Osorno

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 41.1°S
  • 72.493°W

  • 2652 m
    8699 ft

  • 358010
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Osorno.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Osorno.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Bulletin Reports available for Osorno.

The symmetrical, glacier-clad Osorno volcano forms a renowned landmark that towers over Todos los Santos and Llanquihué lakes. Osorno was constructed over a roughly 250,000-year-old eroded stratovolcano, La Picada, that has a mostly buried 6-km-wide caldera. La Picada underlies Osorno on the NE and has postglacial maars and scoria cones. The 2652-m-high dominantly basaltic to basaltic-andesite Osorno is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. The conical volcano contains two small dacitic lava domes on the NW and SSE flanks. Flank scoria cones and fissure vents, primarily on the west and SW sides, have produced lava flows that reached Lago Llanquihué. Frequent explosive eruptions including pyroclastic flows and surges have occurred during the past 14,000 years. Historical eruptions at Osorno have originated from both summit and flank vents and have produced basaltic and andesitic lava flows that have entered both Llanquihué and Todos los Santos lakes.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1869 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1855 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
[ 1852 ] [ Unknown ] Discredited    
1851 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1837 Nov 7 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1834 Nov 29 1835 Feb 24 ± 4 days Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit & SSW side (Negrillar de Ensenada)
1790 Mar 9 1791 Dec 26 ± 5 days Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SE base
1765 ± 14 years Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations
1719 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1644 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1640 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1575 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1310 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1220 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0910 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0420 ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0210 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1710 BCE ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Chodueco | Huenuauca | Purarrahue | Purahilla | Quetrupe | Pata | Pire | Prarauque | Callvuco | Pujajauco | Llanquihue | Pise | Pillan | Paratun | Patahuille | Puhuahuen | Choduanpire | Calluneto | Purahuille | Pujajen | Pirepillan

Cones

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Picada, La Stratovolcano 1715 m 41° 3' 0" S 72° 26' 0" W
Pichihuinco, Volcán Pyroclastic cone 41° 0' 0" S 72° 35' 0" W

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Monton de Trigo Crater
Morro, El Crater 1128 m 41° 5' 0" S 72° 32' 0" W
Negrillar de Ensenada, Volcanes el Fissure vent 1082 m 41° 8' 0" S 72° 32' 0" W
Pumas, Los Crater
Teski Group Crater
The symmetrical, glacier-clad Osorno stratovolcano forms a renowned landmark between Todos Los Santos and Llanguihue lakes. It is seen here from the north, with Calbuco volcano visible at the extreme right. The 2652-m-high Osorno is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. Flank scoria cones and fissure vents, primarily on the west and SW sides, have produced lava flows that reached Lago Llanguihue. Historical eruptions have originated from both summit and flank vents.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
A field of fresh-looking, unvegetated lava flows blankets the SW flank of Osorno volcano. Prominent flow levees mark channels of individual flow lobes. Some of these lava flows were erupted from cinder cones on the SSW flank of Osorno in 1835. Explosive activity beginning on November 29, 1834 was followed by lava effusion starting January 19, 1835 that lasted until the end of February.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Along with its neighbor Osorno (upper left), Calbuco is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. The summit of Calbuco, seen at the left in this view from the SW, is the remnant of an older volcano that collapsed during the late Pleistocene, producing a debris avalanche that swept NNW into Lake Llanquihue. The smooth, snow-covered summit at the right is a young, historical lava-dome complex that postdates one of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile during 1893-1894.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Casertano L, 1963a. Chilean Continent. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 15: 1-55.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

IAVCEI, 1973-80. Post-Miocene Volcanoes of the World. IAVCEI Data Sheets, Rome: Internatl Assoc Volc Chemistry Earth's Interior..

Lara L, Rodriguez C, Moreno H, Perez de Arce C, 2001. Geocronologia K-Ar y geoquimica del volcanismo plioceno superior-pleistoceno de los Andes del sur (39-42° S). Rev Geol Chile, 28: 67-90.

Lopez-Escobar L, Parada M A, Moreno H, Frey F A, Hickey-Vargas R L, 1992. A contribution to the petrogenesis of Osorno and Calbuco volcanoes, Southern Andes (41° 00' - 41° 30' S). Rev Geol Chile, 19: 211-226.

Moreno H, 2004. Osorno-Calbuco. IAVCEI Gen Assembly 2004 Pucon, Chile Field Trip Guide C4, 14 p.

Moreno H, 1985. . (pers. comm.).

Moreno H, 1974. Airplane flight over active volcanoes of central-south Chile. Internatl Symp Volc Andean & Antarctic Volc Problems Guidebook, Excur D-3, 56 p.

Moreno H, Naranjo J A, 1991. The southern Andes volcanoes (33°-41° 30' S), Chile. 6th Geol Cong Chile, Excur PC-3, 26 p.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Pyroclastic cone(s)
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Minor
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
88
674
11,964
655,492

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Osorno Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.