Opala

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 52.543°N
  • 157.339°E

  • 2439 m
    8000 ft

  • 300080
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Opala.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Opala.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Opala.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
300080

1776 CE

2439 m / 8000 ft

52.543°N
157.339°E

Volcano Types

Caldera
Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Minor
Dacite
Rhyolite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
22
22
50
58,949

Geological Summary

Steep-sided, conical Opala stratovolcano is one of the most dramatic volcanoes of southern Kamchatka. The 2439-m-high volcano was constructed during the late-Pleistocene to Holocene at the northern end of the 12 x 14 km, 40,000-year-old Opala caldera. The volcano has produced andesitic-dacitic lavas and tephras through most of the Holocene. The latest major explosive eruption formed the prominent Barany Amphitheater on the SE flank about 1500 years ago, producing a voluminous 9-10 cu km regional tephra marker layer of rhyolitic composition. The 2 x 2.5 km crater is filled by a lava dome 1 km wide. Mild explosive eruptions have been reported from summit and flank vents in historical time, although no associated tephra deposits have been found. Recent tephrochronological work has revealed evidence, however, for a large explosive eruption from the summit crater about 300 years ago.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Braitseva O, Ponomareva V, Melekestsev I, Sulerzhitsky L, Pevzner M, 2002-. Holocene Kamchatka volcanoes. http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/volcanoes/holocene/main/main.htm.

Erlich E N, 1986. Geology of the calderas of Kamchatka and Kurile Islands with comparison to calderas of Japan and the Aleutians, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Open-File Rpt, 86-291: 1-300.

Erlich E N, Gorshkov G S (eds), 1979. Quaternary volcanism and tectonics in Kamchatka. Bull Volc, 42:1-4.

Fedotov S A, Masurenkov Y P (eds), 1991. Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka. Moscow: Nauka Pub, 2 volumes.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Kozhemyaka N N, 1996. Long-lived volcanic centers of Kamchatka: types of cones, growth time spans, volumes of erupted material, productivities, rock proportions, and tectonic settings. Volc Seism, 17: 621-636 (English translation).

Melekestsev I V, Braitseva O A, Bazanova L I, Ponomareva V V, Sulerzhitskiy L D, 1996. A particular type of catastrophic explosive eruptions with reference to the Holocene subcaldera eruptions at Khangar, Khodutka Maar, and Baraniy Amfiteatr volcanoes in Kamchatka. Volc Seism, 18: 135-160 (English translation).

Melekestsev I V, Felitsyn S B, Kiryanov V Y, 1991. The eruption of Opala in A.D. 500 -- the largest explosive eruption in Kamchatka in the Christian era. Volc Seism, 1991(1): 21-34 (English translation 1992, 13: 21-36).

Ponomareva V V, Melekestsev I V, Dirksen O V, 2006. Sector collapses and large landslides on late Pleistocene-Holocene volcanoes in Kamchatka, Russia. J Volc Geotherm Res, 158: 117-138.

Popruzhenko S V, 1984. On the formation of the Opala caldera. Volc Seism, 1984(6): 111-113 (English translation 1988, 6: 953-958).

Vlodavetz V I, Piip B I, 1959. Kamchatka and Continental Areas of Asia. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 8: 1-110.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1894 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
[ 1854 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
[ 1827 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain    
1776 Oct 23 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
0610 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) SE flank (Barany Amphitheater)
1550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
3500 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Opalskaia Sopka | Apalskaia Sopka | Apachinskaia Sopka | Opalinskaja | Opalnaja | Koschelewa Peak | Opalnaja

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Ustup Cone

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Barany Amphitheater
    Baranii Amphitheater
Crater

Domes

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Skalistaya Dome
Stolovaya Dome

Photo Gallery


The prominent conical Opala volcano, seen here from the east, lies about 50 km west of the main volcanic arc in southern Kamchatka. The 2475-m-high stratovolcano was constructed at the north end of the 10 x 12 km, 40,000-year-old Opala caldera. Post-caldera Holocene volcanism also included the extrusion of lava domes and rhyolitic lava flows. The latest major explosion formed the Barany amphitheater on the SE flank about 1500 years ago. Mild explosive eruptions of uncertain validity have been reported in historical time.

Photo by Andrei Tsvetkov.
Late Pleistocene-Holocene cinder cones in the foreground dot the southern part of Tolmachev Dol (Tolmachev Plateau) with conical Opala stratovolcano in the background. Tolmachev Dol is a large volcanic highland NE of Opala volcano that is blanketed with numerous postglacial cinder cones. The cones and associated lava fields cover a broad area around scenic Lake Tolmachev halfway beween Opala and Gorely volcanoes.

Copyrighted photo by Leopold Sulerzhitsky (Holocene Kamchataka volcanoes; http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/volcanoes/holocene/main/main.htm).
This massive shield volcano, extensively eroded by glaciers, is the early Pleistocene Bolshaya Ipelka shield volcano, the largest volcanic structure of southern Kamchatka. A single unnamed Holocene cinder cone is found on the southern flank of Bolshaya Ipelka. The conical stratovolcano to the east (right) is Opala, which was constructed along the northern rim of a large 12 x 14 km wide caldera, whose floor is largely snow free in this NASA Space Shuttle image.

NASA Space Shuttle image ISS004-E-11691, 2002 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Opala Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.