Loihi

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  • Country
  • Subregion Name
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 18.92°N
  • 155.27°W

  • -975 m
    -3198 ft

  • 332000
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

12 September-18 September 2001

An earthquake swarm occurred at Loihi during 10-11 September and two 13 September earthquakes may have also been part of the swarm. The two later earthquakes occurred at 0311 and 0839 and had magnitudes of 4.9 and 4.4, respectively. Most of the earthquakes from 10-13 September were ~12 km deep and located slightly S of the summit of the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



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2001: September


12 September-18 September 2001

An earthquake swarm occurred at Loihi during 10-11 September and two 13 September earthquakes may have also been part of the swarm. The two later earthquakes occurred at 0311 and 0839 and had magnitudes of 4.9 and 4.4, respectively. Most of the earthquakes from 10-13 September were ~12 km deep and located slightly S of the summit of the volcano.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


5 September-11 September 2001

On 10 September an earthquake swarm began at Loihi. The swarm began with a M 5 earthquake and was followed by M 3.5-4.5 earthquakes until at least 11 September. This was the most severe swarm at Loihi since July 1996, when the summit collapsed.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)


Summary of eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1996 Feb 25 ± 30 days 1996 Aug 9 (?) Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
[ 1986 Sep 20 ] [ 1986 Sep 20 ] Uncertain 0  
[ 1984 Nov 11 ] [ 1985 Jan 21 ] Uncertain 0  
[ 1975 Aug 24 (?) ] [ 1975 Nov ] Uncertain 0  
[ 1971 Sep 17 ] [ 1972 Sep ] Uncertain 0  
0050 BCE ± 3000 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Potassium-Argon
5050 BCE ± 5000 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Potassium-Argon
7050 BCE ± 7000 years Unknown Confirmed 0 Potassium-Argon East flank?

The following references are the sources used for data regarding this volcano. References are linked directly to our volcano data file. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title. Additional discussion of data sources can be found under Volcano Data Criteria.

Clague D A, Davis A S, Bischoff J L, Dixon J E, Geyer R, 2000. Lava bubble-wall fragments formed by submarine hydrovolcanic explosions on Loi'hi Seamount and Kilauea volcano. Bull Volc, 61: 437-449.

Fornari D J, Garcia M O, Tyce R C, Gallo D G, 1988. Morphology and structure of Loihi seamount based on SEABEAM sonar mapping. J Geophys Res, 93: 15,227-15,238.

Garcia M O, Rubin K H, Norman M D, Rhodes J M, Graham D W, Muenow D W, Spencer K, 1998. Petrology and geochronology of basalt breccia from the 1996 earthquake swarm of Loihi seamount, Hawaii: magmatic history of its 1996 eruption. Bull Volc, 59: 577-592.

Guillou H, Garcia M O, Turpin L, 1997. Unspiked K-Ar dating of young volcanic rocks from Loihi and Pitcairn hot spot seamounts. J Volc Geotherm Res, 78: 239-249.

Klein F W, 1982. Earthquakes at Loihi submarine volcano and the Hawaiian hot spot. J Geophys Res, 87: 7719-7726.

Klein F W, Koyanagi R Y, 1979. Seismicity of Kilauea and Loihi volcanoes, Hawaii (abs). Hawaii Symp Intraplate Volc & Submarine Volc, Hilo, Hawaii, Abs, p 124.

Malahoff A, 1987. Geology of the summit of Loihi submarine volcano. U S Geol Surv Prof Pap, 1350: 133-144.

Moore J G, Clague D A, Normark W R, 1982. Diverse basalt types from Loihi seamount, Hawaii. Geology, 10: 88-92.

Moore J G, Normark W R, Lipman P W, 1979. Loihi seamount-a young submarine Hawaiian volcano (abs). Hawaii Symp Intraplate Volc & Submarine Volc, Hilo, Hawaii, Abs, p 127.

Robinson J E, Eakins B W, 2006. Calculated volumes of individual shield volcanoes at the young end of the Hawaiian Ridge. J Volc Geotherm Res, 151: 309-317.

Loihi seamount, the youngest volcano of the Hawaiian chain, lies about 35 km off the SE coast of the island of Hawaii. Loihi (which is the Hawaiian word for "long") has an elongated morphology dominated by two curving rift zones extending north and south of the summit. The summit region contains a caldera about 3 x 4 km wide and is dotted with numerous lava cones, the highest of which is about 975 m below the sea surface. The summit platform includes two well-defined pit craters, sediment-free glassy lava, and low-temperature hydrothermal venting. An arcuate chain of small cones on the western edge of the summit extends north and south of the pit craters and merges into the crests of Loihi's prominent rift zones. Deep and shallow seismicity indicate a magmatic plumbing system distinct from that of Kilauea volcano. During 1996, a new pit crater was formed at the summit of the volcano, and lava flows were erupted. Continued volcanism is expected to eventually build a new island at Loihi; time estimates for the summit to reach the sea surface range from roughly 10,000 to 100,000 years.