Global Volcanism Program | Image GVP-11871
Diffuse hydrothermal venting and sulfide chimneys were observed near the summit of Clark volcano during a New Zealand-American NOAA Vents Program expedition in 2005. Hot water (221°C, 430°F) was sampled at the base of this sulfide chimney, which is almost 6 m high. Clark submarine volcano lies near the lower end of the Southern Kermadec Arc and is the southernmost volcano of the submarine chain that displays known hydrothermal activity.
Image courtesy of New Zealand-American Submarine Ring of Fire 2005 Exploration, NOAA Vents Program.