Hekla

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  • Country
  • Volcanic Region
  • Primary Volcano Type
  • Last Known Eruption
  • 63.98°N
  • 19.7°W

  • 1491 m
    4890 ft

  • 372070
  • Latitude
  • Longitude

  • Summit
    Elevation

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Most Recent Weekly Report: 27 March-2 April 2013


On 29 March the Icelandic Meteorological Office noted that Hekla had been quiet the previous few days; no additional earthquakes had been detected since a period of increased seismicity during 10-26 March. The Icelandic Civil Defense continued to maintain a level of "uncertainty".

Source: Icelandic Met Office


Most Recent Bulletin Report: August 1980 (SEAN 05:08)


Large tephra cloud and lava flows

"Hekla started erupting at 1328 on 17 August. Small earthquakes were recorded on local seismographs for 20-25 minutes prior to the first explosions but these precursors were not noticed until later.

"This was a mixed eruption starting in the summit area and quickly extending to the full fissure length of 7 km, longer than observed in the 1947 and 1970 eruptions. The initial activity at 1320 was a steam column, then a dark tephra column started between 1327 and 1330. The main tephra fall lasted about 2 hours and extended NNE, and the eruption column reached about 15 km altitude. The maximum tephra thickness 10 km N of the summit was 20 cm, and at the N coast, about 230 km distant, 1 mm or less. The fluorine content in many grazing districts is above danger level, causing problems for livestock, especially sheep. Lava began flowing shortly after the beginning of the eruption. The first flows appeared near the summit, then lava eruption extended to the lower parts of the fissure. Most of the lava issued within 12 hours and nearly all within 24 hours, forming four main separate lava flows, covering an area of about 22 km2. The volume of the lava is estimated at about 0.1 km2 and the tephra somewhat less than in the 1970 eruption, which produced 0.07 km3.

"Glowing scoria was last observed in the early morning of 20 August. Steam emission was continuing as of late August. For the first few days following the eruption this steam column was often darkened at the base, but no glow was observed.

"Preliminary chemical analyses of tephra and lava show composition similar to that of the 1970 eruption products. The last Hekla eruption took place 5 May-5 July 1970, making this period of quiescence of only 10 years the shortest recorded for Hekla since 1104. The shortest previous period between eruptions was 1206-22 and the second shortest was between the 1947 and 1970 eruptions. If the present eruption episode is over now, the behavior is highly unusual. All previous known eruptions have lasted from 2 months to 2 years. Initially there have been a few days of major activity, followed by a few almost quiet days, then renewed explosive activity and lava eruption concentrated on small parts of the fissure."

Information Contacts: K. Grönvold, Nordic Volcanological Institute (NVI); S. Thorarinsson, Univ. of Iceland.

Index of Weekly Reports


2013: March

Weekly Reports


27 March-2 April 2013

On 29 March the Icelandic Meteorological Office noted that Hekla had been quiet the previous few days; no additional earthquakes had been detected since a period of increased seismicity during 10-26 March. The Icelandic Civil Defense continued to maintain a level of "uncertainty".

Source: Icelandic Met Office


20 March-26 March 2013

The Icelandic Meteorological Office noted that since 10 March, at least seven micro-earthquakes at Hekla, ranging in size from M 0.4 to 1, had been detected within a small area about 4.5 km NE of the summit, at depths of 11-12 km. These earthquakes were high-frequency, suggestive of brittle fracturing rather than magma movement. At Hekla, such a clustering of earthquakes is unusual in between eruptions. Continuous measurements of borehole strain and ground-based GPS showed no changes in crustal deformation.

On 26 March the Icelandic Meteorological Office increased the Aviation Colour Code from Green to Yellow, because of the increased seismic activity. Icelandic Civil Defense together with the Police in Hvolsvöllur had also declared a level of uncertainty for Hekla, although there were no observable signs that an eruption of Hekla was imminent.

Sources: Icelandic Met Office; Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV)


Index of Bulletin Reports


Reports are organized chronologically and indexed below by Month/Year (Publication Volume:Number), and include a one-line summary. Click on the index link or scroll down to read the reports.

08/1980 (SEAN 05:08) Large tephra cloud and lava flows




Bulletin Reports

All information contained in these reports is preliminary and subject to change.


08/1980 (SEAN 05:08) Large tephra cloud and lava flows

"Hekla started erupting at 1328 on 17 August. Small earthquakes were recorded on local seismographs for 20-25 minutes prior to the first explosions but these precursors were not noticed until later.

"This was a mixed eruption starting in the summit area and quickly extending to the full fissure length of 7 km, longer than observed in the 1947 and 1970 eruptions. The initial activity at 1320 was a steam column, then a dark tephra column started between 1327 and 1330. The main tephra fall lasted about 2 hours and extended NNE, and the eruption column reached about 15 km altitude. The maximum tephra thickness 10 km N of the summit was 20 cm, and at the N coast, about 230 km distant, 1 mm or less. The fluorine content in many grazing districts is above danger level, causing problems for livestock, especially sheep. Lava began flowing shortly after the beginning of the eruption. The first flows appeared near the summit, then lava eruption extended to the lower parts of the fissure. Most of the lava issued within 12 hours and nearly all within 24 hours, forming four main separate lava flows, covering an area of about 22 km2. The volume of the lava is estimated at about 0.1 km2 and the tephra somewhat less than in the 1970 eruption, which produced 0.07 km3.

"Glowing scoria was last observed in the early morning of 20 August. Steam emission was continuing as of late August. For the first few days following the eruption this steam column was often darkened at the base, but no glow was observed.

"Preliminary chemical analyses of tephra and lava show composition similar to that of the 1970 eruption products. The last Hekla eruption took place 5 May-5 July 1970, making this period of quiescence of only 10 years the shortest recorded for Hekla since 1104. The shortest previous period between eruptions was 1206-22 and the second shortest was between the 1947 and 1970 eruptions. If the present eruption episode is over now, the behavior is highly unusual. All previous known eruptions have lasted from 2 months to 2 years. Initially there have been a few days of major activity, followed by a few almost quiet days, then renewed explosive activity and lava eruption concentrated on small parts of the fissure."

Information Contacts: K. Grönvold, Nordic Volcanological Institute (NVI); S. Thorarinsson, Univ. of Iceland.
Download or Cite this Report

One of Iceland's most prominent and active volcanoes, Hekla lies near the southern end of the eastern rift zone. Hekla occupies a rift-transform junction, and has produced basaltic andesites, in contrast to the tholeiitic basalts typical of Icelandic rift zone volcanoes. Vatnafjöll, a 40-km-long, 9-km-wide group of basaltic fissures and crater rows immediately SE of Hekla forms a part of the Hekla-Vatnafjöll volcanic system. A 5.5-km-long fissure, Heklugjá, cuts across the 1491-m-high Hekla volcano and is often active along its full length during major eruptions. Repeated eruptions along this rift, which is oblique to most rifting structures in the eastern volcanic zone, are responsible for Hekla's elongated ENE-WSW profile. Frequent large silicic explosive eruptions during historical time have deposited tephra throughout Iceland, providing valuable time markers used to date eruptions from other Icelandic volcanoes. Hekla tephras are generally rich in fluorine and are consequently very hazardous to grazing animals. Extensive lava flows from historical eruptions, which date back to 1104 CE, cover much of the volcano's flanks.

Summary of Holocene eruption dates and Volcanic Explosivity Indices (VEI).

Start Date Stop Date Eruption Certainty VEI Evidence Activity Area or Unit
2000 Feb 26 2000 Mar 8 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations SW flank
1991 Jan 17 1991 Mar 11 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, SW, SE & NE flank fissures
1981 Apr 9 1981 Apr 16 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations Summit and north flank (900 and 740 m)
1980 Aug 17 1980 Aug 20 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit, SW and NE flanks
1970 May 5 1970 Jul 5 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Sudurgigar, Hlidargigar, Oldugigar
1947 Mar 29 1948 Apr 21 Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Hraungigur, Axlargigur, Toppgigur
1913 Apr 25 1913 May 18 Confirmed 2 Historical Observations E & NE of Hekla (Mundafit, Lambafit)
1878 Feb 27 1878 Apr Confirmed 2 Historical Observations East of Hekla (Krakagigar)
1845 Sep 2 1846 Apr 5 (?) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Summit, SW and NE flanks
1766 Apr 5 1768 May Confirmed 4 Historical Observations Bjallagigar
1725 Apr 2 Unknown Confirmed 1 Historical Observations SW, south and east of Hekla
1693 Feb 13 1693 Sep 14 (?) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1636 May 8 1637 Jun Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1597 Jan 3 1597 Jun (in or after) Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1554 May 1554 Jun (?) Confirmed 2 Historical Observations SW of Hekla (Raudubjallar)
1510 Jul 25 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1440 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology SE of Hekla
1389 Dec 1 ± 30 days 1390 Confirmed 3 Historical Observations Summit ridge, west flank (Raudoldur)
1341 May 19 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1300 Jul 11 1301 Jul Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1222 Unknown Confirmed 2 Historical Observations
1206 Dec 4 Unknown Confirmed 3 Historical Observations
1158 Jan 19 Unknown Confirmed 4 Historical Observations
1104 Oct 15 ± 45 days Unknown Confirmed 5 Historical Observations H1 tephra
1050 ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Austurhraun
0800 ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Heklutaglahraun
0750 (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Taglgigahraun, Solvahraun, Stakahraun
0650 ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE flank (Helliskvislarhraun)
0550 ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
0350 ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (Eskihlidarhraun)
0250 ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE flank (Hestolduhraun), Vatnafjöll
0150 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (Kringluhraun)
0250 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE flank, Vatnafjöll (Langviuhraun)
0650 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (Svalaskardshraun)
0750 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE flank, Vatnafjöll (Langviuhraun)
0850 BCE ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE flank (Raudkembingahraun), Vatnafjöll
1100 BCE ± 50 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) H3 tephra
1150 BCE ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (Hraunhalsshraun)
1250 BCE ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE flank, Vatnafjöll
1350 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll
1550 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Seslund pumice
1650 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll
1750 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology
1850 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology NE flank (Krokagilsoduhraun), Vatnafjöll
2310 BCE ± 20 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) H4 tephra
2450 BCE ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (Reynnisfellshraun)
2750 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll
2950 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (Tröllaskógahraun)
3350 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Raudkollar, Vatnafjöll (Grafellshraun)
3450 BCE ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll
3750 BCE ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll
3950 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Axarhraun, Vatnafjöll
4050 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Baejarhraun
4110 BCE ± 100 years Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) Hekla Ö tephra
4150 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (Grasleysisfjallahraun)
4250 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Knafaholdahraun
4350 BCE ± 1500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (Lambadalshraun)
4550 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Krokahraun, Vatnafjöll
4650 BCE ± 500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Gunnarsholtshraun
4700 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 4 Tephrochronology Heka DH tephra
4750 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (west of Laufafell)
4950 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Vatnafjöll (Raudölduhraun)
5050 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Reydarvatnshraun lava flow, Vatnafjöll
5150 BCE (?) Unknown Confirmed 5 Radiocarbon (corrected) H5 tephra
5850 BCE ± 2500 years Unknown Confirmed   Tephrochronology Svinholdahraun

This compilation of synonyms and subsidiary features may not be comprehensive. Features are organized into four major categories: Cones, Craters, Domes, and Thermal Features. Synonyms of features appear indented below the primary name. In some cases additional feature type, elevation, or location details are provided.


Synonyms

Heklufell | Heklufjall

Craters

Feature Name Feature Type Elevation Latitude Longitude
Austurhraun Fissure vent 63° 54' 0" N 19° 50' 0" W
Axlargigur Fissure vent
Baejarhraun Fissure vent 63° 53' 0" N 20° 2' 0" W
Bjallagigar Fissure vent 64° 1' 0" N 19° 39' 0" W
Eldividarhraun Fissure vent 63° 52' 0" N 20° 1' 0" W
Eskihlidarfjöll Crater Row 64° 5' 0" N 19° 10' 0" W
Grafellshraun Crater Row 63° 53' 0" N 19° 40' 0" W
Grasleysufjöll Crater Row 63° 52' 0" N 19° 35' 0" W
Gunnarsholtshraun Fissure vent 63° 52' 0" N 20° 12' 0" W
Haahraun Fissure vent 63° 57' 0" N 19° 38' 0" W
Heklugja Fissure vent 1491 m 64° 4' 0" N 19° 36' 0" W
Helliskvislarhraun Fissure vent 64° 3' 0" N 19° 25' 0" W
Hestolduhraun Fissure vent 64° 3' 0" N 19° 32' 0" W
Hlidargigar Fissure vent
Hraungigur Fissure vent
Hraunhalshraun Crater Row 63° 52' 0" N 19° 50' 0" W
Krafakholahraun Fissure vent 63° 51' 0" N 20° 4' 0" W
Krakagigar Fissure vent 800 m 64° 1' 0" N 19° 29' 0" W
Kringluhraun Crater Row 64° 2' 0" N 19° 15' 0" W
Krokagilsolduhraun Fissure vent 64° 1' 0" N 19° 17' 0" W
Krokahraun Fissure vent 63° 57' 0" N 20° 2' 0" W
Lambadalshraun Crater Row 63° 51' 0" N 19° 45' 0" W
Lambafit
    Lambagigar
Fissure vent 550 m 64° 5' 0" N 19° 22' 0" W
Langviuhraun Crater Row 63° 56' 0" N 19° 35' 0" W
Mundafell
    Mundagigar
Fissure vent 760 m 63° 59' 0" N 19° 33' 0" W
Oldugigar Fissure vent
Oxi Fissure vent 63° 51' 0" N 20° 0' 0" W
Raudfossahraun Crater Row 64° 3' 0" N 19° 19' 0" W
Raudkembingur Fissure vent 64° 1' 0" N 19° 34' 0" W
Raudkollar Fissure vent 63° 52' 0" N 19° 51' 0" W
Raudölduhraun Crater Row 63° 51' 0" N 19° 46' 0" W
Raudoldur Crater
Raudubjallar Fissure vent 550 m 63° 55' 0" N 19° 49' 0" W
Reydarvatnshraun Fissure vent 63° 51' 0" N 20° 9' 0" W
Reynifellshraun Crater Row 63° 48' 0" N 19° 52' 0" W
Selsundshraun North Fissure vent 63° 57' 0" N 19° 57' 0" W
Selsundshraun South Fissure vent 63° 56' 0" N 109° 58' 0" W
Stakahraun Fissure vent 64° 6' 0" N 19° 40' 0" W
Sudurgigar Fissure vent
Svalaskardshraun Crater Row 64° 2' 0" N 19° 22' 0" W
Svinhofdarhraun Fissure vent 63° 58' 0" N 20° 0' 0" W
Taglgigahraun Fissure vent 64° 10' 0" N 19° 20' 0" W
Toppgigur Fissure vent
Trippabjallar
    Trippafjoll
Fissure vent 682 m 63° 56' 0" N 19° 45' 0" W
Tröllaskógahraun Crater Row 63° 52' 0" N 19° 52' 0" W
Valagja Fissure vent 64° 6' 0" N 19° 26' 0" W
Vatnafjöll Fissure vent 1235 m 63° 55' 0" N 19° 40' 0" W
Strombolian eruptions color the nighttime sky on the flank of Hekla volcano in May 1970. This eruptive fissure, on the northern flank at about 650-m altitude, was one of three principal areas of eruptive activity during 1970. The Oldugigar vent, seen here, was, along with the nearby Hlidagigar vent, the source of the most voluminous lava flows of the 1970 eruption. The lava flows traveled 6 km to the north over uninhabited land.

Photo by Robert Citron, 1970 (courtesy of William Melson, Smithsonian Institution).
On May 5, 1970, fissures opened on the south, SSW, and NE flanks of Hekla. An eruption plume reached 15-km high, and lava fountaining fed lava flows that traveled to the SW, WNW, and north. Two eruptive fissures were active on the NE flank, seen here; these produced lava flows that traveled 6 km to the north. Fluorine poisoning from tephra fall caused major livestock mortality, killing 1500 ewes and about 6000 lambs. The north-flank lava flow remained active until July 5.

Photo by Robert Citron, 1970 (courtesy of William Melson, Smithsonian Institution).
Incandescent bombs are ejected from the Oldugigar vent on the north flank of Hekla volcano in May 1970. The 1970 eruption began with vigorous explosive activity and was followed by effusion of lava flows that traveled to the SW, WNW, and north. The eruption lasted until July 1970.

Photo by Robert Citron, 1970 (courtesy of William Melson, Smithsonian Institution).
One of Iceland's most prominent and active volcanoes, Hekla played a prominent role in late Middle Ages mythology as the abode of the condemned. Repeated eruptions along an ENE-WSW-trending fissure, seen here from a farm east of the volcano, give Hekla an elongated profile. Frequent large explosive eruptions during historical time have deposited tephra throughout Iceland, providing valuable time markers used to date eruptions from other Icelandic volcanoes.

Photo by Robert Citron, 1970 (courtesy of William Melson, Smithsonian Institution).
A powerful eruption column rises above a cloud layer over Hekla volcano on August 17, 1980. Explosive eruptions from a 7-km-long fissure produced 15-km-high eruption columns. During the next three days, lava flows issued from nearly the full length of the fissure and produced six flows that traveled primarily to the north and NW, but also to a maximum distance of 8 km on the SE side.

Photo courtesy of Gudmundar Sigvaldason (Nordic Volcanological Institute), 1980.
Volcanologists observe the incandescent front of a steaming, blocky lava flow that is advancing from Hekla volcano during a brief three-day-long eruption beginning on August 17, 1980. Lava flows issued from nearly the full length of a 5.5-km-long fissure that runs along Hekla's summit ridge. The 1980 eruption produced six basaltic-andesite lava flows that traveled primarily to the north and NW, but also reached a maximum distance of 8 km on the SE side.

Photo courtesy of Gudmundar Sigvaldason (Nordic Volcanological Institute), 1980.
The elongated summit ridge of Hekla volcano is seen here from the west with a fresh, historical lava flow in the foreground. Repeated eruptions along this rift are responsible for Hekla's elongated ENE-WSW profile. A 5.5-km-long fissure, Heklugja, cuts across the 1491-m-high volcano and is often active along its full length during major eruptions.

Photo courtesy of Jules Friedman (U.S. Geological Survey).
Snow-covered Hekla, one of Iceland's most prominent and active volcanoes, is seen here in an aerial view from the east. Toppgigur crater occupies the summit and Axlargigur crater forms a knob along the summit ridge to the left. Repeated eruptions along an ENE-WSW-trending rift are responsible for Hekla's elongated profile. The 5.5-km-long Heklugja fissure cuts across the 1491-m-high volcano and is often active along its full length during major eruptions. Lava flows from Hekla's historical eruptions, which date back to 1104 AD, cover much of the volcano's flanks.

Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1977 (Icelandic National Energy Authority).
Hekla has a conical profile when viewed from the SW, looking directly down the axis of the elongated, fissure-fed volcano. Axlargigur, the WSW end of the 5.5-km-long Heklugja fissure that crosses the elongated summit of Hekla, extends toward the camera. This fissure was active along its entire length during the 1970 eruption.

Photo by Bill Rose, 1980 (Michigan Technological University).
Eminent Icelandic volcanologist Sigurdur Thorarinsson (right center, with red cap) leads an international group of volcanologists on a field trip to Icelandic volcanoes. Thorarinsson, standing here in a pit excavated to reveal ash layers, pioneered the technique of tephrochronology, in which widespread tephra layers (volcanic ash) are used to date eruptions. Thorarinsson's detailed studies of tephra layers from Hekla volcano demonstrated the utility of determining the relative ages of ash layers by their stratigraphic position between dated ash horizons.

Photo by Bill Rose, 1980 (Michigan Technological University).
Twilight colors shade the snow-capped slopes of Hekla, one of Iceland's most active volcanoes. Hekla's elongated profile is apparent in this view from the south of the 5.5-km-long summit ridge. The Heklugjá fissure is often active along its full length during historical eruptions.

Photo by Bill Rose, 1980 (Michigan Technological University).
The Vatnafjöll volcanic system, cutting across the center of the image, is a 40-km-long, 9-km-wide chain of alkali basaltic fissures and crater rows located south of the more prominent Hekla volcano (center horizon). Volcanism at Vatnafjöll, part of the Hekla/Vatnafjöll volcanic system, has migrated from the SW to the NE during the early to late Holocene. More than two dozen fissure eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, most recently about 1200 years ago.

Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1977 (Icelandic National Energy Authority).

The following references have all been used during the compilation of data for this volcano, it is not a comprehensive bibliography. Discussion of another volcano or eruption (sometimes far from the one that is the subject of the manuscript) may produce a citation that is not at all apparent from the title.

Baldridge W S, McGretchin T R, Frey F A, 1973. Magmatic evolution of Heckla, Iceland. Contr Mineral Petr, 42: 245-258.

Green J, Short N M, 1971. Volcanic Landforms and Surface Features: a Photographic Atlas and Glossary. New York: Springer-Verlag, 519 p.

Gudmundsdottir E R, Larsen G, Eiriksson J, 2011. Two new Icelandic tephra markers: The Hekla Ö tephra layer, 6060 cal. yr BP, and Hekla DH tephra layer, ~6650 cal. yr BP. Land-sea correlation of mid-Holocene tephra markers. The Holocene, DOI: 10.1177/0959683610391313.

Gudmundsson A T, 1986b. Iceland-Fires. Reykjavik: Vaka-Helgafell, 168 p.

Gudmundsson M T, Larsen G, Hoskuldsson A, Gylfason A G, 2008. Volcanic hazards in Iceland. Jokull, 58: 251-268.

Hoskuldsson A, Oskarsson N, Pedersen R, Gronvold K, Vogfjord K, Olafsdottir R, 2007. The millennium eruption of Hekla in February 2000. Bull Volc, 70: 169-182.

Johannesson H, Jakobsson S P, Saemundsson K, 1982. Geological map of Iceland, sheet 6, south Iceland. Icelandic Museum Nat Hist & Iceland Geodetic Surv, 1:250,000 geol map, 2nd edition.

Johannesson H, Saemundsson K, 1998. Geological map of Iceland, 1:500,000. Tectonics. Icelandic Inst Nat Hist, Reykjavik.

Lacasse C, Karlsdottir S, Larsen G, Soosalu H, Rose W I, Ernst G G J, 2004. Weather radar observations of the Hekla 2000 eruption cloud, Iceland. Bull Volc, 66: 457-473.

Larsen G, Eriksson J, 2008. Holocene tephra archives and tephrochronology in Iceland - a brief overview. Jokull, 58: 229-250.

Larsen G, Thorarinsson S, 1977. H4 and other acid Hekla tephra layers. Jokull, 27: 1-19.

Sigmarsson O, Condomines M, Fourcade S, 1992. A detailed Th, Sr and O isotope study of Hekla: differentiation processes in an Icelandic Volcano. Contr Mineral Petr, 112: 20-34.

Soosalu H, Einarsson P, 2004. Seismic constraints on magma chambers at Hekla and Torfajokull volcanoes, Iceland. Bull Volc, 66: 276-286.

Soosalu H, Einarsson P, 1997. Seismicity around the Hekla and Torfajokull volcanoes, Iceland, during a volcanically quiet period, 1991-1995. Bull Volc, 59: 36-48.

Soosalu H, Einarsson P, 2002. Earthquake activity related to the 1991 eruption of the Hekla volcano, Iceland. Bull Volc, 63: 536-544.

Soosalu H, Einarsson P, Jakobsdottir S, 2003. Volcanic tremor related to the 1991 eruption of the Hekla volcano, Iceland. Bull Volc, 65: 562-577.

Soosalu H, Einarsson P, Thorbjarnadottir B S, 2005. Seismic activity related to the 2000 eruption of the Hekla volcano, Iceland. Bull Volc, 68: 21-36.

Steinthorsson S, et al., 2002. Catalog of Active Volcanoes of the World - Iceland. Unpublished manuscript.

Thorarinsson S, 1967a. The Eruptions of Hekla in Historical Times. Reykjavik: Societas Scientiarum Islandica, p 1-183.

Thorarinsson S, Sigvaldason G E, 1972. The Hekla eruption of 1970. Bull Volc, 36: 269-288.

Thordarson T, Hoskuldsson A, 2008. Postglacial eruptions in Iceland. Jokull, 58: 197-228.

Tryggvason E, 1994. Observed ground deformation at Hekla, Iceland prior to and during the eruptions of 1970, 1980-81 and 1991. J Volc Geotherm Res, 61: 281-291.

Vilmundardottir E G, Hjartarson A, 1985. Pumice flows during Hekla eruptions. Natturufraedingurinn, 54: 17-30 (in Icelandic with English summary).

Volcano Types

Stratovolcano
Fissure vent(s)

Tectonic Setting

Rift zone
Oceanic crust (< 15 km)

Rock Types

Major
Andesite / Basaltic Andesite
Basalt / Picro-Basalt
Rhyolite
Dacite

Population

Within 5 km
Within 10 km
Within 30 km
Within 100 km
0
0
298
22,845

Affiliated Databases

Large Eruptions of Hekla Information about large Quaternary eruptions (VEI >= 4) is cataloged in the Large Magnitude Explosive Volcanic Eruptions (LaMEVE) database of the Volcano Global Risk Identification and Analysis Project (VOGRIPA).
WOVOdat WOVOdat is a database of volcanic unrest; instrumentally and visually recorded changes in seismicity, ground deformation, gas emission, and other parameters from their normal baselines. It is sponsored by the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) and presently hosted at the Earth Observatory of Singapore.
EarthChem EarthChem develops and maintains databases, software, and services that support the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of geochemical data, and facilitate their integration with the broad array of other available earth science parameters. EarthChem is operated by a joint team of disciplinary scientists, data scientists, data managers and information technology developers who are part of the NSF-funded data facility Integrated Earth Data Applications (IEDA). IEDA is a collaborative effort of EarthChem and the Marine Geoscience Data System (MGDS).
Smithsonian Collections Search the Smithsonian's NMNH Department of Mineral Sciences collections database. Go to the "Search Rocks and Ores" tab and use the Volcano Name drop-down to find samples.