Report on Krysuvik-Trolladyngja (Iceland) — 11 August-17 August 2021
Smithsonian / US Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report,
11 August-17 August 2021
Managing Editor: Sally Kuhn Sennert
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 2021. Report on Krysuvik-Trolladyngja (Iceland). In: Sennert, S K (ed.), Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 11 August-17 August 2021. Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey.
63.917°N, 22.067°W; summit elev. 360 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
The fissure eruption in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 11-17 August. According to the Institute of Earth Sciences photographs of the flow field captured on 8 August suggested that the lava effusion rate averaged 9.3 cubic meters per second over the previous 12 days. The area of the flow field had grown to 4.4 square kilometers, and the total volume erupted was 119 million cubic meters. New ground cracks were observed in Gónhóll, a hill S of the main crater (the fifth vent) that was a former vantage point but is now surrounded by lava, though they had likely formed sometime in the previous two weeks and may not have been caused by rising magma. A new vent that opened on 9 August was not confirmed to be separate from the nearby main vent until about a week later. The new cone quickly grew from intense spattering and by 17 August was around the same height as the main crater. Spattering from the new vent was at times ejected higher than spatter from the main vent. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange due to the lack of ash and tephra emissions, though IMO warned of the potential for lapilli and scoria fallout within a 650 m radius of the active vent. Authorities also warned of gas emissions hazards.
Geological Summary. The Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system is described by the Catalogue of Icelandic Volcanoes as an approximately 50-km-long composite fissure swarm trending about N38°E, including a 30-km-long swarm of fissures, with no central volcano. It is one of the volcanic systems arranged en-echelon along the Reykjanes Peninsula west of Kleifarvatn lake. The Fagradalsfjall and Krýsuvík fissure swarms are considered splits or secondary swarms of the Krýsuvík–Trölladyngja volcanic system. Small shield volcanoes have produced a large portion of the erupted volume within the system. Several eruptions have taken place since the settlement of Iceland, including the eruption of a large basaltic lava flow from the Ogmundargigar crater row around the 12th century. The latest eruption, identified through tephrochronology, took place during the 14th century.