi Utes Dome
Domeshnyaya Dome
Nezametnaya Dome
Paryashchyi Greben Dome
Paryashchyi Utes Dome
Sfinks Dome
Stena Dome
Tonkaya Dome
Zamok Dome
The NE wall of Stubel crater is capped by bedded layers of pyroclastic-fall, pyroclastic-flow, and pyroclastic-surge deposits from the 1907 eruption. Three maar craters, 1.5, 0.6, and 0.4 km wide, were formed along a NE-SW line. The eruption reduced the height of Stubel cone by about 650 m. The irregularly configured Stubel lake quickly filled the craters. The NE wall of Ksudach V caldera, inside which Stubel cone was constructed, forms the top of the photo.

Photo by Yuri Doubik (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
One of the largest 20th-century eruptions in Kamchatka took place in March 1907 from Stubel Crater (center) within the Ksudach caldera. Plinian explosive eruptions deposited 1.5 cu km of ash that extended as far as 1000 km to the NNE. Plinian activity was followed by a laterally directed explosion accompanying destruction of the Stubel cone. Pyroclastic flows and surges traveled to the NW, surmounting the Ksudach caldera walls. The eruption formed a chain of three craters (seen here from the NE) and lowered the height of Stubel cone by about 650 m.

Photo by Yuri Doubik (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
Lake Kluchevoe occupies the Ksudach IV caldera, which was formed during major explosive eruptions about 6000 years ago. This view looks across the caldera lake to the south caldera wall. The rim of the 700-m-high caldera forms the right-hand horizon. The Ksudach IV caldera is nested within the Ksudach II caldera, an older late-Pleistocene caldera whose rim forms the left-hand horizon. The dark mass across the lake at the left-center is Zamok lava dome.

Photo by Andrei Tvsestov.
The Ksudach IV caldera, now partly filled by lake Kluchevoe, was formed during major explosive eruptions about 6000 years ago. This view looks across the caldera lake to the SE walls of two calderas. The rim of the 700-m-high inner Ksudach IV caldera wall forms a bench that appears to be about 2/3 of the way up the cliff. The 3.5 x 4 km Ksudach IV caldera was the second Ksudach caldera to form during the Holocene. It was nested within the 6 x 7.5 km late-Pleistocene Ksudach II caldera, whose rim forms the horizon.

Photo by Oleg Volynets (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
A major explosive eruption about 1800 years ago produced 10-15 cu km of tephra, including widespread pyroclastic flows, associated with formation of the 3.5 x 4.5 km Ksudach V caldera. The NE caldera wall forms the cliff at the upper left. Soon after this eruption, about 1600 years ago, the low-angle Stubel cone began growing in the center of the caldera. A major eruption in 1907 created three large NE-SW-trending maar craters that extend across the center of the photo. The craters have been largely filled by an irregular caldera lake.

Photo by Nikolai Smelov, 1996 (courtesy of Vera Ponomareva, Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
Ksudach is unique among Kamchatka volcanoes in its morphology and geologic history. The large, low-angle stratovolcano, seen here from the SW, is truncated by an intricate complex of five calderas. The northern of two caldera lakes (center) forms an embayment in Stubel Crater, a low-angle cone that began forming about 1600 years ago in the youngest caldera, Ksudach V. The only historical eruption of Ksudach, in 1907, originated from Stubel Crater and was one of Kamchatka's largest in historical time.

Photo by Nikolai Smelov, 1996 (courtesy of Vera Ponomareva, Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Andrews B J, Gardner J E, Tait S, Ponomareva V, Melekestsev I V, 2007. Dynamics of the 1800 14C yr BP caldera-forming eruption of Ksudach volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. In: Eichelberger J, Gordeev E, Izbekov P, Kasahara M, Lees J (eds), Volcanism and Subduction: the Kamchatka Region, {Amer Geophys Union, Geophys Monogr}, 172: 325-342.

Bindeman I N, Leonov V L, Izbekov P E, Ponomareva V V, Watts K E, Shipley N K, Perepelov A B, Bazanova L I, Jicha B R, Singer B S, Schmitt A K, Portnyagin M V, Chen C H, 2010. Large-volume silicic volcanism in Kamchatka: Ar-Ar and U- Pb ages, isotopic, and geochemical characteristics of major pre-Holocene caldera-forming eruptions. J Volc Geotherm Res, 189: 57-80.

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Kirianov V Y, 1996. The caldera-forming eruption of Ksudach volcano about cal. A.D. 240: the greatest explosive event of our era in Kamchatka, Russia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 70: 49-65.

Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1995. Ages of calderas, large explosive craters and active volcanoes in the Kuril-Kamchatka region, Russia. Bull Volc, 57: 383-402.

Erlich E N, 1986. Geology of the calderas of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands with comparison to calderas of Japan and the Aleutians, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 86-291: 1-300.

Fedotov S A, Masurenkov Y P (eds), 1991. Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 2 volumes.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kozhemyaka N N, 1995. Active volcanoes of Kamchatka: types and growth time of cones, total volumes of erupted material, productivity, and composition of rocks. Volc Seism, 16: 581-594 (English translation).

Lamb H H, 1970. Volcanic dust in the atmosphere; with a chronology and assessment of its meteorological significance. Phil Trans Roy Soc London, Ser A, 266: 425-533.

Macias J L, Sheridan M F, 1995. Products of the 1907 eruption of Shtyubel' volcano, Ksudach caldera, Kamchatka, Russia. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 107: 969-986.

Masurenkov Y P (ed), 1980. Volcanic Center: Structure, Dynamics and Products. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 299 p (in Russian).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitskiy L D, 1995. Holocene catastrophic caldera-forming eruptions of Ksudach volcano, Kamchatka. Volc Seism, 17: 395-422 (English translation).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1990. Ages and dynamics of development of the active volcanoes of the Kurile-Kamchatka region. Internatl Geol Rev, 32: 436-448.

Melekestsev I V, Sulerzhitsky L D, 1987. Ksudach volcano (Kamchatka) over the last ten thousand years. Volc Seism, 1987(4): 28-39 (English translation 1990, 9: 537-556).

Ponomareva V V, 1992. . (pers. comm.).

Selyangin O B, 1987. Geological structure and evolution of the calderas of Ksudach volcano. Volc Seism, 1987(5): p 16-27 (English translation 1990, 9: 690-713).

Vlasov G M, 1967. Kamchatka, Kuril, and Komandorskiye Islands: geological description. In: {Geol of the USSR}, Moscow, 31: 1-827.

Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.

Volynets O N, Ponomareva V V, Braitseva O A, Melekestsev I V, Chen C H, 1999. Holocene eruptive history of Ksudach volcanic massif, South Kamchatka: evolution of a large magmatic chamber. J Volc Geotherm Res, 91: 23-42.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Caldera(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Maar(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Dacite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
244
3,850

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Ksudach Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.