Ksudach

Photo of this volcano
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 51.844°N
  • 157.572°E

  • 1079 m
    3539 ft

  • 300050
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Ksudach.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Ksudach.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Ksudach.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1907 Mar 28 (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations Stubel, KSht3 tephra
1750 (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Stubel, KSht2 tephra
1000 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Stubel, KSht1 tephra
0700 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0350 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) Stubel
0240 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 6 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach V caldera, Tephra layer KS1
0200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
3000 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Tephra layer KSbt
4100 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
4550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology
4750 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology SW part of caldera IV (Paryashchiy Utes)
4900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS2
5200 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach IV caldera, Tephra layer KS3
5600 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (corrected)
7900 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ksudach III caldera, Tephra layer KS4

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Photo Gallery


The NE wall of Stubel crater is capped by bedded layers of pyroclastic-fall, pyroclastic-flow, and pyroclastic-surge deposits from the 1907 eruption. Three maar craters, 1.5, 0.6, and 0.4 km wide, were formed along a NE-SW line. The eruption reduced the height of Stubel cone by about 650 m. The irregularly configured Stubel lake quickly filled the craters. The NE wall of Ksudach V caldera, inside which Stubel cone was constructed, forms the top of the photo.

Photo by Yuri Doubik (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
See title for photo information.
One of the largest 20th-century eruptions in Kamchatka took place in March 1907 from Stubel Crater (center) within the Ksudach caldera. Plinian explosive eruptions deposited 1.5 cu km of ash that extended as far as 1000 km to the NNE. Plinian activity was followed by a laterally directed explosion accompanying destruction of the Stubel cone. Pyroclastic flows and surges traveled to the NW, surmounting the Ksudach caldera walls. The eruption formed a chain of three craters (seen here from the NE) and lowered the height of Stubel cone by about 650 m.

Photo by Yuri Doubik (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
See title for photo information.
Lake Kluchevoe occupies the Ksudach IV caldera, which was formed during major explosive eruptions about 6000 years ago. This view looks across the caldera lake to the south caldera wall. The rim of the 700-m-high caldera forms the right-hand horizon. The Ksudach IV caldera is nested within the Ksudach II caldera, an older late-Pleistocene caldera whose rim forms the left-hand horizon. The dark mass across the lake at the left-center is Zamok lava dome.

Photo by Andrei Tvsestov.
See title for photo information.
The Ksudach IV caldera, now partly filled by lake Kluchevoe, was formed during major explosive eruptions about 6000 years ago. This view looks across the caldera lake to the SE walls of two calderas. The rim of the 700-m-high inner Ksudach IV caldera wall forms a bench that appears to be about 2/3 of the way up the cliff. The 3.5 x 4 km Ksudach IV caldera was the second Ksudach caldera to form during the Holocene. It was nested within the 6 x 7.5 km late-Pleistocene Ksudach II caldera, whose rim forms the horizon.

Photo by Oleg Volynets (Institute of Volcanology, Petropavlovsk).
See title for photo information.
A major explosive eruption about 1800 years ago produced 10-15 cu km of tephra, including widespread pyroclastic flows, associated with formation of the 3.5 x 4.5 km Ksudach V caldera. The NE caldera wall forms the cliff at the upper left. Soon after this eruption, about 1600 years ago, the low-angle Stubel cone began growing in the center of the caldera. A major eruption in 1907 created three large NE-SW-trending maar craters that extend across the center of the photo. The craters have been largely filled by an irregular caldera lake.

Photo by Nikolai Smelov, 1996 (courtesy of Vera Ponomareva, Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
See title for photo information.
Ksudach is unique among Kamchatka volcanoes in its morphology and geologic history. The large, low-angle stratovolcano, seen here from the SW, is truncated by an intricate complex of five calderas. The northern of two caldera lakes (center) forms an embayment in Stubel Crater, a low-angle cone that began forming about 1600 years ago in the youngest caldera, Ksudach V. The only historical eruption of Ksudach, in 1907, originated from Stubel Crater and was one of Kamchatka's largest in historical time.

Photo by Nikolai Smelov, 1996 (courtesy of Vera Ponomareva, Institute of Volcanic Geology and Geochemistry, Petropavlovsk).
See title for photo information.

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


The following 17 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections. Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description
NMNH 116556-10 Dacite pumice
NMNH 116556-13 Allivalite
NMNH 116556-50 Volcanic ash
NMNH 116556-54 Pumice
NMNH 116556-55 Andesite pumice
NMNH 116556-56 Pumice
NMNH 116556-57 Andesite pumice
NMNH 116556-58 Pumice
NMNH 116556-59 Andesite
NMNH 116556-64 Andesite
NMNH 116556-67 Pumice
NMNH 116556-69 Andesite
NMNH 116556-79 Andesite
NMNH 116556-80 Andesite
NMNH 116556-81 Dacite
NMNH 116556-82 Dacite
NMNH 116556-84 Basalt

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