St. Paul Island

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  • United States
  • Alaska
  • Shield
  • 1280 BCE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 57.18°N
  • 170.3°W

  • 203 m
    666 ft

  • 314010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for St. Paul Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for St. Paul Island.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for St. Paul Island.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
314010

1280 BCE

203 m / 666 ft

57.18°N
170.3°W

Volcano Types

Shield
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Tuff cone
Fissure vent

Rock Types

Major
Trachybasalt / Tephrite Basanite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Minor
Rhyolite

Tectonic Setting

Intraplate
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
582
582
582
783

Geological Summary

The largest of the Pribilof Islands, St. Paul contains numerous young cinder cones. St. Paul Island consists of a 110 sq km area of coalescing small basaltic-to-trachybasaltic shield volcanoes capped by cinder cones, similar in style to the Snake Rive Plain volcanism in Idaho. The most widely exposed lava flows originated from E-W-trending vents in the Bogoslof Hill area in the center of the island and a NE-trending row of cinder cones in the Rush Hill area at the west side of the island. Subaerial activity at St. Paul began about 540,000 years ago and produced a basaltic lava platform. Later eruptions produced a series of monogenetic vents and two small shield volcanoes. Bogoslof Hill in the center of the island and Hutchinson Hill, forming isolated Northeast Point, which is connected by a low narrow isthmus to the rest of the island, were formed during the Pleistocene. The youngest vent is the Fox Hill cinder cone on the western side of the island that produced a lava flow about 3200 years ago that traveled into the sea at Southwest Point.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Barth T F W, 1956. Geology and petrology of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska. U S Geol Surv Bull, 1028-F: 101-160.

Cox A, Hopkins D M, Dalrymple G B, 1966. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: Pribilof Islands, Alaska.. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 77: 883-910.

Feeley T C, Winer G S, 2009. Volcano hazards and potential risks on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska. J Volc Geotherm Res, 182: 57-66.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Jaggar T A, 1931d. St. Paul Island in the Pribilof Group. Volcano Lett, 335: 1-4.

Smith R L, Shaw H R, 1975. Igneous-related geothermal systems. U S Geol Surv Circ, 726: 58-83.

Winer G S, Feeley T C, Cosca M A, 2004. Basaltic volcanism in the Bering Sea: geochronology and volcanic evolution of St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. J Volc Geotherm Res, 134: 277-301.

Wood C A, Kienle J (eds), 1990. Volcanoes of North America. Cambridge, England: Cambridge Univ Press, 354 p.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
[ 1943 ] [ Unknown ] Uncertain     Several km SW of St. Paul
1280 BCE ± 40 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) West side (Fox Hill)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Saint Paul Island

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Black Bluffs Tuff cone 57° 6' 0" N 170° 16' 0" W
Bogoslof Hill Shield volcano 180 m 57° 11' 0" N 170° 18' 0" W
Crater Hill Pyroclastic cone 160 m 57° 10' 30" N 170° 20' 0" W
Fox Hill Pyroclastic cone 57° 15' 0" N 170° 23' 0" W
Hill 404 Pyroclastic cone 123 m 57° 10' 30" N 170° 19' 0" W
Hutchinson Hill Shield volcano 30 m 57° 15' 0" N 170° 7' 0" W
Lake Hill Pyroclastic cone 57° 11' 0" N 170° 16' 0" W
North Hill
    Pot Hill
Pyroclastic cone 129 m 57° 12' 0" N 170° 19' 0" W
Polovina Hill Pyroclastic cone 143 m 57° 11' 0" N 170° 12' 0" W
Ridge Wall Pyroclastic cone 57° 9' 0" N 170° 22' 0" W
Rush Hill Pyroclastic cone 203 m 57° 11' 0" N 170° 25' 0" W

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Cone Hill Fissure vent 168 m 57° 10' 0" N 170° 22' 0" W

Photo Gallery


Lake-filled Crater Hill on the western side of St. Paul is one of many craters dotting the island. Reindeer (caribou) can be seen wading along the shores of the lake. St. Paul is the largest of the Pribilof Islands and consists of a 110 sq km area of coalescing small basaltic shield volcanoes capped by a central cinder cone. The Fox Hill lava flow at the far western end of the island is estimated to be only a few thousand years old.

Photo by V.B. Scheffer (published in U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1028-F).
Crater Hill on the western side of St. Paul is one of many pyroclastic cones dotting the island. The crater, which contains an elongated lake, is seen here from the NE. St. Paul, the largest of the Pribilof Islands, consists of a 110 sq km area of coalescing small basaltic shield volcanoes capped by a central cinder cone. The Fox Hill lava flow at the far western end of the island is estimated to be only a few thousand years old.

Photo by Art Sowls, 1988 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service).
A Space Shuttle image of St. Paul Island shows Northeast Point at the upper right, Reef Point at the bottom-center, and Southwest Point at the left. Snow-covered Big Lake lies SW of Northeast Point, Bogoslof Hill near the center of the island, and Rush Hill is the cone along the NW coast. Rush Hill produced lava flows from NE-trending fissures. The 110 sq km island is the largest of the Pribilof Islands and contains more than a dozen basaltic cinder cones and associated lava flows.

NASA Space Shuttle image STS099-728-21, 2000 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of St. Paul Island Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.