Nejapa-Miraflores

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 12.12°N
  • 86.32°W

  • 360 m
    1181 ft

  • 344092
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

Most Recent Bulletin Report: February 1991 (BGVN 16:02) Cite this Report


No thermal activity despite reported gas emission after early 20th century quakes

"The alignment extends from Apoyeque to Managua (figure 1) and lies on the W boundary fault of the Managua graben. Phreatomagmatic and Strombolian activity occurred during the past 30,000 years, with about 40 separate eruptions, the most recent <2,500 years ago. A study well drilled to 300 m in the San Carlos crater did not detect thermal activity. There were reports of gas emission after earth tremors in the early 20th century (El Heraldo, 24 October 1916) and some aftershocks of the 1972 Managua earthquake were located on the alignment."

Figure 1. Sketch map of the Nejapa-Miraflores alignment, after Bice (1980).

Reference. Bice, D.C., 1980, Tephra stratigraphy and physical aspects of recent volcanism near Managua, Nicaragua: Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 422 p.

Information Contacts: B. van Wyk de Vries, O. Castellón, A. Murales, and V. Tenorio, INETER.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Nejapa-Miraflores.

Bulletin Reports - Index


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

02/1991 (BGVN 16:02) No thermal activity despite reported gas emission after early 20th century quakes




Information is preliminary and subject to change. All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


February 1991 (BGVN 16:02) Cite this Report


No thermal activity despite reported gas emission after early 20th century quakes

"The alignment extends from Apoyeque to Managua (figure 1) and lies on the W boundary fault of the Managua graben. Phreatomagmatic and Strombolian activity occurred during the past 30,000 years, with about 40 separate eruptions, the most recent <2,500 years ago. A study well drilled to 300 m in the San Carlos crater did not detect thermal activity. There were reports of gas emission after earth tremors in the early 20th century (El Heraldo, 24 October 1916) and some aftershocks of the 1972 Managua earthquake were located on the alignment."

Figure 1. Sketch map of the Nejapa-Miraflores alignment, after Bice (1980).

Reference. Bice, D.C., 1980, Tephra stratigraphy and physical aspects of recent volcanism near Managua, Nicaragua: Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 422 p.

Information Contacts: B. van Wyk de Vries, O. Castellón, A. Murales, and V. Tenorio, INETER.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
344092

1060 CE

360 m / 1181 ft

12.12°N
86.32°W

Volcano Types

Fissure vent(s)
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Maar(s)
Tuff cone(s)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Minor
Dacite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
295,906
870,837
1,610,426
3,062,823

Geological Summary

The N-S-trending Nejapa-Miraflores alignment, located near the western margin of the Nicaraguan graben, cuts through the western part of Nicaragua's capital city, Managua. This alignment, which has erupted tholeiitic basaltic rocks similar to those from mid-ocean ridges, marks the right-lateral offset of the Nicaraguan volcanic chain. A series of pit craters and fissure vents extends into Lake Managua and is continuous with the volcanic vents on the Chiltepe peninsula. An area of maars and tuff cones perpendicular to the N-S trend of the lineament forms the scalloped shoreline of Lake Managua. Laguna Tiscapa crater is located several kilometers to the east near the central part of the city of Managua. The elongated Nejapa and Ticoma pit craters are surrounded by small basaltic cinder cones and tuff cones. The Nejapa-Miraflores alignment (also known as Nejapa-Ticoma) has been the site of about 40 eruptions during the past 30,000 years, the most recent of which (from Asososca maar) occurred about 1250 years ago.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Bice D C, 1980. Tephra stratigraphy and physical aspects of recent volcanism near Managua, Nicaragua. Unpublished PhD thesis, Univ Calif Berkeley, 422 p.

Bice D C, 1985. Quaternary volcanic stratigraphy of Managua, Nicaragua; correlation and source assignment for multiple overlapping plinian deposits. Geol Soc Amer Bull, 96: 553-566.

Hradecky P, 1997. Estudio geologico para reconocimiento de riesgo natural y vulnerabilidad geologica en el area de Managua. Cesky Geologicky Ustav Praha, Instituto Nicaraguense de Estudios Territoriales, Managua (INETER), 81 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Incer J, 1987. (pers. comm.).

McBirney A R, 1955b. The origin of the Nejapa pits near Managua, Nicaragua. Bull Volc, 17: 145-154.

Pardo N, Avellan D R, Macias J L, Scolamacchia T, Rodriguez D, 2008. The ~1245 yr BP Asososca maar: new advances on recent volcanic stratigraphy of Managua (Nicaragua) and hazard implications. J Volc Geotherm Res, 176: 493-512.

Pardo N, Macias J L, Giordano G, Cianfarra P, Avellan D R, Ballatreccia F, 2009. The ~1245 yr BP Asososca maar eruption: the youngest event along the Nejapa-Maraflores volcanic fault, western Managua, Nicaragua. J Volc Geotherm Res, 184: 292-312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2009.04.006

Rausch J, Schmincke H-U, 2010. Nejapa Tephra: The youngest (ca. 1 ka BP) highly explosive hydroclastic eruption in western Managua (Nicaragua). J Volc Geotherm Res, 192: 159-177. http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2010.02.010

Sapper K, 1925. The Volcanoes of Central America. Halle: Verlag Max Niemeyer, 144 p.

Smithsonian Institution-GVN, 1990-. [Monthly event reports]. Bull Global Volc Network, v 15-33.

Viramonte J G, Navarro Collado M, Malavasi Rojas E, 1997. Nicaragua-Costa Rica Quaternary volcanic chain. IAVCEI General Assembly, Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, January 19-24, 1997, Fieldtrip Guidebook, 17 p.

Walker J A, 1984. Volcanic rocks from the Nejapa and Granada cinder cone alignments, Nicaragua, Central America. J Petr, 25: 299-342.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1060 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 3 Tephrochronology Nejapa maar
0550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology PM5 tephra
3050 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology PM4 tephra
4390 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) El Hormigón
5230 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) TC tephra
5350 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) NNT tephra
7300 BCE ± 3150 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology PM3 tephra
7430 BCE ± 300 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected) Refinería crater

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Nejapa-Ticoma | Miraflores-Nejapa

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Embajada, Cerro de la Pyroclastic cone
Empajada, La Pyroclastic cone
Frawley, Cerro Pyroclastic cone
Hormigón, El Pyroclastic cone
Km 14, Cerro Pyroclastic cone
Motastepe, Cerro Pyroclastic cone 360 m 12° 7' 34" N 86° 19' 37" W

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Asososca, Laguna de Maar 12° 8' 10" N 86° 18' 54" W
Nejapa Maar 12° 7' 8" N 86° 19' 0" W
Refinería Crater
Satélite Crater
Ticomo
    Ticoma
Crater 12° 6' 0" N 86° 19' 0" W
Tiscapa, Laguna de Maar 12° 8' 17" N 86° 16' 0" W

Photo Gallery


The steep-walled crater Laguna de Asososca provides water for the adjacent capital city of Managua. The elongated 1.3 x 1 km wide lake lies north of Laguna de Nejapa along the Nejapa-Miraflores lineament and is viewed here from the SE. In the background, beyond a bay of Lake Managua (the light-colored body of water at the upper right-center), is the Chiltepe Peninsula. This Laguna de Asososca is not to be confused with another crater lake of the same name at the southern end of the N-S-trending Las Pilas volcanic complex.

Photo by Jaime Incer.
Laguna de Tiscapa is seen here from the SW with a skyscraper of downtown Managua in the right background. The 700-m-wide maar overlooks the central part of the city. Laguna de Tiscapa lies about 5 km east of the Nejapa-Miraflores crater lineament along a major fault that cuts through the city of Managua.

Photo by Jaime Incer.
Laguna de Nejapa (right center) and Cerro Motastepe (left-center horizon) are part of the N-S-trending Nejapa-Miraflores alignment. A series of pit craters and fissure vents extends into Lake Managua (barely visible at the far upper right) and is continuous with the volcanic vents on the Chiltepe Peninsula (far right horizon). The Nejapa-Miraflores alignment (also known as Nejapa-Ticoma) has been the site of about 40 eruptions during the past 30,000 years, the most recent of which (from Cerro Motastepe) occurred less than 2500 years ago.

Photo by Jaime Incer.
Laguna de Tiscapa partially fills a 700-m-wide maar on the outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua's capital city. The maar was constructed along a major fault that cuts through Managua. The rim of the crater overlooks the center of Managua and consequently has been the site of military fortifications dating back to the 18th century.

Photo by Jaime Incer, 1996.
The N-S-trending Nejapa-Miraflores alignment of cones cuts across the western outskirts of the city of Managua and extends across a bay of Lake Managua onto the Chiltepe Peninsula. Cerro San Carlos (center) lies along the southern side of the bay, while the conical peak of Volcán Chiltepe is visible at the upper left on the eastern tip of the Chiltepe Peninsula.

Photo by Paul Kimberly, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
Cerro Motastepe cinder cone (upper left) is the youngest and most prominent feature of the Nejapa-Miraflores volcanic alignment. The cone, seen here from the SE with Laguna de Nejapa in the center of the photo, is elongated in an E-W direction and rises 160 m above its base to 360 m elevation. Cerro Motastepe formed less than 2500 years ago. The surface of saline Laguna de Nejapa collapse pit (center) lies at about the same level as Lake Managua, barely visible in the distance at the upper right.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).
A restaurant on the rim of Laguna de Tiscapa provides a scenic view of the a 700-m-wide maar on the outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua's capital city. The maar was constructed along a major fault that cuts through Managua. The crater overlooks the center of Managua and lies 5 km east of the N-S-trending Nejapa-Miraflores lineament, a 17-km-long chain of collapse pits and cinder-spatter cones that marks a point of right-lateral offset of the Nicaraguan volcanic chain.

Photo by Lee Siebert, 1998 (Smithsonian Institution).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Nejapa-Miraflores Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.