Activity for the week of 12 June-18 June 2013
|Smithsonian Institution / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report|
Activity for the week of 12 June-18 June 2013
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.
Based on analysis of satellite images, SVERT reported that dense steam-and-gas emissions, possibly containing ash, rose from Chirinkotan on 11 June. A thermal anomaly was detected on 13 June, and diffuse steam-and-gas emissions were observed on 16 June.
Pavlof (United States)
AVO reported that ash emissions from Pavlof were intermittent and minor during 12-14 June; ash plumes below an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. mostly drifted SE. Elevated surface temperatures consistent with lava effusion persisted until 1620 on 14 June. Seismicity decreased during 14-15 June. Minor emissions likely stopped, but web-camera views were cloudy. On 17 June no plumes were visible in satellite images, and web camera views showed mostly cloudy conditions. During 17-18 June seismic tremor amplitude increased slightly, and elevated surface temperatures consistent with lava effusion were detected in satellite images. A small ash plume rose from the crater. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Sangeang Api (Indonesia)
CVGHM reported that during May through 13 June diffuse white plumes rose 10 m above Sangeang Api's crater. Both the lava dome and surrounding areas showed no changes since November 2012. The Alert Level had been increased to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 May due to a trend of increasing seismicity; as many as 77 shallow earthquakes and 66 deep earthquakes had been detected daily. Residents and tourists were advised to stay away from the craters within a radius of 5 km. Since then seismicity decreased; 15 shallow earthquakes and three deep earthquakes were recorded on 13 June. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 on 14 June. The public were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 1.5 km.
Veniaminof (United States)
AVO reported that seismic tremor was detected at Veniaminof on 12 June. Elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images at 0525 on 13 June, likely indicating an intra-caldera eruption. In response, AVO raised the Volcano Alert Level to Watch and the Aviation Color code to Orange. Seismic tremor continued that day, indicative of low-level effusive activity and small explosions. At 2323 a pilot observed ash at an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and a lava flow effusing from the intra-caldera cinder cone. Residents in Perryville (32 km SSE) and Port Moller (77 km WSW) also observed ash emissions at about 2330. During 15-18 June satellite images showed very high elevated surface temperatures at the intra-caldera cinder cone consistent with continued lava effusion. No plumes were observed in satellite images nor reported by pilots or local observers. Volcanic tremor continued to be detected.
Source: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Bagana (Papua New Guinea)
Based on analyses of satellite imagery and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 17 June an ash plume from Bagana rose to altitudes of 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 35 km NW.
OVDAS-SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 11-12 June seismicity at Copahue had significantly decreased with respect to the previous 24-hour period; the majority of the signals were low-magnitude hybrid events, detected at an average rate of one per hour. White plumes recorded by a web camera rose at most 100 m and drifted E. Seismicity remained low during 12-13 June; an average of one event per hour continued to be detected. Meteorological cloud cover prevented views of the crater. The Alert Level remained at Orange.
KVERT reported that technical problems prevented seismic data collection at Karymsky during 7-14 June. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was detected in satellite images during 8 and 12-13 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Kilauea (United States)
During 12-18 June HVO reported that the circulating lava lake occasionally rose and fell in the deep pit within Kilauea's Halema'uma'u Crater. The plume from the vent continued to deposit variable amounts of ash, spatter, and Pele's hair onto nearby areas. The lake level was about 45 m below the Halema'uma'u crater floor during 14-15 and 17-18 June.
At Pu'u 'O'o Crater, glow emanated from three spatter cones and a small lava pond on the E part of the crater floor. The Kahauale’a II lava flows, fed by the NE spatter cone, were active as far N as 2.5 km and as far NNW as 1.9 km, and burned forest in both areas. Peace Day activity, fed by lava tubes extending from Pu'u 'O'o, consisted of some breakout activity on the pali and coastal plain, and ocean entries at locations inside and outside the National Park boundary.
KVERT reported that during 7-14 June moderate seismic activity continued at Kizimen. Video and satellite data showed that lava continued to extrude from the summit, producing incandescence, strong gas-and-steam activity, and hot avalanches on the W and E flanks. A thermal anomaly was detected in satellite images during 8, 10, and 12-13 June. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Manam (Papua New Guinea)
RVO reported that during 1-12 June activity at Manam was low, characterized by white vapor emissions from Southern Crater. On 13 June diffuse gray emissions were observed, and two explosions at midnight were heard in Bogia, 25-30 km SSW of Manam on the N coast of the mainland. During 14-15 June gray-to-brown ash plumes rose 100 m above the crater and incandescent fragment ejections from the crater were observed at night. Residents on the W part of the island heard explosions on 15 June. Diffuse brown-to-black ash clouds rose 600-700 m above the crater on 17 June, and then changed to dense white clouds later that day. Strombolian activity observed at night was accompanied by roaring, rumbling, and explosion noises. Shock waves were occasionally felt. Strombolian activity increased on 18 June, generating plumes that rose 800 m above the crater. At 0635 a small-to-moderate sized pyroclastic flow traveled down the SE valley and stopped 400 m a.s.l. Ash plumes from the pyroclastic flow rose 900 m above the crater. Roaring, rumbling, and explosion noises were accompanied by occasional shock waves. Plumes drifted NW.
Main Crater emitted white vapor plumes during 1-12 June. Weak but steady incandescence emanated from the crater at night on 2 and 17 June.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
CENAPRED reported that during 12-18 June seismicity at Popocatépetl indicated continuing gas-and-steam emissions that sometimes contained small amounts of ash; cloud cover often prevented visual confirmation. During 12-13 June a total of about 45 minutes of low-amplitude harmonic and high frequency tremors were detected. An explosion at 1716 on 14 June produced an ash plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater. Another explosion at 1727 produced an ash plume that rose almost 3 km. The next day an explosion at 0716 generated an ash plume that rose 2 km. Explosions were also detected at 1610 and 1813.
During 14-17 June periods of low-amplitude harmonic tremor and high-frequency tremor continued to be detected. On 16 June an explosion at 0611 ejected incandescent tephra 500 m onto the N flank. An explosion on 17 June produced an ash plume that rose more than 4 km, and ejected incandescent tephra up to 2 km from the crater. Some of the high-temperature fallout caused small fires in grasslands on the flanks. Ashfall was reported in Tetela del Volcán (20 km SW), Ocuituco (24 km SW), Yecapixtla (31 km SW), Atlatlahucan (30 km WSW), Cuautla (43 km SW), Tlayacapan (40 km WSW), Yautepec (50 km WSW), Jiutepec (60 km WSW), and Xochitepec (70 km WSW) in Morelos state. Ash also fell in Ecatzingo (15 km SW), Atlautla (17 km W), and Ozumba (18 km W) in México state. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two.
Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)
RVO reported that during 1-15 June white vapor plumes sometimes containing fine ash rose at most 800 m from Rabaul caldera's Tavurvur cone and drifted NW and SE. Ashfall was reported in areas downwind including Rabaul town (3-5 km NW). Roaring and rumbling noises also continued, and seismicity was low. Photographers observed a 1-m-high lava dome on the crater floor on 12 June.
Source: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)
JMA reported that during 10-14 June Sakura-jima's Showa Crater had four explosions, ejecting tephra that fell at most 1.3 km from the crater. Crater incandescence was occasionally detected at night. One of the explosions on 13 June generated an ash plume that rose 3.3 km above the crater rim. Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 16 June plumes rose to an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l.
Based on visual observations and analyses of satellite data, KVERT reported that during 7-14 June a viscous lava flow effused on the N flank of Shiveluch's lava dome, accompanied by hot avalanches, incandescence, and fumarolic activity. Satellite imagery showed a daily thermal anomaly on the lava dome. Based on notices from Yelizovo Airport (UHPP), the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 14 and 16 June ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
On 14 June CVGHM reported that, after the Alert Level at Soputan was raised to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 19 April due to a trend of increased seismicity, the number of various types of earthquakes decreased, except for events signaling avalanches, which fluctuated during the period. No changes were observed in emissions; white plumes continued to rise at most 50 m above the crater. On 14 June the Alert Level was lowered to 2. Residents and tourists were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km.
KVERT reported that the S fissure along the W side of Tolbachinsky Dol, a lava plateau on the SW side of Tolbachik, continued to produce very fluid lava flows during 7-14 June that traveled to the W, S, and E sides of the plateau. Cinder cones continued to grow along the S fissure and weak gas-and-steam plumes were observed. A large thermal anomaly on the N part of Tolbachinsky Dol was visible daily in satellite imagery. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Weekly Reports Archive
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Criteria & Disclaimers
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:
- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.
Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.
It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.
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An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.
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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.
Acronyms and Abbreviations
a.s.l. - above sea level
CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)
COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer
CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation
GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite
GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory
ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)
IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)
IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand)
INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)
INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)
INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)
INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)
INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)
IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)
M - magnitude
METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite
MWO - Meteorological Watch Office
NOTAM - Notice to Airmen
OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)
RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement
RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory
SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (Chile)
SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information
SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)
SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Kurile Islands)
UTC - Coordinated Universal Time
VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center
VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)