Activity for the week of 5 June-11 June 2013
|Smithsonian Institution / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report|
Activity for the week of 5 June-11 June 2013
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
Negro, Cerro (Nicaragua)
INETER reported that the seismic station at the base of Cerro Negro recorded the onset of tremor at 0845 on 4 June. Seismicity fluctuated; Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) values increased to 60 units, from an average value of 14. From 1535 to 1731 the network recorded 49 earthquakes that were too small to be located.
SVERT reported that steam and gas activity at Chirinkotan was observed in satellite imagery on 5, 7, and 9 June.
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 4-11 June white plumes recorded by a web camera rose at most 200 m above Copahue and drifted N and E. During 4-5 June seismicity had decreased with respect to the previous 24-hour period; the majority of the signals were low-magnitude hybrid events, detected at an average rate of 42 per hour. During 5-6 June seismicity was similar to the previous period, with an average of 50 events per hour being detected. Seismicity increased during 6-7 June; an average of 84 events per hour was detected. During 7-8 June seismicity fluctuated with a high average of 124 events per hour then decreased to a low average of 8 events per hour; the overall average was 62 events per hour. Seismicity decreased during 8-9 June; only 5 events per hour were detected. On 9 June OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN scientists aboard an overflight to locate sites for the installation of three additional seismic stations observed fumaroles inside Del Agrio Crater, and gas emissions that rose at most 200 m and drifted NE. They noted that no lava dome was present. During 9-10 June the number of earthquakes increased to an average of 20 events per hour. The Alert Level remained at Orange.
CVGHM reported that during May through 6 June white-to-gray plumes rose 200-450 m above Ibu's crater rim. Seismicity increased and volcanic tremor was detected. The lava dome contained to grow, especially the N part, and in early June had grown taller than the N crater rim. Based on visual and instrumental observations, as well as the hazard potential, CVGHM increased the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 7 June. The public was warned to stay at least 3 km away from the active crater.
CVGHM reported that on 3 June the water in Kelimutu’s Crater II (Tiwu Nua Muri Kooh Tai Crater) turned from blue to a light brown color, “smoke” rose 50 m above the crater, “rustling water sounds” were heard near the wall of Crater I (Tiwu Ata Polo), and a sharp sulfur odor was noted. That evening a weak sulfur odor was reported in Pemo (3 km). Plants within 2 km S and SE appeared to have wilted.
PHIVOLCS reported that during 5-10 June white to off-white steam plumes that drifted WSW, NW, WNW, NNE, and NE, and occasional bluish fumes, were observed at Mayon. Incandescence emanated from the crater during most evenings into early mornings; cloud cover prevented crater observations during 7-8 and 10-11 June. During 5-6 and 9-10 June the seismic network recorded one volcanic earthquake each period, and during 6-7 June one rockfall signal was detected. The Alert Level remained at 1; PHIVOLCS reminded the public not to enter the 6-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ).
Pavlof (United States)
AVO reported that ash emissions from Pavlof that began on 4 June continued during 5-11 June, and were accompanied by seismic tremor and explosion signals. Overnight during 4-8 June satellite images detected elevated surface temperatures near the vent consistent with lava effusion and fountaining. On 5 and 6 June an ash plume observed in images drifted 40-45 km W and SW, at altitudes of 4.3-5.5 km (14,000-18,000 ft) a.s.l., based on pilot estimates. During 8-10 June images showed an ash plume drifting 20-53 km SE. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
San Cristóbal (Nicaragua)
INETER reported that on 7 June seven explosions at San Cristóbal ejected gas and ash, and were detected by the seismic station located on the W flank. The explosions occurred at 0615, 0645, 0653, 0911, 1137, 1139, and 1143, and were also observed by civil defense and INETER staff. The largest explosion, at 1139, generated a plume that rose 100 m. Sulfur dioxide emissions, which had been low, increased. A report later that afternoon stated that gas-and-ash explosions decreased, but Real-time Seismic-Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) values almost tripled to between 80 and 100 units due to increased tremor. INETER noted that tremor is frequently detected at San Cristóbal, and for the public not to be alarmed. A small lahar occurred at 1710.
Veniaminof (United States)
On 8 June AVO reported that gradually increasing seismic tremor at Veniaminof had been detected during the previous two days. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory. Clear web-camera and satellite views showed nothing unusual at the volcano. During 8-10 June seismicity continued to increase and a persistent steam plume rose from the central cone within the caldera.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-8 June explosions at Fuego generated ash plumes that rose 200-500 m and drifted 4-6 km W and NW. The explosions produced weak rumbling, ejected incandescent material 100 m above the crater, and generated avalanches. On 8 June lahars descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages (SE), and the Ceniza drainage (SSW). During 9-11 June explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-1,200 m and drifted 8-12 km W and NW. The explosions again produced rumbling, ejected incandescent material 150-300 m above the crater, and generated avalanches. Shock waves vibrated local structures during 8-9 June.
KVERT reported that technical problems prevented seismic data collection at Karymsky during 31 May-7 June. Satellite data detected a thermal anomaly during 1-3 and 5 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea (United States)
During 5-11 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was 45-46 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 5-6 June.
At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor; the NE spatter cone produced a small lava flow on 5 June. The Kahauale’a II lava flows, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2 km and as far NNW as 1.6 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.
KVERT reported that during 31 May-7 June moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
CVGHM reported that observers at the Papandayan observation post in Pakuwon Village reported no significant changes at Papandayan during May and the beginning of June. They noted that during May plumes rose less than 100 m above Baru and Emas craters, and during 1-5 June plumes rose 20 m at most.
The energy of volcanic earthquakes sharply increased during 2-4 May, and then decreased on 5 May. The average number of volcanic earthquakes declined from 35-49 events per day in early-to-mid May, to 14 events per day in mid-to-late May. The number of events continued to decline through the beginning of June. The number of local tectonic earthquakes also decreased significantly from an average of 67-71 events per day in early-to-mid May, to 2-17 events per day the latter half of May, to about 2 events per day in early June.
Based on the visual observations and decline in seismicity, CVGHM lowered the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
CENAPRED reported that during 5-11 June seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained small amounts of ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. Incandescence from the crater was observed some nights; during 8-9 June incandescence increased with accompanying emissions. On most days steam-and-gas plumes were observed drifting SW and SSW. On 7 June the Alert Level was lowered to Yellow, Phase Two. An explosion on 8 June generated an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater and drifted SW. On 9 June ash plumes rose 0.6-2.5 km and drifted SE and E.
Santa María (Guatemala)
In a special bulletin on 5 June, INSIVUMEH stated that residents of Quetzaltenango, 18 km WNW of Santa María, reported slight ashfall and a sulfur odor. On 6 June white and blue emissions rose 400 m from the E edge of the Santiaguito lava-dome complex’s active dome. The next day gas plumes rose 500 m and drifted N. On 8 June lahars carrying blocks descended the Nima I and Tambor drainages on the S flank. An explosion on 9 June generated an ash plume that rose 600 m and caused ashfall in Monte Claro (S). On 11 June white gas plumes rose 100 m and drifted SW. A few weak avalanches traveled S.
Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 31 May-7 June a viscous lava flow effused on the N flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. On 10 June the seismic network detected an explosive event at 0902 that lasted 6.5 minutes, and indicated that an ash plume possibly rose to altitudes of 7-8 km (23,000-26,200 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 31 May-7 June that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the S fissure and weak gas-and-steam plumes were observed. A large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Weekly Reports Archive
The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.
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Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
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CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.
Google Earth Placemarks
A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)