Llullaillaco

Photo of this volcano
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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 24.72°S
  • 68.53°W

  • 6739 m
    22104 ft

  • 355110
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Llullaillaco.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Llullaillaco.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Llullaillaco.

Basic Data

Volcano Number

Last Known Eruption

Elevation

Latitude
Longitude
355110

1877 CE

6739 m / 22104 ft

24.72°S
68.53°W

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)

Rock Types

Major
Dacite
Minor
Trachyte / Trachyandesite

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
18
391
9,859

Geological Summary

The world's highest historically active volcano, 6739-m-high Llullaillaco, sits astride the Chile-Argentina border. The summit is formed by a smaller well-preserved cone that was constructed on an older Pleistocene edifice. A major debris-avalanche deposit produced by collapse of the older volcano about 150,000 years ago extends eastward into Argentina and diverges around the north and south sides of the older Cerro Rosado stratovolcano 17 km east of Llullaillaco. Construction of several lava domes and flows was associated with growth of the modern cone. The two most prominent flows contain distinct flow levees and ridges and extend down the northern and southern flanks. These two extremely youthful-looking dacitic flows were initially considered to be of Holocene age, but more recent Ar/Ar dating indicates that they are of late Pleistocene age (Richards and Villeneuve, 2001). Two explosive eruptions and another that may have included lava effusion were reported from Llullaillaco in the 19th century.

References

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography.

Casertano L, 1963a. Chilean Continent. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 15: 1-55.

de Silva S L, Francis P W, 1991. Volcanoes of the Central Andes. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 216 p.

Francis P W, Wells G L, 1988. Landsat thematic mapper observations of debris avalanche deposits in the central Andes. Bull Volc, 50: 258-278.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Richards J P, Villeneuve M, 2001. The Llullaillaco volcano, northwest Argentina: construction by Pleistocene volcanism and destruction by edifice collapse. J Volc Geotherm Res, 105: 77-105.

Eruptive History


Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).


Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1877 May Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1868 Sep Unknown Confirmed 0 Historical Observations
1854 Feb 10 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations

The Global Volcanism Program has no synonyms or subfeatures listed for Llullaillaco.

Photo Gallery


The world's highest historically active volcano, 6739-m-high Llullaillaco, sits astride the Chile-Argentina border. The summit, seen here from the NE, is formed by a smaller well-preserved cone that was constructed on an older edifice dating back to the early Pleistocene. A major debris-avalanche deposit produced by collapse of the older volcano extends eastward into Argentina. Growth of the modern cone was completed with the emplacement of a series of young lava flows down the northern and southern flanks.

Photo by Carlos Felipe Ramírez, courtesy of Oscar González-Ferrán (University of Chile).
The world's highest historically active volcano, 6739-m-high Llullaillaco, sits astride the Chile-Argentina border in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper right). A well-preserved summit cone was the source of prominent lava flows that are older than they appear in this image. The hilly terrain at the lower right was produced by a major debris avalanche about 150,000 years ago that swept eastward into Argentina and diverges around the north and south sides of the older Cerro Rosado stratovolcano (extreme lower right).

NASA Space Station image ISS006-E-13814, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).
The snow-mantled surface of Llullaillaco volcano is seen in this NASA Space Shuttle image (with north to the upper left). The two youthful looking lava flows with prominent flow levees descending the northern and western flanks of the volcano appeared to be of Holocene, but Ar/Ar dating showed them to be of late-Pleistocene age. The 6739-m-high Llullaillaco is the world's highest historically active volcano.

NASA Space Station image ISS006-E-13814, 2003 (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov/).

Smithsonian Sample Collections Database


A listing of samples from the Smithsonian collections will be available soon.

Affiliated Sites

Large Eruptions of Llullaillaco Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
MODVOLC - HIGP MODIS Thermal Alert System Using infrared satellite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, scientists at the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawai'i, developed an automated system called MODVOLC to map thermal hot-spots in near real time. For each MODIS image, the algorithm automatically scans each 1 km pixel within it to check for high-temperature hot-spots. When one is found the date, time, location, and intensity are recorded. MODIS looks at every square km of the Earth every 48 hours, once during the day and once during the night, and the presence of two MODIS sensors in space allows at least four hot-spot observations every two days. Each day updated global maps are compiled to display the locations of all hot spots detected in the previous 24 hours. There is a drop-down list with volcano names which allow users to 'zoom-in' and examine the distribution of hot-spots at a variety of spatial scales.
MIROVA Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity (MIROVA) is a near real time volcanic hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data. In particular, MIROVA uses the Middle InfraRed Radiation (MIR), measured over target volcanoes, in order to detect, locate and measure the heat radiation sourced from volcanic activity.