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Belknap

Photo of this volcano
  • United States
  • Canada and Western USA
  • Shield(s)
  • 480 CE
  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 44.285°N
  • 121.841°W

  • 2095 m
    6873 ft

  • 322060
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Belknap.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Belknap.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Belknap.

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.

Eruptive History

There is data available for 4 Holocene eruptive periods.

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
0480 (?) Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) Belknap Crater
0800 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 2 Radiocarbon (corrected) South Belknap and Twin Craters
1030 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Radiocarbon (corrected) Little Belknap
5050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Magnetism Tamolitch lava flow
Deformation History

There is no Deformation History data available for Belknap.

Emission History

There is no Emissions History data available for Belknap.

Photo Gallery

The broad Belknap shield volcano at the left, viewed from Sand Mountain volcano to its NW, with the Three Sisters volcanoes in the background, is one of the youngest volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades. The latest dated lava flow from Belknap volcano traveled 15 km west to the McKenzie River, beyond the right margin of this photo, from a vent on the NE side of Belknap about 1500 years ago.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1981 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Little Belknap shield volcano, seen here from the side of Belknap volcano on the west with Black Crater in the background, was formed about 2900 years ago. Lava flows from Little Belknap, buttressed against the higher Belknap volcano on the west, spread primarily to the east.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1982 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The McKenzie Pass area in the central Oregon Cascades contains one of the largest concentrations of youthful volcanism in the United States. Belknap shield volcano, seen here from Black Crater to the SE, is capped by a snow-covered pyroclastic cone. Lava flows from Belknap and the smaller Little Belknap shield volcano in front of it cover nearly 100 sq km. Most of the largely unvegetated flows were erupted between about 2900 and 1500 years ago.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Little Belknap (upper left) is an example of a small shield volcano in a continental margin setting. Little Belknap was constructed on the east flank of Belknap volcano and spread fresh-looking lava flows over the McKenzie Pass area of the central Oregon Cascades about 2900 years ago. Collapsed lava tubes that fed the flows diverge radially away from the summit. The summit pinnacle of Mount Washington appears at the right beyond the Little Belknap lava apron.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Lava flows from Little Belknap shield volcano in the central Cascade Range of Oregon on the right skyline diverge around a "kipuka," a forested island of pre-eruption terrain in the center of the photo. "Kipuka" is a Hawaiian term for older land surrounded by lava flows. In some cases the surface of the kipuka may be lower than the adjacent lava.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The young lava flow in the foreground, with snow-capped Mount Jefferson in the background, was erupted about 2600-2900 years ago from Yapoah cinder cone on the north flank of North Sister volcano. Lava flows in the middle of the photo originated from Little Belknap shield volcano, part of one of the largest concentrations of youthful volcanism in the continental United States: the McKenzie Pass area of the central Oregon Cascade Range.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
Lava flows in the foreground originated about 1505 years ago from the breached South Belknap cinder cone below the skyline at the left center. South Belknap cinder cone lies below Belknap Crater, a pyroclastic cone capping the Belknap shield volcano. The low peak on the right skyline is Little Belknap, a small shield volcano constructed on the east flank of the Belknap shield volcano. Largely unvegetated lava flows cover nearly 100 sq km in the McKenzie Pass area.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
The South Belknap cinder cone on the middle left skyline was constructed on the SW flank of Belknap shield volcano (upper right) about 2600 years ago during an eruption that produced lava flows that traveled to the south. The foreground lava flows originated from Belknap volcano.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1995 (Smithsonian Institution).
See title for photo information.
GVP Map Holdings

The maps shown below have been scanned from the GVP map archives and include the volcano on this page. Clicking on the small images will load the full 300 dpi map. Very small-scale maps (such as world maps) are not included. The maps database originated over 30 years ago, but was only recently updated and connected to our main database. We welcome users to tell us if they see incorrect information or other problems with the maps; please use the Contact GVP link at the bottom of the page to send us email.


Title: Canada, United States
Publisher: DMA Aerospace Center
Country: United States
Year: 1988
Series: ONC
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Canada, United States

Title: W US /Map of Dist, Comp, Age-Late CZ Volc Centers
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1984
Series: MI
Map Type: Geology (Volcano)
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of W US /Map of Dist, Comp, Age-Late CZ Volc Centers

Title: Dist, Thickness, Mass of Tephra from Volcanoes
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1983
Series: MFS
Map Type: Geology (Volcanic Hazard)
Scale: 1:2,500,000
Map of Dist, Thickness, Mass of Tephra from Volcanoes

Title: Distribution, Comp, & Age of L Cen Volcan, Cascade Range, NW US
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1983
Series: MI
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of Distribution, Comp, & Age of L Cen Volcan, Cascade Range, NW US

Title: Map SHowing Distribution, Composition, and Age of Late Cenozoic Volcanic Centers in Oregon and Washington
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1982
Series: Misc Investigations
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:1,000,000
Map of Map SHowing Distribution, Composition, and Age of Late Cenozoic Volcanic Centers in Oregon and Washington

Title: Geothermal Energy Resources of the Western United States
Publisher: ERDA and USGS
Country: United States
Year: 1977
Map Type: Cultural (Geothermal Resources)
Scale: 1:1,250,000
Map of Geothermal Energy Resources of the Western United States

Title: Bend
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1971
Series: V502
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Bend

Title: Crescent
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1970
Series: V502
Map Type: Topographic
Scale: 1:250,000
Map of Crescent

Title: Geol Map of OR W of 121st Meridian
Publisher: US Geological Survey
Country: United States
Year: 1961
Series: MI
Map Type: Geology
Scale: 1:500,000
Map of Geol Map of OR W of 121st Meridian
Smithsonian Sample Collections Database

The following 1 samples associated with this volcano can be found in the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections, and may be availble for research (contact the Rock and Ore Collections Manager). Catalog number links will open a window with more information.

Catalog Number Sample Description Lava Source Collection Date
NMNH 112584-28 Basalt -- --
Affiliated Sites