St. Paul Island

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  • United States
  • Alaska
  • Shield
  • 1280 BCE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 57.18°N
  • 170.3°W

  • 203 m
    666 ft

  • 314010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for St. Paul Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for St. Paul Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for St. Paul Island.

The largest of the Pribilof Islands, St. Paul contains numerous young cinder cones. St. Paul Island consists of a 110 sq km area of coalescing small basaltic-to-trachybasaltic shield volcanoes capped by cinder cones, similar in style to the Snake Rive Plain volcanism in Idaho. The most widely exposed lava flows originated from E-W-trending vents in the Bogoslof Hill area in the center of the island and a NE-trending row of cinder cones in the Rush Hill area at the west side of the island. Subaerial activity at St. Paul began about 540,000 years ago and produced a basaltic lava platform. Later eruptions produced a series of monogenetic vents and two small shield volcanoes. Bogoslof Hill in the center of the island and Hutchinson Hill, forming isolated Northeast Point, which is connected by a low narrow isthmus to the rest of the island, were formed during the Pleistocene. The youngest vent is the Fox Hill cinder cone on the western side of the island that produced a lava flow about 3200 years ago that traveled into the sea at Southwest Point.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1943 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Several km SW of St. Paul
1280 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) West side (Fox Hill)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Saint Paul Island


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Black Bluffs Tuff cone 57° 6' 0" N 170° 16' 0" W
Bogoslof Hill Shield volcano 180 m 57° 11' 0" N 170° 18' 0" W
Crater Hill Cinder cone 160 m 57° 10' 30" N 170° 20' 0" W
Fox Hill Cinder cone 57° 15' 0" N 170° 23' 0" W
Hill 404 Cinder cone 123 m 57° 10' 30" N 170° 19' 0" W
Hutchinson Hill Shield volcano 30 m 57° 15' 0" N 170° 7' 0" W
Lake Hill Cinder cone 57° 11' 0" N 170° 16' 0" W
North Hill
    Pot Hill
Cinder cone 129 m 57° 12' 0" N 170° 19' 0" W
Polovina Hill Cinder cone 143 m 57° 11' 0" N 170° 12' 0" W
Ridge Wall Cinder cone 57° 9' 0" N 170° 22' 0" W
Rush Hill Cinder cone 203 m 57° 11' 0" N 170° 25' 0" W


Craters
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cone Hill Fissure vent 168 m 57° 10' 0" N 170° 22' 0" W
Lake-filled Crater Hill on the western side of St. Paul is one of many craters dotting the island. Reindeer (caribou) can be seen wading along the shores of the lake. St. Paul is the largest of the Pribilof Islands and consists of a 110 sq km area of coalescing small basaltic shield volcanoes capped by a central cinder cone. The Fox Hill lava flow at the far western end of the island is estimated to be only a few thousand years old.

Photo by V.B. Scheffer (published in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1028-F).
Crater Hill on the western side of St. Paul is one of many pyroclastic cones dotting the island. The crater, which contains an elongated lake, is seen here from the NE. St. Paul, the largest of the Pribilof Islands, consists of a 110 sq km area of coalescing small basaltic shield volcanoes capped by a central cinder cone. The Fox Hill lava flow at the far western end of the island is estimated to be only a few thousand years old.

Photo by Art Sowls, 1988 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service).
A Space Shuttle image of St. Paul Island shows Northeast Point at the upper right, Reef Point at the bottom-center, and Southwest Point at the left. Snow-covered Big Lake lies SW of Northeast Point, Bogoslof Hill near the center of the island, and Rush Hill is the cone along the NW coast. Rush Hill produced lava flows from NE-trending fissures. The 110 sq km island is the largest of the Pribilof Islands and contains more than a dozen basaltic cinder cones and associated lava flows.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS099-728-21, 2000 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Barth T F W, 1956. Geology and petrology of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1028-F: 101-160.

Cox A, Hopkins D M, Dalrymple G B, 1966. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: Pribilof Islands, Alaska.. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 77: 883-910.

Feeley T C, Winer G S, 2009. Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska. J Volc Geotherm Res, 182: 57-66.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Jaggar T A, 1931d. St. Paul Island in the Pribilof Group. Volcano Lett, 335: 1-4.

Smith R L, Shaw H R, 1975. Igneous-related geothermal systems. U S Geol Surv Circ, 726: 58-83.

Winer G S, Feeley T C, Cosca M A, 2004. Basaltic volcanism in the Bering Sea: geochronology and volcanic evolution of St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. J Volc Geotherm Res, 134: 277-301.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

Volcano Types

Shield
Cinder cone(s)
Tuff cone
Fissure vent

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Minor
Rhyolite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
582
582
582
783

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of St. Paul Island Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.