Calbuco

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 41.326°S
  • 72.614°W

  • 2003 m
    6570 ft

  • 358020
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

  • Volcano
    Number

The Global Volcanism Program has no activity reports for Calbuco.

The Global Volcanism Program has no Weekly Reports available for Calbuco.

Index of Monthly Reports

Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

09/1996 (BGVN 21:09) Strong fumarolic emission from main crater


Contents of Monthly Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.

09/1996 (BGVN 21:09) Strong fumarolic emission from main crater

On the morning of 12 August, the ~250,000 residents of Puerto Montt (35 km SW) and Puerto Varas (36 km SW) were alarmed by strong fumarolic emissions from the 1.5-km-diameter main crater of Calbuco. In May 1995 a weak fumarole was noticed and filmed from a helicopter. Prior to that, Calbuco had showed no signs of activity since a 1972 eruption that lasted for ~4 hours.

Calbuco is a very explosive late Pleistocene to Holocene andesitic volcano S of Lake Llanquihue that underwent edifice collapse in the late Pleistocene, producing a volcanic debris avalanche that reached the lake. One of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile took place from Calbuco in 1893-1894. Violent eruptions ejected 30-cm bombs to distances of 8 km from the crater, accompanied by voluminous hot lahars. Several days of darkness occurred in San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina (>100 km SE). Strong explosions occurred in April 1917, and a lava dome formed in the crater accompanied by hot lahars. Another short explosive eruption in January 1929 also included an apparent pyroclastic flow and a lava flow. The last major eruption of Calbuco, in 1961, sent ash columns 12-15 km high and produced plumes that dispersed mainly to the SE as far as Bariloche; two lava flows were also emitted.

Information Contact: Hugo Moreno, Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Universidad de la Frontera, Casilla 54-D, Temuco, Chile (Email: hmoreno@merlin.lazos.cl).

Along with its neighbor Osorno, Calbuco is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. The isolated late-Pleistocene to Holocene andesitic volcano rises to 2003 m south of Lake Llanquihué in the Chilean lake district. Guanahuca, Guenauca, Huanauca, and Huanaque, all listed as synonyms of Calbuco (Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World), are actually synonyms of nearby Osorno volcano (Moreno 1985, pers. comm.). The 2003-m-high Calbuco is elongated in a SW-NE direction and is capped by a 400-500 m wide summit crater. The complex evolution of Calbuco included edifice collapse of an intermediate edifice during the late Pleistocene that produced a 3 cu km debris avalanche that reached the lake. Calbuco has erupted frequently during the Holocene, and one of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile took place from Calbuco in 1893-1894 and concluded with lava dome emplacement. Subsequent eruptions have enlarged the lava-dome complex in the summit crater.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
1972 Aug 26 1972 Aug 26 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1961 Feb 1 1961 Mar 26 (in or after) Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1945 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1932 Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1929 Jan 6 1929 Jan 6 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1917 Apr 1917 May Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1911 1912 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1909 Mar Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1907 Apr 22 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1906 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1894 Nov 16 1895 (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1893 Jan 7 1894 Jan 16 (in or after) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
[ 1837 ] [ 1838 ] Discredited    
1792 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Historical Observations
1600 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1380 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0710 ± 60 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ca13 tephra layer
0520 ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0220 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0160 ± 135 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Ca12 tephra layer
0040 ± 75 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0100 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
0330 BCE ± 200 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
1920 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
4300 BCE ± 150 years Unknown Confirmed   Radiocarbon (uncorrected)
5030 BCE ± 180 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ca11 tephra layer
5820 BCE ± 880 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Ca10 tephra layer
6300 BCE ± 1035 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Ca9 tephra layer
6760 BCE ± 825 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Tephrochronology Ca8 tephra layer
7550 BCE ± 45 years Unknown Confirmed 4 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ca7 tephra layer
7930 BCE ± 275 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Ca6 tephra layer
7990 BCE ± 290 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Ca5 tephra layer
8100 BCE ± 1300 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Ca4 tephra layer
8210 BCE ± 290 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Ca3 tephra layer
8320 BCE ± 250 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Ca2 tephra layer
8460 BCE ± 155 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Ca1 tephra layer

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.



Synonyms
Quellaipe | Nauga | Quellaype


Cones
Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Huenú-Huenú Stratovolcano
The symmetrical, glacier-clad Osorno stratovolcano forms a renowned landmark between Todos Los Santos and Llanguihue lakes. It is seen here from the north, with Calbuco volcano visible at the extreme right. The 2652-m-high Osorno is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. Flank scoria cones and fissure vents, primarily on the west and SW sides, have produced lava flows that reached Lago Llanguihue. Historical eruptions have originated from both summit and flank vents.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Calbuco is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. The isolated volcano rises to 2003 m south of Lake Llanquihue, which is visible at the upper right. The summit ridge (center) of the volcano is the remnant of an older volcano that collapsed during the late Pleistocene and produced a 3 cu km debris avalanche that reached the lake. Subsequent eruptions generated andesitic lava flows, breccias, and tuffs that filled the scarp and were subsequently topped by an historical lava-dome complex (right center).

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).
Along with its neighbor Osorno (upper left), Calbuco is one of the most active volcanoes of the southern Chilean Andes. The summit of Calbuco, seen at the left in this view from the SW, is the remnant of an older volcano that collapsed during the late Pleistocene, producing a debris avalanche that swept NNW into Lake Llanquihue. The smooth, snow-covered summit at the right is a young, historical lava-dome complex that postdates one of the largest historical eruptions in southern Chile during 1893-1894.

Photo by Hugo Moreno (University of Chile).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Casertano L, 1963a. Chilean Continent. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World and Solfatara Fields, Rome: IAVCEI, 15: 1-55.

Castruccio A, Clavero J, Rivera A, 2010. Comparative study of lahars generated by the 1961 and 1971 eruptions of Calbuco and Villarrica volcanoes, Southern Andes of Chile. J Volc Geotherm Res, 190: 297-311.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1972. Distribucion del volcanismo activo de Chile y la reciente erupcion del Volcan Villarrica. Instituto Geog Militar Chile, O/T 3491.

Gonzalez-Ferran O, 1995. Volcanes de Chile. Santiago: Instituto Geografico Militar, 635 p.

Lara L, Rodriguez C, Moreno H, Perez de Arce C, 2001. Geocronologia K-Ar y geoquimica del volcanismo plioceno superior-pleistoceno de los Andes del sur (39-42° S). Rev Geol Chile, 28: 67-90.

Lopez-Escobar L, Parada M A, Moreno H, Frey F A, Hickey-Vargas R L, 1992. A contribution to the petrogenesis of Osorno and Calbuco volcanoes, Southern Andes (41° 00' - 41° 30' S). Rev Geol Chile, 19: 211-226.

Moreno H, 2004. Osorno-Calbuco. IAVCEI Gen Assembly 2004 Pucon, Chile Field Trip Guide C4, 14 p.

Moreno H, 1985. . (pers. comm.).

Moreno H, 1974. Airplane flight over active volcanoes of central-south Chile. Internatl Symp Volc Andean & Antarctic Volc Problems Guidebook, Excur D-3, 56 p.

Moreno H, Naranjo J A, 1991. The southern Andes volcanoes (33°-41° 30' S), Chile. 6th Geol Cong Chile, Excur PC-3, 26 p.

Watt S F L, Pyle D M, Naranjo J A, Rosqvist G, Mella M, Mather T A, Moreno H, 2011. Holocene tephrochronology of the Hualaihue region (Andean souther volcanic zone, ~42 deg S), southern Chile. Quat Internatl, 246: 324-343.

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Lava dome(s)

Tectonic Setting

Subduction zone
Continental crust (> 25 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
70
871
32,265
575,233

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Calbuco Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.