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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) Ash emissions on 19 and 28 July 2019; lahar on the SW flank of Bromo

Unnamed (Tonga) Submarine eruption in early August creates pumice rafts that drifted west to Fiji

Popocatepetl (Mexico) Frequent explosions continue during March-August 2019

Semeru (Indonesia) Intermittent activity continues during March-August 2019; ash plumes and thermal anomalies

Saunders (United Kingdom) Intermittent activity most months, October 2018-June 2019; photographs during February and May 2019

Pacaya (Guatemala) Lava flows and Strombolian explosions continued during February-July 2019

Colima (Mexico) Renewed volcanism after two years of quiet; explosion on 11 May 2019

Masaya (Nicaragua) Lava lake activity declined during March-July 2019

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) Occasional weak phreatic explosions during March-July 2019

Aira (Japan) Explosions with ejecta and ash plumes continue weekly during January-June 2019

Agung (Indonesia) Continued explosions with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta, February-May 2019

Kerinci (Indonesia) Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, February-May 2019



Tengger Caldera (Indonesia) — August 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Tengger Caldera

Indonesia

7.942°S, 112.95°E; summit elev. 2329 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash emissions on 19 and 28 July 2019; lahar on the SW flank of Bromo

The Mount Bromo pyroclastic cone within the Tengger Caldera erupts frequently, typically producing gas-and-steam plumes, ash plumes, and explosions (BGVN 44:05). Information compiled for the reporting period of May-July 2019 is from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

The eruptive activity at Tengger Caldera that began in mid-February continued through late July 2019, including white-and-brown ash plumes, ash emissions, and tremors. During the months of May through June 2019, white plumes rose between 50 to 600 m above the summit. Satellite imagery captured a small gas-and-steam plume from Bromo on 5 June (figure 18). Low-frequency tremors were recorded by a seismograph from May through July 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Sentinel-2 satellite image showing a small gas-and-steam plume rising from the Bromo cone (center) in the Tengger Caldera on 5 June 2019. Thermal (urban) satellite image (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

According to PVMBG and a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA), an ash eruption occurred on 19 July 2019; however, no ash column was observed due to weather conditions. A seismograph recorded five earthquakes and three shallow volcanic tremors the same day. In addition, rainfall triggered a lahar on the SW flank of Bromo.

On 28 July the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes originating from Bromo rose to a maximum altitude of about 3.9 km and drifted NW from the summit, based on webcam images and pilot reports. PVMBG reported that lower altitude ash plumes (2.4 km) on the same day were also recorded by webcam images, satellite imagery (Himawari-8), and weather models.

Geologic Background. The 16-km-wide Tengger caldera is located at the northern end of a volcanic massif extending from Semeru volcano. The massive volcanic complex dates back to about 820,000 years ago and consists of five overlapping stratovolcanoes, each truncated by a caldera. Lava domes, pyroclastic cones, and a maar occupy the flanks of the massif. The Ngadisari caldera at the NE end of the complex formed about 150,000 years ago and is now drained through the Sapikerep valley. The most recent of the calderas is the 9 x 10 km wide Sandsea caldera at the SW end of the complex, which formed incrementally during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. An overlapping cluster of post-caldera cones was constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera within the past several thousand years. The youngest of these is Bromo, one of Java's most active and most frequently visited volcanoes.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/).


Unnamed (Tonga) — November 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Unnamed

Tonga

18.325°S, 174.365°W; summit elev. -40 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Submarine eruption in early August creates pumice rafts that drifted west to Fiji

Large areas of floating pumice, termed rafts, were encountered by sailors in the northern Tonga region approximately 80 km NW of Vava'u starting around 9 August 2019; the pumice reached the western islands of Fiji by 9 October (figure 7). Pumice rafts are floating masses of individual clasts ranging from millimeters to meters in diameter. The pumice clasts form when silicic magma is degassing, forming bubbles as it rises to the surface, which then rapidly cools to form solid rock. The isolated vesicles formed by the bubbles provide buoyancy to the rock and in turn, the entire pumice raft. These rafts are spread and carried by currents across the ocean; rafts originating in the Tonga area can eventually reach Australia. This report summarizes the pumice raft eruption from early August 2019 using witness accounts and satellite images (acquisition dates are given in UTC). Pending further research, the presumed source is the unnamed Tongan seamount (volcano number 243091) about 45 km NW of Vava'u, the origin of an earlier pumice raft produced during an eruption in 2001.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. The path of the pumice from the unnamed Tongan seamount from 9 August to 9 October 2019 based on eye-witness accounts and satellite data discussed below, as well as additional Aqua/MODIS satellite images from NASA Worldview. Blue Marble MODIS/NASA Earth Observatory base map courtesy of NASA Worldview.

The first sighting of pumice was around 1430 on 9 August NW of Vava'u in Tonga (18° 22.068' S, 174° 50.800' W), when Shannon Lenz and Tom Whitehead on board SV Finely Finished initially encountered isolated rocks and smaller streaks of pumice clasts. The area covered by rock increasing to a raft with an estimated thickness of at least 15 cm that extended to the horizon in different directions, and which took 6-8 hours to cross (figure 8). There was no sulfur smell and the sound was described as a "cement mixer, especially below deck." There was also no plume or incandescence observed. Their video, posted to YouTube on 17 August, showed a thin surface layer of cohesive interconnected irregular streaks of pumice with the ocean surface still visible between them. Later footage showed a continuous, undulating mass of pumice entirely covering the ocean surface. Larger clasts are visible scattered throughout the raft. The pumice raft was visible in satellite imagery on this day NW of Late Island (figure 9). By 11 August the raft had evolved into a largely linear feature with smaller rafts to the SW (figure 10). Approximately four hours later, about 15 km to the WSW, Rachel Mackie encountered the pumice. Initially the pumice was "ribbons several hundred meters long and up to 20m wide. It was quite fine and like a slick across the surface of the water." By 2130 they were surrounded by the pumice, and around 25 km away the smell of sulfur was noted.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. The pumice raft from the unnamed Tongan seamount on 9 August 2019 taken by Shannon Lenz and Tom Whitehead on board SV Finely Finished. The photos show the pumice raft extending to the horizon in different directions. Scattered larger clasts protrude from the relatively smooth surface that entirely obscures the ocean surface. Courtesy of Shannon Lenz and Tom Whitehead via noonsite.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. The pumice raft from the unnamed Tongan seamount on 9 August 2019 (UTC) can be seen NW of Late Island of Tonga in this Aqua/MODIS satellite image. The dashed white line encompasses the visible pumice. The location of the pumice in this image is shown in figure 7. Courtesy of NASA WorldView.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. The Sentinel-2 satellite first imaged the pumice from the unnamed Tongan seamount on 11 August 2019 (UTC). This image indicates the pumice distribution with the main raft towards the W and the easternmost area of pumice approximately 45 km away. The eastern tip of the pumice area is located approximately 30 km WNW of Lake islands in Tonga. The location of the pumice in this image is shown in figure 7. Natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) Sentinel-2 satellite image courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Michael and Larissa Hoult aboard the catamaran ROAM encountered the raft on 15 August (figure 11). They initially saw isolated clasts ranging from marble to tennis ball size (15-70 mm) at 18° 46′S, 174° 55'W. At around 0700 UTC (1900 local time) they noted the smell of sulfur at 18° 55′S, 175° 21′W, and by 0800 UTC they were immersed in the raft with visible clasts ranging from marble to basketball (25 cm) sizes. At this point the raft was entirely obscuring the ocean surface. On 16 and 21 August the pumice continued to disperse and drift NW (figures 12 and 13). On 20 August Scott Bryan calculated an average drift rate of around 13 km/day, with the pumice on this date about 164 km W of the unnamed seamount.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Images of pumice from the unnamed Tongan seamount encountered by Michael and Larissa Hoult aboard the catamaran Roam on 15 August. Left: Larissa takes photographs with scale of pumice clasts; top right: a closeup of a pumice clast showing the vesicle network preserving the degassing structures of the magma; bottom left: Michael holding several larger pumice clasts. The location of their encounter with the pumice is shown in figure 7. Courtesy of SailSurfROAM.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. The pumice from the unnamed Tongan seamount (volcano number 243091) on 16 August 2019 UTC. The location of the pumice in this image is shown in figure 7. Natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) Sentinel-2 satellite image courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. On 21 August 2019 (UTC) the pumice from the unnamed Tongan seamount (volcano number 243091) had drifted at least 120 km WNW of Late Island in Tonga. The location of the pumice in this image is shown in figure 7. Natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) Sentinel-2 satellite image courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

An online article published by Brad Scott at GeoNet on 9 September reported the preliminary size of the raft to be 60 km2, significantly smaller than the 2012 Havre seamount pumice raft that was 400 km2. Satellite identification of pumice-covered areas by GNS scientists showed the material moving SSW through 14 August (figure 14).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. A compilation of mapped pumice raft extents from 9 August (red line) through to 14 August (dark blue) from Suomi NPP, Terra, Aqua, and Sentinel-2 satellite images. The progression of the pumice raft is towards the SW. Courtesy of Salman Ashraf, GNS Science.

On 5 September the Maritime Safety Authority of Fiji (MSAF) issued a notice to mariners stating that the pumice was sighted in the vicinity of Lakeba, Oneata, and Aiwa Islands and was moving to the W. On 6 September a Planet Labs satellite image shows pumice encompassing the Fijian island of Lakeba over 450 km W of the Tongan islands (figure 15). The pumice entered the lagoon within the barrier reef and drifted around the island to continue towards the W. The pumice was imaged by the Landsat 8 satellite on 26 September as it moved through the Fijian islands, approximately 760 km away from its source (figure 16). The pumice is segmented into numerous smaller rafts of varying sizes that stretch over at least 140 km. On 12 September the Fiji Sun reported that the pumice had reached some of the Lau islands and was thick enough near the shore for people to stand on it.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Planet Labs satellite images show Lakeba Island to the E of the larger Viti Levu Island in the Fiji archipelago. The top image shows the island on 7 July 2019 prior to the pumice raft from the unnamed Tongan seamount. The bottom image shows pumice on the sea surface almost entirely encompassing the island on 6 September. The location of the pumice in this image is shown in figure 7. Courtesy of Planet Labs.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Landsat 8 satellite images show the visible extent of the unnamed seamount pumice on 26 September 2019 (UTC), up to approximately 760 km from the Tongan islands. The pumice seen here extends over a distance of 140 km. The top image shows the locations of the other three images in the white boxes, with a, b, and c indicating the locations. White arrows point to examples of the light brown pumice rafts in these images, seen through light cloud cover. The island in the lower right is Koro Island, the island to the lower left is Viti Levu, and the island to the top right is Vanua Levu. The location of the pumice in this image is shown in figure 7. Landsat 8 true color-pansharpened satellite images courtesy of Sentinel Hub.

Pumice had reached the Yasawa islands in western Fiji by 29 September and was beginning to fill the eastern bays (figure 17). By 9 October bays had been filled out to 500-600 m from the shore, and pumice had also passed through the islands to continue towards the W (figure 18). At this point the pumice beyond the islands had broken up into linear segments that continued towards the NW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. These Sentinel-2 satellite images show the pumice from the unnamed Tongan seamount drifting towards the Yasawa islands of Fiji. The 24 September 2019 (UTC) image shows the beaches without the pumice, the 29 September image shows pumice drifting westward towards the islands, and the 9 October image shows the bays partly filled with pumice out to a maximum of 500-600 m from the shore. These islands are approximately 850 km from the Tongan islands. The Yasawa islands coastline impacted by the pumice shown in these images stretches approximately 48 km. The location of the pumice in this image is shown in figure 7. Sentinel-2 natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) satellite images courtesy of Sentinel Hub.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. This Sentinel-2 satellite image acquired on 9 October 2019 (UTC) shows expanses of pumice from the unnamed Tongan seamount that passed through the Yasawa islands of Fiji and was continuing NWW, seen in the center of the image. The location of the pumice in this image is shown in figure 7. Sentinel-2 natural color (bands 4, 3, 2) satellite images courtesy of Sentinel Hub.

Geologic Background. A submarine volcano along the Tofua volcanic arc was first observed in September 2001. The newly discovered volcano lies NW of the island of Vava'u about 35 km S of Fonualei and 60 km NE of Late volcano. The site of the eruption is along a NNE-SSW-trending submarine plateau with an approximate bathymetric depth of 300 m. T-phase waves were recorded on 27-28 September 2001, and on the 27th local fishermen observed an ash-rich eruption column that rose above the sea surface. No eruptive activity was reported after the 28th, but water discoloration was documented during the following month. In early November rafts and strandings of dacitic pumice were reported along the coast of Kadavu and Viti Levu in the Fiji Islands. The depth of the summit of the submarine cone following the eruption determined to be 40 m during a 2007 survey; the crater of the 2001 eruption was breached to the E.

Information Contacts: GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo 3352, New Zealand (URL: http://www.gns.cri.nz/); Salman Ashraf, GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo 3352, New Zealand (URL: http://www.gns.cri.nz/, https://www.geonet.org.nz/news/8RnSKdhaWOEABBIh0bHDj); Brad Scott, New Zealand GeoNet Project, a collaboration between the Earthquake Commission and GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo 3352, New Zealand (URL: http://www.geonet.org.nz/, https://www.geonet.org.nz/news/8RnSKdhaWOEABBIh0bHDj); Scott Bryan, School of Earth, Environmental & Biological Sciences, Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, R Block Level 2, 204, Gardens Point (URL: https://staff.qut.edu.au/staff/scott.bryan); Shannon Lenz and Tom Whitehead, SV Finely Finished (URL: https://www.noonsite.com/news/south-pacific-tonga-to-fiji-navigation-alert-dangerous-slick-of-volcanic-rubble/, YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PEsHLSFFQhQ); Michael and Larissa Hoult, Sail Surf ROAM (URL: https://www.facebook.com/sailsurfroam/); Rachel Mackie, OLIVE (URL: http://www.oliveocean.com/, https://www.facebook.com/rachel.mackie.718); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Planet Labs, Inc. (URL: https://www.planet.com/); Fiji Sun (URL: https://fijisun.com.fj/2019/09/12/pumice-menace-hits-parts-of-lau-group/).


Popocatepetl (Mexico) — September 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Popocatepetl

Mexico

19.023°N, 98.622°W; summit elev. 5393 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent explosions continue during March-August 2019

The current eruptive period of Popocatépetl began on 9 January 2005 and it has since been producing frequent explosions accompanied by ash plumes, gas emissions, and ballistic ejecta that can impact several kilometers away from the crater, as well as dome growth and destruction. This activity continued through March-August 2019 with an increase in volcano alert level during 28 March-6 May. This report summarizes activity during this period and is based on information from Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), and various webcam and remote sensing data.

An overflight on 28 February confirmed that dome 82, which was first observed on 14 February, was still present and was 200 m in diameter. During March there were 3,291 observed low-intensity emissions, and 33 larger explosions that produced ash plumes to a maximum height of 5 km, accompanied by near-continuous emission of water vapor and volcanic gases. Explosions ejected blocks that fell on the flanks out to 1.2-2 km on 1, 10, 13, 17, 26, 27, and 29 March. The events on the 17th and 27th resulted in vegetation fires. Frequent sulfur dioxide (SO2) plumes were detected by TropOMI (figure 130). An overflight on 7 March showed intense degassing and an ash plume at 1142, preventing visibility into the crater (figure 131). On 13 March Strombolian activity was observed for approximately 15 minutes at 0500, accompanied by incandescent ejecta that deposited mainly on the ESE flank.

An overflight on 15 March was taken by CENAPRED and UNAM personnel to observe changes to the crater after explosions on the 13th and 14th. They reported that dome 82 had been destroyed and the crater maintained its previous dimensions of 300 m in diameter and 130 m deep. An explosion on the 27th ejected incandescent rocks out to 2 km from the crater and produced a 3-km-high ash plume that dispersed to the NE. Ashfall was reported in Santa Cruz, Atlixco, San Pedro, San Andrés, Santa Isabel Cholula, San Pedro Benito Juárez, and in the municipalities of Puebla, Hueyapan, Tetela del Volcán, and Morelos.

On 28 March an explosion at 0650 generated a 2.5-km-high ash plume and ejecta out to 1 km from the crater, and a 130-minute-long event produced gas and ah plumes (figure 132). On this day the volcano alert level was increased from Yellow Phase 2 to Yellow Phase 3. On the 29th an ash plume rose to 3 km and was accompanied by ejecta that reached 2 km away from the crater. Later that day a 20-minute-long event produced ash and gas. During a surveillance flight on 30 March a view into the crater showed no dome present, and the crater size had increased to 350 m in width and 250-300 m in depth after recent explosions (figure 131). On this day Strombolian activity was also observed lasting for 14 minutes, producing an ash plume to 800 m and ejecta out to 300 m from the crater. Incandescence at the crater was often seen during nighttime throughout the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 130. Significant SO2 plumes at Popocatépetl detected by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite during 3-11 March 2019. SO2 plumes are frequently observed and these images show examples of plume drift directions on 3 March 2019 (top left), 6 March 2019 (top right), 7 March 2019 (bottom left), and 11 March 2019 (bottom right). Date, time, and measurements are provided at the top of each image. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Flight Center.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 131. Activity at Popocatépetl and views of the crater during surveillance flights in March 2019. The top images show an ash plume (left) and a gas-and-steam plume (right) on 7 March. On 30 March (bottom left and right) no lava dome was observed in the crater, which was measured to be 350 m in diameter and 250-300 m deep. Courtesy of CENAPRED and Geophysics Institute of UNAM.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 132. Explosive activity at Popocatépetl on 28 March 2019 producing ash plumes (top and bottom left) and ejecting incandescent ejecta out to 2 km from the crater at 1948. Courtesy of Carlos Sanchez/AFP (top), CENAPRED (bottom left and right), and Webcams de Mexico (bottom left).

There was a decrease in events during the next two months with 1,119 recorded low-intensity emissions and no larger ash explosions throughout April, followed by 1,210 low-intensity emissions and seven larger ash explosions through May (figure 133). Water vapor and volcanic gas emissions were frequently observed through this time and incandescence was observed some nights. A surveillance overflight on 26 April noted no new dome within the crater. On 6 May the alert level was lowered back to Yellow Phase 2. Another overflight on 9 May showed no change in the crater. An explosion at 1910 on 22 May produced an ash plume to 3.5 km above the crater with ashfall reported in Ozumba, Temamatla, Atlautla, Cocotitlán, Ayapango, Ecatzingo, Tenango del Aire and Tepetlixpa.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 133. Graph showing the number of daily ash explosions and low-intensity emissions at Popocatépetl during March-August 2019. There was a decrease in the number of events during April and March, with an increase from March onwards. Data courtesy of CENAPRED.

Through the month of June there were 2,820 low-intensity emissions and 21 larger ash explosions recorded. Gas emissions were observed throughout the month. Two explosions on 3 June produced ash plumes up to 3.5 and 2.8 km, with ejecta out to 2 km S during the first explosion. On 11 June an explosion produced an ash plume to 1 km above the crater and ballistic ejecta out to 1 km E. Observers on a surveillance overflight on the 12th reported no changes within the crater

Explosions with estimated plume heights of 5 km occurred on the 14th and 15th, with the latter producing ashfall in the municipalities of San Pablo del Monte, Tenancingo, Papantla, San Cosme Mazatencocho, San Luis Teolocholco, Acuamanala, Nativitas, Tepetitla, Santa Apolonia Teacalco, Santa Isabel Tetlatlahuaca, and Huamantla, in the state of Tlaxcala, as well as in Nealtican, San Nicolás de los Ranchos, Calpan, San Pedro Cholula, Juan C. Bonilla, Coronango, Atoyatempan, and Coatzingo, in the state of Puebla.

On 17 June an explosion produced an ash plume that reached 8 km above the crater and dispersed towards the SW. An ash plume rising 2.5 km high was accompanied by incandescent ejecta impacting a short distance from the crater on the 21st, and another ash plume reached 2.5 km on the 22nd. Explosions on 26, 29, and 30 June resulted in ash plumes reaching 1.5 km above the crater and ballistic ejecta impacting on the flanks out to 1 km.

For the month of July there was an increased total of 5,637 recorded low-intensity emissions, and 173 larger ash explosions (figure 134). On 8 July an explosion produced ballistic ejecta out to 1.5 km and an ash plume up to 1 km above the crater. An ash plume up to 2.6 km was produced on the 12th. On 19 July a surveillance overflight observed a new dome (dome 83) with a diameter of 70 m and a thickness of 15 m (figure 135). Explosions on 20 July produced ashfall, and minor explosions that ejected incandescent ballistics onto the slopes. An event on the 24th produced an ash plume that reached 1.2 km, and ash plumes the following day reached 1 km. An overflight on 27 July confirmed that these explosions destroyed dome 83, and the crater dimensions remained the same (figure 136). The following day, ash plumes reached up to 1.6 km above the crater, and up to 2 km on the 29th. Minor ashfall was reported in the municipality of Ozumba on 30 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 134. Examples of ash plumes at Popocatépetl on 1 July (top left), 18 July (top right and bottom left), and 30 July (bottom right) 2019. In the night time image taken on 18 July hot rocks are visible on the flank. Webcam images courtesy of CENAPRED and Webcams de Mexico.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 135. A surveillance overflight at Popocatépetl on 19 July 2019 confirmed a new dome, dome number 83, with a width of 70 m and a thickness of 15 m. Courtesy of CENAPRED and Geophysics Institute of UNAM.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 136. Photos of the summit crater of Popocatépetl taken during a surveillance flight on 27 July 2019 confirmed that the 83rd lava dome was destroyed by recent explosions and the crater maintained the same dimensions as previously measured. Courtesy of CENAPRED and Geophysics Institute of UNAM.

Throughout August the number of recorded events was higher than previous months, with 5,091 low-intensity emissions and 204 larger ash explosions (figure 137). Two explosions generated ash plumes and incandescent ejecta on 2 August, the first with a plume up to 1.5 km with ejecta impacting the slopes, and the second with an 800 m plume and ejecta landing back in the crater. Ashfall from the events was reported in in the municipalities of Tenango del Aire, Ayapango and Amecameca. On the 14th ashfall was reported in Juchitepec, Ayapango, and Ozumba. Explosions on 16 August produced ash plumes up to 2 km that dispersed to the WSW. Over the following two days ash plumes reached 1.2 km and resulted in ashfall in Cuernavaca, Tepoztlán, Tlalnepantla, Morelos, Ozumba, and Ecatzingo. Over 30-31 August ash plumes reached between 1-2 km above the crater and ashfall was reported in Amecameca, Atlautla, Ozumba, and Tlalmanalco. Incandescence was sometimes observed at the crater through the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 137. Ash plumes at Popocatépetl on 7 August (top) and 26 August 2019 (bottom). Courtesy of CENAPRED and Webcams de Mexico.

The MODVOLC algorithm for MODIS thermal anomalies registered thermal alerts through this period, with 22 in March, three in May, five in July, and one in August. The MIROVA system showed that the frequency of thermal anomalies at Popocatépetl was higher in March, sporadic in April and May, low in June, and had increased again in July and August (figure 138). Elevated temperatures were frequently visible in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite data when clouds and plumes were not covering the crater (figure 139).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 138. Thermal activity at Popocatépetl detected by the MIROVA system showed frequent anomalies in March, intermittent anomalies through April-May, low activity in June, and an increase in July-August 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 139. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images frequently showed elevated temperatures in the crater of Popocatépetl during March-August 2019, as seen in this representative image from 7 May 2019. Sentinel2- atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8A) scene courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Volcán Popocatépetl, whose name is the Aztec word for smoking mountain, rises 70 km SE of Mexico City to form North America's 2nd-highest volcano. The glacier-clad stratovolcano contains a steep-walled, 400 x 600 m wide crater. The generally symmetrical volcano is modified by the sharp-peaked Ventorrillo on the NW, a remnant of an earlier volcano. At least three previous major cones were destroyed by gravitational failure during the Pleistocene, producing massive debris-avalanche deposits covering broad areas to the south. The modern volcano was constructed south of the late-Pleistocene to Holocene El Fraile cone. Three major Plinian eruptions, the most recent of which took place about 800 CE, have occurred since the mid-Holocene, accompanied by pyroclastic flows and voluminous lahars that swept basins below the volcano. Frequent historical eruptions, first recorded in Aztec codices, have occurred since Pre-Columbian time.

Information Contacts: Centro Nacional de Prevención de Desastres (CENAPRED), Av. Delfín Madrigal No.665. Coyoacan, México D.F. 04360, México (URL: http://www.cenapred.unam.mx/); Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), University City, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico (URL: https://www.unam.mx/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://SO2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Webcams de Mexico (URL: http://www.webcamsdemexico.com/); Agence France-Presse (URL: http://www.afp.com/).


Semeru (Indonesia) — September 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Semeru

Indonesia

8.108°S, 112.922°E; summit elev. 3657 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent activity continues during March-August 2019; ash plumes and thermal anomalies

The ongoing eruption at Semeru weakened in intensity during 2018, with occasional ash plumes and thermal anomalies (BGVN 44:04); this reduced but ongoing level of activity continued through August 2019. The volcano is monitored by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC). The current report summarizes activity from 1 March to 31 August 2019. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 1-4); the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the active crater and 4 km away on the SSE flank.

Based on analysis of satellite images, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4-4.3 km on 19 April, 20 June, 10 July, and 13 July, drifting in various directions. In addition, PVMBG reported that at 0830 on 26 June an explosion produced an ash plume that rose around 600 m above the summit and drifted SW. A news article (Tempo.com) dated 12 August cited PVMBG as stating that the volcano had erupted 17 times since 8 August.

During March-August 2019 thermal anomalies were detected with the MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm only on 5 July and 22 August. No explosions were recorded on those two days. Scattered thermal anomalies within 5 km of the volcano were detected by the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system, also based on analysis of MODIS data: one at the end of March and 3-6 hotspots over the following months, almost all of low radiative power. Satellite imagery intermittently showed thermal activity in the Jonggring-Seloko crater (figure 37), sometimes with material moving down the SE-flank ravine.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Sentinel-2 satellite images showing the persistent elevated thermal anomaly in the Jonggring-Seloko crater of Semeru were common through August 2019, as seen in this view on 20 July. Hot material could sometimes be identified in the SE-flank ravine. Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Semeru, the highest volcano on Java, and one of its most active, lies at the southern end of a volcanic massif extending north to the Tengger caldera. The steep-sided volcano, also referred to as Mahameru (Great Mountain), rises above coastal plains to the south. Gunung Semeru was constructed south of the overlapping Ajek-ajek and Jambangan calderas. A line of lake-filled maars was constructed along a N-S trend cutting through the summit, and cinder cones and lava domes occupy the eastern and NE flanks. Summit topography is complicated by the shifting of craters from NW to SE. Frequent 19th and 20th century eruptions were dominated by small-to-moderate explosions from the summit crater, with occasional lava flows and larger explosive eruptions accompanied by pyroclastic flows that have reached the lower flanks of the volcano.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Tempo.com (URL: https://www.tempo.com/).


Saunders (United Kingdom) — August 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Saunders

United Kingdom

57.8°S, 26.483°W; summit elev. 843 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent activity most months, October 2018-June 2019; photographs during February and May 2019

Historical observations of eruptive activity from the glacier-covered Mount Michael stratovolcano on Saunders Island in the South Sandwich Islands were not recorded until the early 19th century at this remote site in the southernmost Atlantic Ocean, and remain extremely rare. With the advent of satellite observation technology, indications of more frequent eruptive activity have become apparent. Vapor emission is frequently reported from the summit crater, and AVHRR and MODIS satellite imagery has revealed evidence for lava lake activity in the summit crater (Lachlan-Cope and others, 2001). Limited thermal anomaly data and satellite imagery indicated at least intermittent activity during May 2000-November 2013, and from November 2014 through April 2018 (Gray and others, 2019). Ongoing observations, including photographs from two site visits in February and May 2019 suggest continued activity at the summit during most months through May 2019, the period covered in this report. Information, in addition to on-site photographs, comes from MIROVA thermal anomaly data, NASA SO2 instruments, and Sentinel-2 and Landsat satellite imagery.

Near-constant cloud coverage for much of the year makes satellite data intermittent and creates difficulty in interpreting the ongoing nature of the activity. Gray and others (2019) concluded recently after a detailed study of shortwave and infrared satellite images that there was continued evidence for the previously identified lava lake on Mount Michael since January 1989. MIROVA thermal anomaly data suggest intermittent pulses of thermal energy in September, November, and December 2018, and April 2019 (figure 17). Satellite imagery confirmed some type of activity, either a dense steam plume, evidence of ash, or a thermal anomaly, each month during December 2018-March 2019. Sulfur dioxide anomalies were recorded in January, February, and March 2019. Photographic evidence of fresh ash was captured in February 2019, and images from May 2019 showed dense steam rising from the summit crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. MIROVA thermal anomaly data from 19 September 2018 through June 2019 showed sporadic, low-level pulses of thermal energy in late September, November, and December 2018, and April 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.

After satellite imagery and thermal anomaly data in late September 2018 showed evidence for eruptive activity (BGVN 43:10, figure 16), a single thermal anomaly in MIROVA data was recorded in mid-November 2018 (figure 17). A rare, clear Sentinel-2 image on 2 December revealed a dense steam plume over the active summit crater; the steam obscured the presence of any possible thermal anomalies beneath (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Sentinel-2 images of Mount Michael on Saunders Island on 2 December 2018 revealed a dense steam plume over the summit crater that was difficult to distinguish from the surrounding snow in Natural Color rendering (bands 4,3,2) (left), but was clearly visible in Atmospheric Penetration rendering (bands 12,11, 8a) (right). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Clear evidence of recent activity appeared on 1 January 2019 with both a thermal anomaly at the summit crater and a streak of ash on the snow (figure 19). Steam was also present within the summit crater. A distinct SO2 anomaly appeared in data from the TROPOMI instrument on 14 January (figure 20).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. A thermal anomaly and dense steam were recorded at the summit of Mount Michael on Saunders Island on 1 January 2019 in Sentinel-2 Satellite imagery with Atmospheric Penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a) (left). The same image shown with Natural Color rendering (bands 4,3,2) (right) shows a recent streak of brown particulates drifting SE from the summit crater. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. A distinct SO2 plume was recorded drifting NW from Saunders Island by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5-P satellite on 14 January 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Multiple sources of satellite data and sea-based visual observation confirmed activity during February 2019. SO2 emissions were recorded with the TROPOMI instrument on 10, 11, 15, and 16 February (figure 21). A Landsat image from 10 February showed a dense steam plume drifting NW from the summit crater, with the dark rim of the summit crater well exposed (figure 22). Sentinel-2 images in natural color and atmospheric penetration renderings identified a dense steam plume drifting S and a thermal anomaly within the summit crater on 15 February (figure 23). An expedition to the South Sandwich Islands between 15 February and 8 March 2019 sponsored by the UK government sailed by Saunders in late February and observed a stream of ash on the NNE flank beneath the cloud cover (figure 24).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Faint but distinct SO2 plumes were recorded drifting away from Saunders Island in various directions on 10, 11, 15, and 16 February 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. The dark summit crater of Mount Michael on Saunders Island was visible in Landsat imagery on 10 February 2019. A dense steam plume drifted NW and cast a dark shadow on the underlying cloud cover. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. At the summit of Mount Michael on Saunders Island, Sentinel-2 images in Natural Color (bands 4,3,2) (left) and Atmospheric Penetration (bands 12, 11, 8a) (right) renderings identified a dense steam plume drifting S and a thermal anomaly within the summit crater on 15 February 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Recent ash covered the NNE flank of Mount Michael on Saunders Island in late February 2019 when observed by an expedition to the South Sandwich Islands sponsored by the UK government. Courtesy of Chris Darby.

Faint SO2 emissions were recorded twice during March 2019 (figure 25), and a dense steam plume near the summit crater was visible in Landsat imagery on 23 March (figure 26). Two thermal anomalies were captured in the MIROVA data during April 2019 (figure 17).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Faint SO2 plumes were recorded on 1 and 11 March 2019 emerging from Saunders Island. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. A dense steam plume drifted E from the summit crater of Mount Michael at Saunders Island on 25 March 2019. Landsat-8 image courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A volcano-related research project "SSIVOLC" explored the South Sandwich Islands volcanoes during 15 April-31 May 2019. A major aim of SSIVOLC was to collect photogrammetric data of the glacier-covered Mount Michael (Derrien and others, 2019). A number of still images were acquired on 17 and 22 May 2019 showing various features of the island (figures 27-30). The researchers visually observed brief, recurrent, and very weak glow at the summit of Mount Michael after dark on 17 May, which they interpreted as reflecting light from an active lava lake within the summit crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. The steep slopes of an older eroded crater on the E end of Saunders island in the 'Ashen Hills' shows layers of volcanic deposits dipping away from the open half crater. In the background, steam and gas flow out of the summit crater of Mount Michael and drift down the far slope. Drone image PA-IS-03 taken during 17-22 May 2019, courtesy of Derrien and others (2019) used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) License.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. A dense steam plume drifts away from the summit of Mount Michael on Saunders Island in this drone image taken during 17-22 May 2019. The older summit crater is to the left of the dark patch in the middle of the summit. North is to the right. Image SU-3 courtesy of Derrien and others (2019) used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) License.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. This close-up image of the summit of Mount Michael on Saunders Island shows steam plumes billowing from the summit crater, and large crevasses in the glacier covered flank, taken during 17-22 May 2019. The old crater is to the left. Image TL-SU-1 courtesy of Derrien and others (2019) used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) License.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. A dense plume of steam rises from the summit crater of Mount Michael on Saunders Island and drifts over mounds of frozen material during 17-22 May 2019. The older crater is to the left, and part of the Ashen Hills is in the foreground. Image TL-SU-2 courtesy of Derrien and others (2019) used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0) License.

References: Lachlan-Cope T, Smellie J L, Ladkin R, 2001. Discovery of a recurrent lava lake on Saunders Island (South Sandwich Islands) using AVHRR imagery. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 112: 105-116.

Gray D M, Burton-Johnson A, Fretwell P T, 2019. Evidence for a lava lake on Mt. Michael volcano, Saunders Island (South Sandwich Islands) from Landsat, Sentinel-2 and ASTER satellite imagery. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 379:60-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.volgeores.2019.05.002.

Derrien A, Richter N, Meschede M, Walter T, 2019. Optical DSLR camera- and UAV footage of the remote Mount Michael Volcano, Saunders Island (South Sandwich Islands), acquired in May 2019. GFZ Data Services. http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.2.1..2019.003

Geologic Background. Saunders Island is a volcanic structure consisting of a large central edifice intersected by two seamount chains, as shown by bathymetric mapping (Leat et al., 2013). The young constructional Mount Michael stratovolcano dominates the glacier-covered island, while two submarine plateaus, Harpers Bank and Saunders Bank, extend north. The symmetrical Michael has a 500-m-wide summit crater and a remnant of a somma rim to the SE. Tephra layers visible in ice cliffs surrounding the island are evidence of recent eruptions. Ash clouds were reported from the summit crater in 1819, and an effusive eruption was inferred to have occurred from a N-flank fissure around the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century. A low ice-free lava platform, Blackstone Plain, is located on the north coast, surrounding a group of former sea stacks. A cluster of parasitic cones on the SE flank, the Ashen Hills, appear to have been modified since 1820 (LeMasurier and Thomson, 1990). Vapor emission is frequently reported from the summit crater. Recent AVHRR and MODIS satellite imagery has revealed evidence for lava lake activity in the summit crater.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Chris Darby (URL: https://twitter.com/ChrisDDarby, image at https://twitter.com/ChrisDDarby/status/1100686838568812544).


Pacaya (Guatemala) — August 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Pacaya

Guatemala

14.382°N, 90.601°W; summit elev. 2569 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava flows and Strombolian explosions continued during February-July 2019

Pacaya is one of the most active volcanoes in Guatemala, with activity largely consisting of frequent lava flows and Strombolian activity at the Mackenney crater. This report summarizes continued activity during February through July 2019 based on reports by Guatemala's Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH) and Sistema de la Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), visiting scientists, and satellite data.

At the beginning of February activity included Strombolian explosions ejecting material up to 5 to 30 m above the Mackenney crater and a degassing plume up to 300 m. Multiple lava flows were observed throughout the month on the N, NW, and W flanks, reaching 350 m from the crater and resulting in avalanches from the flow fronts. Strombolian activity continued with sporadic to continuous explosions ejecting material 5-75 m above the Mackenney crater. Degassing produced plumes up to 300 m above the crater, and incandescence from the crater and lava flows were seen at night. Daniel Sturgess of Bristol University observed activity on the 24th, noting a 70-m-long lava flow with individual blocks from the front of the flow rolling down the flanks (figure 108). He reported that mild Strombolian explosions occurred every 10-20 minutes and ejected blocks, up to approximately 4 m in diameter, as high as 5-30 m above the crater and towards the northern flank.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 108. An active lava flow on the NW flank of Pacaya on 24 February 2019 with incandescence visible in lower light conditions. Courtesy of Daniel Sturgess, University of Bristol.

Similar activity continued through March with multiple lava flows reaching a maximum of 200 m N and NW, and avalanches descending from the flow fronts. Ongoing Strombolian explosions expelled material up to 75 m above the Mackenney crater. Degassing produced a white-blue plume to a maximum of 900 m above the crater (figure 109) and incandescence was noted some nights.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 109. A degassing plume at Pacaya reaching 350 m above the crater and dispersing to the S on 19 March 2019. Courtesy of CONRED.

During April lava flows continued on the N and NW flanks, reaching a maximum length of 300 m, with avalanches forming from the flow fronts. Degassing formed plumes up to 600 m above the crater that dispersed with various wind directions. Strombolian activity continued with explosions ejecting material up to 40 m above the crater. On the 2nd and 3rd weak rumbles were heard at distances of 4-5 km. Similar activity continued through May with lava flows reaching 300 m to the N, degassing producing plumes up to 600 m above the crater, and Strombolian explosions ejecting material up to 15 m above the crater.

Lava flows continued out to 300 m in length to the N and NW during June (figures 110 and 111). Strombolian activity ejected material up to 30 m above the crater and degassing resulted in plumes that reached 300 m. During July there were multiple active lava flows that reached a maximum of 300 m in length on the N and NW flanks (figure 112). Avalanches generated by the collapse of material at the front of the lava flows were accompanied by explosions ejecting material up to 30 m above the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. An active lava flow on Pacaya on 9 June 2019 with incandescent blocks rolling down the flank from the flow front. Courtesy of Paul Wallace, University of Liverpool.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 111. Activity at Pacaya on 22 June 2019 with a degassing plume dispersed to the W and a 300-m-long lava flow. Photos by Miguel Morales, courtesy of CONRED.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 112. Two lava flows were active to the N and NW at Pacaya on 20 July 2019. Photos courtesy of CONRED.

During February through July multiple lava flows and crater activity were detected in Sentinel-2 satellite thermal images (figures 113 and 114) and relatively constant thermal energy was detected by the MIROVA system with a slight decrease in the energy and frequency of anomalies during June (figure 115). The thermal anomalies detected by the MODVOLC system for each month from February through July spanned 6-30, with six during June and 30 during April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 113. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Pacaya show lava flows to the N and NW during February through April 2019. There was a reduction in visible activity in early March. False color (urban) satellite images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 114. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Pacaya showing lava flow and hot avalanche activity during June and July 2019. False color (urban) satellite images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 115. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Pacaya during October 2018 through July 2019. Detected thermal energy is relatively stable with a decrease through June and subsequent increase during July. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. This complex basaltic volcano was constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the ancestral Pacaya Viejo and Cerro Grande stratovolcanoes and the currently active Mackenney stratovolcano. Collapse of Pacaya Viejo between 600 and 1500 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (Mackenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of Mackenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the growing young stratovolcano.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Av. Hincapié 21-72, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://conred.gob.gt/www/index.php); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Daniel Sturgess, School of Earth Sciences, University of Bristol, Wills Memorial Building, Queens Road, Bristol BS8 1RJ, United Kingdom (URL: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/earthsciences/); Paul Wallace, Department of Earth, Ocean and Ecological Sciences, University of Liverpool, 4 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L69 3GP, United Kingdom (URL: https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/environmental-sciences/staff/paul-wallace/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Colima (Mexico) — August 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Colima

Mexico

19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Renewed volcanism after two years of quiet; explosion on 11 May 2019

Frequent historical eruptions at Volcán de Colima date back to the 16th century and include explosive activity, lava flows, and large debris avalanches. The most recent eruptive episode began in January 2013 and continued through March 2017. Previous reports have covered activity involving ash plumes with extensive ashfall, lava flows, lahars, and pyroclastic flows (BGVN 41:01 and 42:08). In late April 2019, increased seismicity related to volcanic activity began again. This report covers activity through July 2019. The primary source of information was the Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia, Universidad de Colima (CUEIV-UdC).

On 11 May 2019, CUEIV-UdC reported an explosion that was recorded by several monitoring stations. A thermal camera located south of Colima captured thermal anomalies associated with the explosion as well as intermittent degassing, which mainly consisted of water vapor (figure 131). A report from the Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil de Colima (UEPCC), and seismic and infrasound network data from CUEIV-UdC, recorded about 60 high-frequency events, 16 landslides, and 14 low-magnitude explosions occurring on the NE side of the crater during 11-24 May. Drone imagery showed fumarolic activity occurring on the inner wall of this crater on 22 May (figure 132).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 131. Gas emissions from Colima during the 11 May 2019 eruption as seen from the Naranjal station. Courtesy of CUEIV-UdC (Boletin Seminal de la Actividad del Volcan de Colima 17 mayo 2019 no 121).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 132. A drone photo showing fumarolic activity occurring within the NE wall of the crater at Colima on 22 May 2019. Courtesy of CUEIV-UdC (Boletin Seminal de la Actividad del Volcan de Colima 24 mayo 2019 no 122).

Small explosions and gas-and-steam emissions continued intermittently through mid-July 2019 concentrated on the NE side of the crater. An overflight on 9 July 2019 revealed that subsidence from the consistent activity slightly increased the diameter of the vent; other areas within the crater also showed evidence of subsidence and some collapsed material on the outer W wall (figure 133). During the weeks of 19 and 26 July 2019, monitoring cameras and seismic data recorded eight lahars.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 133. A drone photo of the crater at Colima on 8 July 2019 shows continuing fumarolic activity and evidence of a collapsed wall on the W exterior side. Courtesy of CUEIV-UdC (Boletin Seminal de la Actividad del Volcan de Colima 12 julio 2019 no 129).

Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Information Contacts: Centro Universitario de Estudios e Investigaciones de Vulcanologia, Universidad de Colima (CUEIV-UdC), Colima, Col. 28045, Mexico; Centro Universitario de Estudios Vulcanologicos y Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad de Colima, Avenida Universidad 333, Colima, Col. 28045, Mexico (URL: http://portal.ucol.mx/cueiv/); Unidad Estatal de Protección Civil, Colima, Roberto Esperón No. 1170 Col. de los Trabajadores, C.P. 28020, Mexico (URL: http://www.proteccioncivil.col.gob.mx/).


Masaya (Nicaragua) — August 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Masaya

Nicaragua

11.984°N, 86.161°W; summit elev. 635 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake activity declined during March-July 2019

Masaya, in Nicaragua, contains a lava lake found in the Santiago Crater which has remained active since its return in December 2015 (BGVN 41:08). In addition to this lava lake, previous volcanism included explosive eruptions, lava flows, and gas emissions. Activity generally decreased during March-July 2019, including the number and frequency of thermal anomalies, lava lake levels, and gas emissions. The primary source of information for this report comes from the Instituto Nicareguense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER).

On 21 July 2019 a small explosion in the Santiago Crater resulted in some gas emissions and an ash cloud drifting WNW. In addition to the active lava lake (figure 77), monthly reports from INETER noted that thermal activity and gas emissions (figure 78) were decreasing.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Active lava lake visible in the Santiago Crater at Masaya on 27 June 2019. Photo by Sheila DeForest (Creative Commons BY-SA license).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Gas emissions coming from the Santiago Crater at Masaya on 29 June 2019. Photo by Sheila DeForest (Creative Commons BY-SA license).

On 15 May and 22 July 2019, INETER scientists used a FLIR SC620 thermal infrared camera to measure temperatures of fumaroles on the Santiago Crater. In May 2019 the temperature of fumaroles had decreased by 48°C since the previous month. Between May and July 2019 fumarole temperatures continued to decline; temperatures ranged from 90° to 136°C (figure 79). Compared to May 2019 these temperatures are 3°C lower. INETER reports that the level of the lava lake has been slowly dropping during this reporting period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. FLIR (forward-looking infrared) and visible images of the Santiago Crater at Masaya showing fumarole temperatures ranging from 90° to 136°C. The scale in the center shows the range of temperatures in the FLIR image. Courtesy of INETER (March 2019 report).

According to MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) data from MODIS satellite instruments, frequent thermal anomalies were recorded from mid-March through early May 2019, with little to no activity from mid-May to July 2019 (figure 80). Sentinel-2 thermal images show high temperatures in the active lava lake on 10 March 2019 (figure 81). Thermal energy detected by the MODVOLC algorithm showed 14 hotspot pixels with the most number of hotspots (7) occurring in March 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Thermal anomalies were relatively constant at Masaya from early September 2018 through early May 2019 and then abruptly decreased until mid-June 2019 as recorded by MIROVA. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image showing a detected heat signature from the active lava lake at Masaya on 10 March 2019. The lava lake is visible (bright yellow-orange). Approximate diameter of the crater containing the lava lake is 500 m. Thermal (urban) satellite image (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Masaya is one of Nicaragua's most unusual and most active volcanoes. It lies within the massive Pleistocene Las Sierras pyroclastic shield volcano and is a broad, 6 x 11 km basaltic caldera with steep-sided walls up to 300 m high. The caldera is filled on its NW end by more than a dozen vents that erupted along a circular, 4-km-diameter fracture system. The twin volcanoes of Nindirí and Masaya, the source of historical eruptions, were constructed at the southern end of the fracture system and contain multiple summit craters, including the currently active Santiago crater. A major basaltic Plinian tephra erupted from Masaya about 6500 years ago. Historical lava flows cover much of the caldera floor and have confined a lake to the far eastern end of the caldera. A lava flow from the 1670 eruption overtopped the north caldera rim. Masaya has been frequently active since the time of the Spanish Conquistadors, when an active lava lake prompted attempts to extract the volcano's molten "gold." Periods of long-term vigorous gas emission at roughly quarter-century intervals cause health hazards and crop damage.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (INETER), Apartado Postal 2110, Managua, Nicaragua (URL: http://www.ineter.gob.ni/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Sheila DeForest (URL: https://www.facebook.com/sheila.deforest).


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — August 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Occasional weak phreatic explosions during March-July 2019

The acid lake of Rincón de la Vieja's active crater has generated intermittent weak phreatic explosions regularly since 2011, continuing during the past year through at least August 2019. The volcano is monitored by the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), and the information below comes from its weekly bulletins between 4 March and 2 September 2019. Clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views. The current report describes activity from March through July 2019.

OVSICORI-UNA reported that weak events occurred on 19 March at 1851 and on 29 March 2019 at 2043. A two-minute-long phreatic explosion on 1 April at 0802 produced a plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. Continuous emissions were visible during 3-4 April, rising 200 m above the crater rim. On 3 April, at 1437, a small explosion was detected. An explosion on 10 April at 0617 produced a gas-and-steam plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim and drifted SE. On 12 April at 0643, a plume rose 500 m. Another event took place at 0700 on 13 April, although poor weather conditions prevented visual observations. On 14 April, OVSICORI-UNA noted that aerial photographs showed a milky-gray acid lake at a relatively low water level with convection cells of several tens meters of diameter in the center and eastern parts of the lake.

According to an OVSICORI-UNA bulletin, a small phreatic explosion occurred on 1 May. Another explosion on 11 May at 0720 produced a white gas-and-steam plume that rose 600 m above the crater rim. Phreatic explosions were recorded on 14 May at 1703 and on 17 May at 0357, though dense fog prevented visual confirmation of both events with webcams. On 15 May a local observer noted a diffuse plume of steam and gas, material rising from the crater, and photographed milky-gray deposits on the N part of the crater rim ejected from the event the day before. A major explosion occurred on 24 May.

OVSICORI-UNA recorded a significant phreatic 10-minute-long explosion that began on 11 June at 0343, but plumes were not visible due to weather conditions. No further phreatic events were reported in July.

Seismic activity was very low during the reporting period, and there was no significant deformation. Short tremors were frequent toward the end of April, but were only periodic in May and June; tremor almost disappeared in July. A few long-period earthquakes were recorded, and volcano-tectonic earthquakes were even less frequent.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/, https://www.facebook.com/OVSICORI/).


Aira (Japan) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions with ejecta and ash plumes continue weekly during January-June 2019

Sakurajima rises from Kagoshima Bay, which fills the Aira Caldera near the southern tip of Japan's Kyushu Island. Frequent explosive and occasional effusive activity has been ongoing for centuries. The Minamidake summit cone has been the location of persistent activity since 1955; the Showa crater on its E flank has also been intermittently active since 2006. Numerous explosions and ash-bearing emissions have been occurring each month at either Minamidake or Showa crater since the latest eruptive episode began in late March 2017. This report covers ongoing activity from January through June 2019; the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides regular reports on activity, and the Tokyo VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center) issues tens of reports each month about the frequent ash plumes.

From January to June 2019, ash plumes and explosions were usually reported multiple times each week. The quietest month was June with only five eruptive events; the most active was March with 29 (table 21). Ash plumes rose from a few hundred meters to 3,500 m above the summit during the period. Large blocks of incandescent ejecta traveled as far as 1,700 m from the Minamidake crater during explosions in February and April. All the activity originated in the Minamidake crater; the adjacent Showa crater only had a mild thermal anomaly and fumarole throughout the period. Satellite imagery identified thermal anomalies inside the Minamidake crater several times each month.

Table 21. Monthly summary of eruptive events recorded at Sakurajima's Minamidake crater in Aira caldera, January-June 2019. The number of events that were explosive in nature are in parentheses. No events were recorded at the Showa crater during this time. Data courtesy of JMA (January to June 2019 monthly reports).

Month Ash emissions (explosive) Max. plume height above crater Max. ejecta distance from crater
Jan 2019 8 (6) 2.1 km 1.1 km
Feb 2019 15 (11) 2.3 km 1.7 km
Mar 2019 29 (12) 3.5 km 1.3 km
Apr 2019 10 (5) 2.2 km 1.7 km
May 2019 15 (9) 2.9 km 1.3 km
Jun 2019 5 (2) 2.2 km 1.3 km

There were eight eruptive events reported by JMA during January 2019 at the Minamidake summit crater of Sakurajima. They occurred on 3, 6, 7, 9, 17, and 19 January (figure 76). Ash plume heights ranged from 600 to 2,100 m above the summit. The largest explosion, on 9 January, generated an ash plume that rose 2,100 m above the summit crater and drifted E. In addition, incandescent ejecta was sent 800-1,100 m from the summit. Incandescence was visible at the summit on most clear nights. During an overflight on 18 January no significant changes were noted at the crater (figure 77). Infrared thermal imaging done on 29 January indicated a weak thermal anomaly in the vicinity of the Showa crater on the SE side of Minamidake crater. The Kagoshima Regional Meteorological Observatory (KRMO) (11 km WSW) recorded ashfall there during four days of the month. Satellite imagery indicated thermal anomalies inside Minamidake on 7 and 27 January (figure 77).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Incandescent ejecta and ash emissions characterized activity from Sakurajima volcano at Aira during January 2019. Left: A webcam image showed incandescent ejecta on the flanks on 9 January 2019, courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, January 2019). Right: An ash plume rose hundreds of meters above the summit, likely also on 9 January, posted on 10 January 2019, courtesy of Mike Day.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. The summit of Sakurajima consists of the larger Minamidake crater and the smaller Showa crater on the E flank. Left: The Minamidake crater at the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 18 January 2019 seen in an overflight courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, March 2019). Right: Two areas of thermal anomaly were visible in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 27 January 2019. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity increased during February 2019, with 15 eruptive events reported on days 1, 3, 7, 8, 10, 13, 14, 17, 22, 24, and 27. Ash plume heights ranged from 600-2,300 m above the summit, and ejecta was reported 300 to 1,700 m from the crater in various events (figure 78). KRMO reported two days of ashfall during February. Satellite imagery identified thermal anomalies at the crater on 6 and 26 February, and ash plumes on 21 and 26 February (figure 79).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. An explosion from Sakurajima at Aira on 7 February 2019 sent ejecta up to 1,700 m from the Minamidake summit crater. Courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, February 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Thermal anomalies and ash emissions were captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 6, 21, and 26 February 2019 originating from Sakurajima volcano at Aira. Top: Thermal anomalies within the summit crater were visible underneath steam and ash plumes on 6 and 26 February (closeup of bottom right photo). Bottom: Ash emissions on 21 and 26 February drifted SE from the volcano. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The number of eruptive events continued to increase during March 2019; there were 29 events reported on numerous days (figures 80 and 81). An explosion on 14 March produced an ash plume that rose 3,500 m above the summit and drifted E. It also produced ejecta that landed 800-1,100 m from the crater. During an overflight on 26 March a fumarole was the only activity in Showa crater. KRMO reported 14 days of ashfall during the month. Satellite imagery identified an ash plume on 13 March and a thermal anomaly on 18 March (figure 82).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. A large ash emission from Sakurajima volcano at Aira was photographed by a tourist on the W flank and posted on 1 March 2019. Courtesy of Kratü.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. An ash plume from Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 18 March 2019 produced enough ashfall to disrupt the trains in the nearby city of Kagoshima according to the photographer. Image taken from about 20 km away. Courtesy of Tim Board.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. An ash plume drifted SE from the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 13 March (left) and a thermal anomaly was visible inside the Minamidake crater on 18 March 2019 (right). "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A decline in activity to only ten eruptive events on days 7, 13, 17, 22, and 25 was reported by JMA for April 2019. An explosion on 7 April sent ejecta up to 1,700 m from the crater. Another explosion on 13 April produced an ash plume that rose 2,200 m above the summit. Most of the eruptive events at Sakurajima last for less than 30 minutes; on 22 April two events lasted for almost an hour each producing ash plumes that rose 1,400 m above the summit. Ashfall at KRMO was reported during seven days in April. Two distinct thermal anomalies were visible inside the Minamidake crater on both 12 and 27 April (figure 83).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Two thermal anomalies were present inside Minamidake crater at the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira on 12 (left) and 27 (right) April 2019. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, and 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

There were 15 eruptive events during May 2019. An event that lasted for two hours on 12 May produced an ash plume that rose 2,900 m from the summit and drifted NE (figure 84). The Meteorological Observatory reported 14 days with ashfall during the month. Two thermal anomalies were present in satellite imagery in the Minamidake crater on both 17 and 22 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. An ash plume rose 2,900 m above the summit of Sakurajima at Aira on 12 May 2019 (left); incandescent ejecta went 1,300 m from the summit crater on 13 May. Courtesy of JMA (Explanation of volcanic activity in Sakurajima, May 2019).

During June 2019 five eruptive events were reported, on 11, 13, and 24 June; the event on 11 June lasted for almost two hours, sent ash 2,200 m above the summit, and produced ejecta that landed up to 1,100 m from the crater (figure 85). Five days of ashfall were reported by KRMO.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. A large ash plume on 11 June 2019 rose 2,200 m above the summit of Sakurajima volcano at Aira. Courtesy of Aone Wakatsuki.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Mike Day, Minnesota, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/MikeDaySMM, photo at https://twitter.com/MikeDaySMM/status/1083489400451989505/photo/1); Kratü, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/TalesOfKratue, photo at https://twitter.com/TalesOfKratue/status/1101469595414589441/photo/1); Tim Board, Japan, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/Hawkworld_, photo at https://twitter.com/Hawkworld_/status/1107789108754038789); Aone Wakatsuke, Twitter (URL: https://twitter.com/AoneWakatsuki, photo at https://twitter.com/AoneWakatsuki/status/1138420031258210305/photo/3).


Agung (Indonesia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Agung

Indonesia

8.343°S, 115.508°E; summit elev. 2997 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued explosions with ash plumes and incandescent ejecta, February-May 2019

After a large, deadly explosive and effusive eruption during 1963-64, Indonesia's Mount Agung on Bali remained quiet until a new eruption began in November 2017 (BGVN 43:01). Lava emerged into the summit crater at the end of November and intermittent ash plumes rose as high as 3 km above the summit through the end of the year. Activity continued throughout 2018 with explosions that produced ash plumes rising multiple kilometers above the summit, and the slow effusion of the lava within the summit crater (BGVN 43:08, 44:02). Information about the ongoing eruptive episode comes from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and multiple sources of satellite data. This report covers the ongoing eruption from February through May 2019.

Intermittent but increasingly frequent and intense explosions with ash emissions and incandescent ejecta characterized activity at Agung during February through May 2019. During February, explosions were reported three times; events on seven days in March were documented with ash plumes and ashfall in surrounding villages. Five significant events occurred during April; two involved incandescent ejecta that traveled several kilometers from the summit, and ashfall tens of kilometers from the volcano. Most of the five significant events reported in May involved incandescent ejecta and ashfall in adjacent villages; air traffic was disrupted during the 24 May event. Ash plumes in May reached altitudes over 7 km multiple times. Thermal activity increased steadily during the period, according to both the MIROVA project (figure 44) and MODVOLC thermal alert data. MAGMA Indonesia reported at the end of May 2019 that the volume of lava within the summit crater remained at about 25 million m3; satellite information indicated continued thermal activity within the crater. Alert Level III (of four levels) remained in effect throughout the period with a 4 km exclusion radius around the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Thermal activity at Agung from 4 September 2018 through May 2019 was variable. The increasing frequency and intensity of thermal events was apparent from February-May. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Steam plumes rose 30-300 m high daily during February 2019. The Agung Volcano Observatory (AVO) and PVMBG issued a VONA on 7 February (UTC) reporting an ash plume, although it was not visible due to meteoric cloud cover. Incandescence, however, was observed at the summit from webcams in both Rendang and Karangasem City (16 km SE). The seismic event associated with the explosion lasted for 97 seconds. A similar event on 13 February was also obscured by clouds but produced a seismic event that lasted for 3 minutes and 40 seconds, and ashfall was reported in the village of Bugbug, about 20 km SE. On 22 February a gray ash plume rose 700 m from the summit during a seismic event that lasted for 6 minutes and 20 seconds (figure 45). The Darwin VAAC reported the plume visible in satellite imagery moving W at 4.3 km altitude. It dissipated after a few hours, but a hotspot remained visible about 10 hours later.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. An ash plume rose from the summit of Agung on 22 February 2019, viewed from the Besakih temple, 7 km SW of the summit. Courtesy of PunapiBali.

Persistent steam plumes rose 50-500 m from the summit during March 2019. An explosion on 4 March was recorded for just under three minutes and produced ashfall in Besakih (7 km SW); no ash plume was observed due to fog. A short-lived ash plume rose to 3.7 km altitude and drifted SE on 8 March (UTC) 2019. The seismic event lasted for just under 4 minutes. Ash emissions were reported on 15 and 17 March to 4.3 and 3.7 km altitude, respectively, drifting W (figure 46). Ashfall from the 15 March event spread NNW and was reported in the villages of Kubu (6 km N), Tianyar (14 km NNW), Ban, Kadundung, and Sukadana. MAGMA Indonesia noted that two explosions on the morning of 17 March (local time) produced gray plumes; the first sent a plume to 500 m above the summit drifting E and lasted for about 40 seconds, while the second plume a few hours later rose 600 m above the crater and lasted for 1 minute and 16 seconds. On 18 March an ash plume rose 1 km and drifted W and NW. An event on 20 March was measured only seismically by PVMBG because fog prevented observations. An eruption on 28 March produced an ash plume 2 km high that drifted W and NW. The seismic signal for this event lasted for about two and a half minutes. The Darwin VAAC reported the ash plume at 5.5 km altitude, dissipating quickly to the NW. No ash was visible four hours later, but a thermal anomaly remained at the summit (figure 47). Ashfall was reported in nearby villages.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Ash plumes from Agung on 15 (left) and 17 (right) March 2019 resulted in ashfall in communities 10-20 km from the volcano. Courtesy of PVMBG and MAGMA Indonesia (Information on G. Agung Eruption, 15 March 2019 and Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release March 17, 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. A thermal anomaly was visible through thick cloud cover at the summit of Agung on 29 March 2019 less than 24 hours after a gray ash plume was reported 2,000 m above the summit. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The first explosion of April 2019 occurred on the 3rd (UTC); PVMBG reported the dense gray ash plume 2 km above the summit drifting W. A few hours later the Darwin VAAC raised the altitude to 6.1 km based on infrared temperatures in satellite imagery. The seismic signal lasted for three and a half minutes and the explosion was heard at the PGA Post in Rendang (12 km SW). Incandescent material fell within a radius of 2-3 km, mainly on the S flank (figure 48). Ashfall was reported in the villages of Telungbuana, Badeg, Besakih, Pempatan, Teges, and Puregai on the W and S flanks (figure 49). An explosion on 11 April also produced a dense gray ash plume that rose 2 km above the summit and drifted W. A hotspot remained about six hours later after the ash dissipated.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Incandescent ejecta appeared on the flanks of Agung after an eruption on 4 April 2019 (local time) as viewed from the observation post in Rendang (8 km SW). Courtesy of Jamie Sincioco.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Ashfall in a nearby town dusted mustard plants on 4 April 2019 from an explosion at Agung the previous day. Courtesy of Pantau.com (Photo: Antara / Nyoman Hendra).

PVMBG reported an eruption visible in the webcam early on 21 April (local time) that rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted SW. The ash spread W and S and ash fell around Besakih (7 km SW), Rendang (8 km SW), Klungkung (25 km S), Gianyar (20 km WSW), Bangli (17 km WNW), Tabanan (50 km WSW), and at the Ngurah Rai-Denpasar Airport (60 km SW). About 15 hours later a new explosion produced a dense gray ash plume that rose to 3 km above the summit and produced incandescent ejecta in all directions as far as 3 km away (figure 50). The ash spread to the S and ashfall was reported in Besakih, Rendang, Sebudi (6 km SW), and Selat (12 km SSW). Both of the explosions were heard in Rendang and Batulompeh. The incandescent ejecta from the explosions remained within the 4-km exclusion zone. A satellite image on 23 April showed multiple thermal anomalies within the summit crater (figure 51). A dense gray plume drifted E from Agung on 29 April (30 April local time) at 4.6 km altitude. It was initially reported by ground observers, but was also visible in multispectral satellite imagery for about six hours before dissipating.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. An explosion at Agung on 21 April 2019 sent incandescent eject 3,000 m from the summit. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia (Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release April 21, 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Multiple thermal anomalies were still present within the summit crater of Agung on 23 April 2019 after two substantial explosions produced ash and incandescent ejecta around the summit two days earlier. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

PVMBG reported an eruption on 3 May 2019 that was recorded on a seismogram with a signal that lasted for about a minute. Satellite imagery reported by the Darwin VAAC showed a growing hotspot and possible ash near the summit at 4.3 km altitude moving NE. A few days later, on 6 May, a gray ash plume rose to 5.2 km altitude and drifted slowly W before dissipating; it was accompanied by a seismic signal that lasted for about two minutes. Explosions on 12 and 18 May produced significant amounts of incandescent ejecta (figure 52). The seismic signal for the 12 May event lasted for about two minutes; no plume was observed due to fog, but incandescent ejecta was visible on the flanks and the explosion was heard at Rendang. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume from the explosion on 17 May (18 May local time) at 6.1 km altitude in satellite imagery moving E. They revised the altitude a short while later to 7.6 km based on IR temperature and movement; the plume drifted N, NE, and E in light and variable winds. A few hours after that it was moving NE at 7.6 km altitude and SE at 5.5 km altitude; this lasted for about 12 hours until it dissipated. Ashfall was reported in villages downwind including Cutcut, Tongtongan, Bonyoh (20 km WNW), and Temakung.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. Explosions on 12 (left) and 18 (right) May (local time) 2019 produced substantial ejecta on the flanks of Agung visible from a distance of 10 km or more in PVMBG webcams. The ash plume from the 18 May event resulted in ashfall in numerous communities downwind. Courtesy of PVMBG (Information Eruption G. Agung, May 13, 2019, Information Eruption G. Agung, May 18, 2019).

The initial explosion on 18 May was captured by a webcam at a nearby resort and sent incandescent ejecta hundreds of meters down the NE flank within 20 seconds (figure 53). Satellite imagery on 3, 8, 13, and 18 May indicated multiple thermal anomalies growing stronger at the summit. All of the images were captured within 24 hours of an explosive event reported by PVMBG (figure 54).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The 18 May 2019 explosion at Agung produced an ash plume that rose to over 7 km altitude and large bombs of incandescent material that traveled hundreds of meters down the NE flank within the first 20 seconds of the explosion. Images taken from a private webcam located 12 km NE. Courtesy of Volcanoverse, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Satellite images from 3, 8, 13, and 18 May 2019 at Agung showed persistent and increasing thermal anomalies within the summit crater. All images were captured within 24 hours of explosions reported by PVMBG. "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, and 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

PVMBG issued a VONA on 24 May 2019 reporting a new ash emission. They indicated that incandescent fragments were ejected 2.5-3 km in all directions from the summit, and the seismic signal lasted for four and a half minutes (figure 55). A dense gray ash plume was observed from Tulamben on the NE flank rising 2 km above the summit. Satellite imagery indicated that the plume drifted SW and ashfall was reported in the villages of Besakih, Pempatan, Menanga, Sebudi, Muncan, Amerta Bhuana, Nongan, Rendang, and at the Ngurah Rai Airport in Denpassar. Additionally, ashfall was reported in the districts of Tembuku, Bangli, and Susut (20 km SW). The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 4.6 km altitude along with a thermal anomaly and incandescent lava visible in webcam imagery. The remains of the ash plume were about 170 km S of the airport in Denpasar (60 km SW) and had nearly dissipated 18 hours after the event. According to a news article several flights to and from Australia were cancelled or diverted, though the International Gusti Ngurah Rai (IGNR) airport was not closed. On 31 May another large explosion produced the largest ash plume of the report period, rising more than 2 km above the summit (figure 56). The Darwin VAAC reported its altitude as 8.2 km drifting ESE visible in satellite data. It split into two plumes, one drifted E at 8.2 km and the other ESE at 6.1 km altitude, dissipating after about 20 hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. A large explosion at Agung on 24 May 2019 produced incandescent ejecta that covered all the flanks and dispersed ash to many communities to the SW. Courtesy of PVMBG (Gunung Agung Eruption Press Release 24 May 2019 20:38 WIB, Kasbani, Ir., M.Sc.).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. An explosion at Agung on 31 May 2019 sent an ash plume to 8.2 km altitude, the highest for the report period. Courtesy of Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks extend to the coast. The summit area extends 1.5 km E-W, with the high point on the W and a steep-walled 800-m-wide crater on the E. The Pawon cone is located low on the SE flank. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded in historical time. The 1963-64 eruption, one of the largest in the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall along with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); The Jakarta Post, Mount Agung eruption disrupts Australian flights, (URL: https://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2019/05/25/mount-agung-eruption-disrupts-australian-flights.html); PunapiBali (URL: http://punapibali.com/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/punapibali, image at https://twitter.com/punapibali/status/1098869352588288000/photo/1); Jamie S. Sincioco, Phillipines (URL: Twitter: https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco. Image at https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco/status/1113765842557104130/photo/1); Pantau.com (URL: https://www.pantau.com/berita/erupsi-gunung-agung-sebagian-wilayah-bali-terpapar-hujan-abu?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter); Volcanoverse (URL: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCi3T_esus8Sr9I-3W5teVQQ); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN ).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, February-May 2019

Frequently active, Indonesia's Mount Kerinci on Sumatra has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838. Intermittent explosions with ash plumes, usually multiple times per month, have characterized activity since April 2018. Similar activity continued during February-May 2019, the period covered in this report with information provided primarily by the Indonesian volcano monitoring agency, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), MAGMA Indonesia, notices from the Darwin Volcano Ash Advisory Center (Darwin VAAC), and satellite data. PVMBG has maintained an Alert Level II (of 4) at Kerinci for several years.

On 13 February 2019 the Kerinci Volcano Observatory (KVO), part of PVMBG, noted a brownish-white ash emission that was drifting NE about 400 m above the summit. The seismicity during the event was dominated by continuous volcanic tremor. A brown ash emission was reported on 7 March 2019 that rose to 3.9 km altitude and drifted NE. Ash also drifted 1,300 m down the SE flank. Another ash plume the next morning drifted W at 4.5 km altitude, according to KVO. On 10, 11, and 13 March KVO reported brown ash plumes drifting NE from the summit at about 4.0-4.3 km altitude. The Darwin VAAC observed continuous ash emissions in satellite imagery on 15 March drifting W at 4.3 m altitude that dissipated after about 3 hours (figure 10). A gray ash emission was reported on 19 March about 600 m above the summit drifting NE; local news media noted that residents of Kayo Aro reported emissions on both 18 and 19 March (figure 11). An ash emission appeared in satellite imagery on 25 March (figure 10). On 30 March the observatory reported two ash plumes; a brown emission at 0351 UTC and a gray emission at 0746 UTC that both drifted NE at about 4.4 km altitude and dissipated within a few hours. PVMBG reported another gray ash plume the following day at a similar altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Kerinci from 15 (left) and 25 (right) March 2019 showed evidence of ash plumes rising from the summit. Kerinci's summit crater is about 500 m wide. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Dense ash plumes from Kerinci were reported by local news media on 18 and 19 March 2019. Courtesy of Nusana Jambi.

Activity continued during April with a brown ash emission reported on 3 April by several different agencies; the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG daily reports noted that the plume was about 500 m above the summit (4.3 km altitude) drifting NE. KVO observed two brown ash emissions on 13 April (UTC) that rose to 4.2 km altitude and drifted NE. Satellite imagery showed minor ash emissions from the summit on 14 April; steam plumes 100-500 m above the summit characterized activity for the remainder of April (figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. A dilute ash emission rose from the summit of Kerinci on 14 April 2019 (left); only steam emissions were present on a clear 29 April in Sentinel-2 imagery (right). "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Ashfall on the NE and S flanks within 7 km of the volcano was reported on 2 May 2019. According to a news article, at least five villages were affected late on 2 May, including Tanjung Bungo, Sangir, Sangir Tengah, Sungai Rumpun, and Bendung Air (figures 13 and 14). The smell of sulfur was apparent in the villages. Brown ash emissions were observed on 3 and 4 May that rose to 4.6 and 4.1 km altitude and drifted SE. The Darwin VAAC reported an emission on 5 May, based on a pilot report, that rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted NE for about an hour before dissipating. A brown ash emission on 10 May rose 700 m above the summit and drifted SE. Satellite imagery captured ash emissions from the summit on 14 and 24 May (figure 15). For the remainder of the month, 300-700-m-high dense steam plumes were noted daily until PVMBG reported white and brown plumes on 26 and 27 May rising 500-1,000 m above the summit. Although thermal anomalies were not reported during the period, persistent weak SO2 emissions were identified in TROPOMI instrument satellite data multiple times per month (figure 16).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Ashfall was reported from five villages on the flanks of Kerinci on 2 May 2019. Courtesy of Uzone.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. An ash plume at Kerinci rose hundreds of meters on 2 May 2019; ashfall was reported in several nearby villages. Courtesy of Kerinci Time.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. Ash emissions from Kerinci were captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 14 (left) and 24 (right) May 2019. The summit crater is about 500 m wide. "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Weak SO2 anomalies from Kerinci emissions were captured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite multiple times each month from February to May 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Nuansa Jambi, Informasi Utama Jambi: (URL: https://nuansajambi.com/2019/03/20/gunung-kerinci-semburkan-asap-tebal/); Kerinci Time (URL: https://kerincitime.co.id/gunung-kerinci-semburkan-abu-vulkanik.html); Uzone.id (URL: https://news.uzone.id/gunung-kerinci-erupsi-5-desa-tertutup-abu-tebal).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 16, Number 05 (May 1991)

Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland

Aira (Japan)

Frequent explosions continue

Arenal (Costa Rica)

Strombolian activity and seismicity increase, then decline; block lava flows on S and SW flanks

Barren Island (India)

Explosions and lava flows from NE flank vent

Colima (Mexico)

Continued lava dome growth; increased avalanching follows earthquakes and tremor episodes

Deception Island (Antarctica)

Stronger earthquakes; anomalous water temperature in caldera center

Etna (Italy)

Strong degassing

Galeras (Colombia)

More seismic events but lower energy release; thermal activity remains moderate

Gede-Pangrango (Indonesia)

Brief earthquake swarm

Guallatiri (Chile)

Strong fumarolic activity

Irazu (Costa Rica)

Tectonic earthquake swarm

Kavachi (Solomon Islands)

Continued explosions from new island

Kilauea (United States)

E rift lava continues to flow through tubes into the ocean

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Ash emission resumes; steady glow

Lascar (Chile)

High crater temperatures detected by satellite

Lewotobi (Indonesia)

Ash emission follows increased seismicity

Lokon-Empung (Indonesia)

Increased gas emission, then ash eruption

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

Ash ejection declines to weak vapor emission

Merapi (Indonesia)

Continued seismicity but lava dome unchanged

Ontakesan (Japan)

Earthquake swarms and tremor; renewed steam emission from 1979 vent

Pinatubo (Philippines)

Major stratospheric cloud, pyroclastic flows, and new summit caldera; >300 killed by eruption and typhoon

Poas (Costa Rica)

Strong gas emission; rain adds water to nearly dry crater lake

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

Continued low-level seismicity; slight uplift

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica)

More details on 8 May eruption and deposits

Ruiz, Nevado del (Colombia)

Frequent lithic ash emissions; occasional vigorous earthquake swarms

Sabancaya (Peru)

Vigorous Vulcanian activity; mudflows force daily clearing of river channel

San Jose (Chile-Argentina)

New fumarole field on upper S flank

Soputan (Indonesia)

Explosion sounds and incandescence; frequent seismicity

Stromboli (Italy)

More frequent explosions

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Large gas plume and numerous weak earthquakes

Unzendake (Japan)

41 killed by pyroclastic flow from lava dome

White Island (New Zealand)

Ash emission from new vent; continued deformation



Aira (Japan) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent explosions continue

Frequent explosions continued through mid-June, with 17 recorded in May and 20 as of 19 June, bringing the year's total to 142. The highest ash clouds rose 3,000 m on 3 May and 2300 m on 18 June. An air shock from a 10 May explosion broke a window, the first explosion damage since December 1990.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: JMA.


Arenal (Costa Rica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Arenal

Costa Rica

10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity and seismicity increase, then decline; block lava flows on S and SW flanks

On 20 April, seismic explosion signals became moderately more frequent, and seismicity increased to >40 recorded earthquakes/day (RSN network). Seismicity was similar in May, with a daily average of 20 recorded earthquakes and a maximum of 43 (Univ Nacional network). Strombolian explosive activity was stronger, more voluminous, and more frequent, especially on 19-26 May when explosions vibrated windows and were heard 34 km SE (in Quesada). Several explosions were recorded at a seismic station 98 km away (Juan Diaz). Plumes rose to 1 km height above Crater C, depositing ash to Chambacú (17.5 km NE) and La Palma (4 km N). After 26 May, seismic and eruptive activity returned to normal levels. Gas emission continued with periodic, smaller explosions; plumes were carried predominantly to the NE, W, and SW. Block lava flows continued down the SW and S flanks, reaching 700 m elevation by the end of April.

Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

Information Contacts: E. Fernández, J. Brenes, V. Barboza, and T. Marino, OVSICORI; R. Barquero, ICE.


Barren Island (India) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Barren Island

India

12.278°N, 93.858°E; summit elev. 354 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions and lava flows from NE flank vent

Reports of strong emissions of "thick smoke" on 30 April prompted a visit to the island on 16 May by geologists from the GSI [see additional information about the start of the eruption in 16:10]. Lava poured continuously from a subsidiary vent on the NE face of the central volcanic cone, travelling N into a valley, then W along the course of the 1803 lava flow (figure 1). An area of ~800 x 200 m had been covered by fresh lava, with an average thickness of 5-6 m. Explosions at the vent occurred at intervals of several seconds, ejecting bombs, lapilli, and ash to heights >50 m.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Geologic sketch map of Barren Island, by D. Haldar, T. Laskar, and J.K. Biswas. Courtesy of the GSI.

On 7 June at 1602, John Deed, pilot of Thai Airways International flight 307, observed a gray to dark-gray plume rising ~3 km above the summit and extending roughly 90 km NE. No lava was visible.

Geologic Background. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). It is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises from a depth of about 2250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the west, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. Historical eruptions have changed the morphology of the pyroclastic cone in the center of the caldera, and lava flows that fill much of the caldera floor have reached the sea along the western coast.

Information Contacts: Director General, GSI; Deputy Director General, GSI Eastern Region; T. Fox, ICAO.


Colima (Mexico) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Colima

Mexico

19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued lava dome growth; increased avalanching follows earthquakes and tremor episodes

During the weeks preceding 5 June, volcanic seismicity recorded by RESCO remained at low levels, showing only a few avalanches/day. Poor visibility prevented daily visual observations from the city of Colima, but sporadic observations from sites near the volcano (Yerbabuena and La Joya) have shown strong fumarolic activity (mainly vapor and a small grayish plume) and continued growth of the dome extrusion.

On 6 June between about 0000 and 0200, a tremor episode was clearly recorded by station EZV7 (at Volcancito, ~1 km NE of the summit), but was barely detectable at other stations. Activity then returned to previous levels. A second tremor episode, much stronger and clearly recorded by several stations, occurred between about 1800 and 2100, after which seismicity again returned to relative quiet. The activity was interpreted as probably being of phreatic origin, given recent rainfall in the region. Witnesses about 13 km from the volcano (in the Tonila area) reported conspicuous incandescence at the crater.

A third seismic episode, on 8 June between about 2000 and 2200, consisted of four large, complex shallow earthquakes followed by almost monochromatic harmonic tremor. The caretaker at nearby La Joya reported hearing four explosions followed by strong sustained whistling. On 9 June, a few small closely-spaced B-type earthquakes seemed to mark the onset of another tremor episode, but it did not materialize and no further tremor activity had been recorded as of 13 June.

During the evening of 9 June, there was an increase in both the number and duration of avalanche events, which remained of small magnitude. Long-duration avalanches continued as of 13 June, but their numbers had decreased. Geophysicists noted that the increased number and duration of avalanches on 9 June was similar to that observed before the 16 April dome collapse. No deep seismicity, indicating stress at depth, has been detected, but the tremor, not previously observed, suggested changes in activity requiring careful monitoring.

Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the 4320 m high point of the complex) on the north and the 3850-m-high historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of cinder cones of late-Pleistocene age is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the Colima complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, and have produced a thick apron of debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions (most recently in 1913) have destroyed the summit and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Information Contacts: F. Alejandro Nava, Francisco Núñez-Cornú, Gilberto Ornelas-Arciniega, Ariel Ramírez-Vázquez, G.A. Reyes-Dávila, Hector Tamez, and R. García, CICT, Universidad de Colima; Z. Jiménez, I. Yokoyama, and S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM.


Deception Island (Antarctica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Deception Island

Antarctica

63.001°S, 60.652°W; summit elev. 602 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Stronger earthquakes; anomalous water temperature in caldera center

"Spanish-Argentine volcanological, geophysical, and geodetic scientists visited Deception Island during the 1990-91 austral summer (28 November 1990-13 March 1991) to provide measurements of the background activity. The present activity generally has remained unchanged from previous years.

"A digital microseismic network was installed to record the local and regional seismic activity for 3 months (figure 3). On 14 January, a M 3.2 earthquake was recorded on the NE sector of the island. After this event the seismic activity changed dramatically compared to that recorded during the previous 4 summers, increasing in magnitude and decreasing in frequency. In general, the epicenters are related to the 1970 eruption vents and they are associated with the fissure system (figure 4). Episodes of volcanic tremors were also recorded in Fumarole Bay.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Daily number of seismic events recorded by a temporary digital microseismic network at Deception Island, 14 December 1990-23 February 1991. Courtesy of Ramón Ortiz.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Epicenters of earthquakes (mb >1.2) recorded at Deception Island, 1 December 1990-23 February 1991. Courtesy of Ramón Ortiz.

"During the 1990-91 fieldwork, more than 300 gravimetric measurements were carried out, the magnetic map of the island was completed, and temperatures in fumaroles and hot soils were monitored. A volcanologically oriented GPS network was established and four GPS benchmarks (Argentine Station, Pendulum Cove, Fumarole Bay, and Whalers Bay) were measured with double-frequency receivers. Finally, three dry-tilt stations were installed in Telefon Bay (1970 eruption area), Crater Lake (1842 eruption sector), and Fumarole Bay.

"The Spanish Oceanographic vessel Las Palmas recorded water temperature and salinity distribution in Port Foster. An area of anomalous temperature was detected in the central part of the caldera."

Geologic Background. Ring-shaped Deception Island, one of Antarctica's most well known volcanoes, contains a 7-km-wide caldera flooded by the sea. Deception Island is located at the SW end of the Shetland Islands, NE of Graham Land Peninsula, and was constructed along the axis of the Bransfield Rift spreading center. A narrow passageway named Neptunes Bellows provides entrance to a natural harbor that was utilized as an Antarctic whaling station. Numerous vents located along ring fractures circling the low, 14-km-wide island have been active during historical time. Maars line the shores of 190-m-deep Port Foster, the caldera bay. Among the largest of these maars is 1-km-wide Whalers Bay, at the entrance to the harbor. Eruptions from Deception Island during the past 8700 years have been dated from ash layers in lake sediments on the Antarctic Peninsula and neighboring islands.

Information Contacts: R. Ortiz, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Spain; J. Viramonte, Univ Nacional de Salta, Argentina; R. Soto, Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada, Spain.


Etna (Italy) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3295 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong degassing

Nearly continuous degassing was observed ... on 24 May. Northeast Crater's active vent was slightly incandescent and weakly emitting gas. Normal degassing, with sporadic rumbling, occurred at La Voragine, whose elliptical vent E of the central crater floor had reopened. The floors of Bocca Nuova and Southeast Crater were not visible due to their strong degassing.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: H. Gaudru, EVS, Switzerland; Franco Emmi, Etna guide.


Galeras (Colombia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Galeras

Colombia

1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More seismic events but lower energy release; thermal activity remains moderate

The number of seismic events (high-frequency, low-frequency, and long-period) increased during May, while seismic energy release and reduced displacement decreased from April values (figures 40 and 41). The high-frequency activity (M 0.5-1.9) was centered W of the crater at 2-8 km depth. Tremor episodes were less frequent and had lower reduced displacements than in April. The tiltmeter 0.9 km E of the crater (Crater Station) continued to show deformation, with 20 µrad inflation (tangential component) in May, for a total inflation since September of 102 µrad. Other stations showed oscillations or only very low cumulative inflation.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Daily number of high-frequency events (bottom) and energy release (top) at Galeras, May 1991. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Daily number of long-period events (bottom) and reduced displacement (top) at Galeras, May 1991. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

SO2 flux, measured by COSPEC, varied between low and moderate levels. Fumarole temperatures in Besolima fissure continued to decrease (436°C in May compared to 468°C in April), while temperatures remained fairly constant at Deformes (254°C compared to 250-265°C since December 1990) and Calvache (89°C compared to 88-92°C since December 1989).

Geologic Background. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

Information Contacts: INGEOMINAS-OVP.


Gede-Pangrango (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Gede-Pangrango

Indonesia

6.77°S, 106.965°E; summit elev. 3008 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Brief earthquake swarm

Three shocks were felt (intensities I-III) on 30 April. Seismicity later returned to normal levels (10-15 events/day) during the second week of May (table 1).

Table 1. Number of earthquakes at Gede, May 1991. Courtesy of VSI.

Dates Deep Volcanic (VT) Shallow Volcanic Tectonic
01-04 May 1991 22 51 47
05-11 May 1991 197 635 9
12-18 May 1991 8 16 20
19-25 May 1991 23 8 9
26-31 May 1991 9 8 13

Geologic Background. Gede volcano is one of the most prominent in western Java, forming a twin volcano with Pangrango volcano to the NW. The major cities of Cianjur, Sukabumi, and Bogor are situated below the volcanic complex to the E, S, and NW, respectively. Gunung Pangrango, constructed over the NE rim of a 3 x 5 km caldera, forms the high point of the complex at just over 3000 m elevation. Many lava flows are visible on the flanks of the younger Gunung Gede, including some that may have been erupted in historical time. The steep-walled summit crater has migrated about 1 km NNW over time. Two large debris-avalanche deposits on its flanks, one of which underlies the city of Cianjur, record previous large-scale collapses. Historical activity, recorded since the 16th century, typically consists of small explosive eruptions of short duration.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Guallatiri (Chile) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Guallatiri

Chile

18.42°S, 69.092°W; summit elev. 6071 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong fumarolic activity

Two strongly active zones of fumaroles were observed during a summit visit on 2 November 1990. The more intense fumaroles, 80 m below the . . . summit, produced a plume 200 m high accompanied by a jet-engine noise. Some boiling mud pools were also seen. The second zone, on the S side of the volcano at ~3,000 m elev, contained about 10 fumaroles. The volcano was otherwise snow-covered.

Geologic Background. One of northern Chile's most active volcanoes, Volcán Guallatiri is a symmetrical ice-clad stratovolcano at the SW end of the Nevados de Quimsachata volcano group. It lies just W of the border with Bolivia and is capped by a central dacitic dome or lava complex, with the active vent situated on its S side. Thick lava flows are prominent on the lower N and W flanks of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic volcano. Minor explosive eruptions have been reported since the beginning of the 19th century. Intense fumarolic activity with "jet-like" noises continues, and numerous solfataras extend more than 300 m down the W flank.

Information Contacts: P. Vetsch and R. Haubrichs, SVG, Switzerland.


Irazu (Costa Rica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Irazu

Costa Rica

9.979°N, 83.852°W; summit elev. 3432 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Tectonic earthquake swarm

A large swarm of tectonic earthquakes was recorded just S of the crater from 2 January through the end of February. On 25 May, a rapid increase in the number of tectonic earthquakes marked the start of a second swarm in the same zone. A shock located about 1 km E of the crater was felt on 28 May (M 3.5), and two others centered near the crater were felt on 5 June at 0534 (M 3.5) and 0540 (M 3.2). Scientists believe that the seismicity may represent reactivation of the fault zone involved in the M [7.6] earthquake that occurred about 90 km ESE on 22 April. No changes in surface activity at the volcano were reported.

Geologic Background. Irazú, one of Costa Rica's most active volcanoes, rises immediately E of the capital city of San José. The massive volcano covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad flat-topped summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava flows have been identified since the eruption of the massive Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the historically active crater, which contains a small lake of variable size and color. Although eruptions may have occurred around the time of the Spanish conquest, the first well-documented historical eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas.

Information Contacts: R. Barquero, ICE; Mario Fernández, Red Sismológica Nacional (RSN), Univ de Costa Rica; ACAN news service, Panamá City, Panamá.


Kavachi (Solomon Islands) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Kavachi

Solomon Islands

8.991°S, 157.979°E; summit elev. -20 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued explosions from new island

Pilots from Solomon Islands Airways reported that "the volcano is still active and increasing in size, though slowly" as of 14 June. Photographs taken on 12 May (by Rod Marsland, a Rabaul-based pilot) show the island to have been ~110 m in diameter, with a 15-m-diameter crater (assuming a height of 25 m based on an average of several visual estimates). Lava was being ejected to 30 m height in the photos. The new island's exact location remains uncertain.

Geologic Background. Named for a sea-god of the Gatokae and Vangunu peoples, Kavachi is one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Vangunu Island about 30 km N of the site of subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Pacific plate. Sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), this shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier eruptions. The roughly conical edifice rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the SE. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the ephemeral islands.

Information Contacts: P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Kilauea (United States) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


E rift lava continues to flow through tubes into the ocean

Lava . . . continued to flow into the sea at two sites on the W side of the flow field (figure 79). More than 95% of the lava advanced through the Wahaula tube system, which divided a few hundred meters from the coast and fed the W and E entry points in the Poupou area. The W Poupou entry has been persistently explosive, continuing to throw tephra onto a large littoral cone on the old sea cliff. Growth of the littoral cone halted in May as erosional mechanisms (weather and cliff collapse) kept pace with explosive activity at the lava/sea interface. Below the old sea cliff, the W entry had built a small bench that extended <10-15 m into the ocean and was easily broken up by high surf. The E branch of the tube continued to feed the E Poupou entry points, which in previous months had built a sizeable 2-level bench below the old sea cliff. Throughout May, there were at least two major entry points off this bench. In early May, fluid lava flows broke out onto the E bench from its junction with the old sea cliff, covering the W side of the bench and entering the ocean. Successive overflows and inflation (perhaps caused by lava underplating) continued to build the lower bench, and by the end of the month it was within 1-2 m of the upper bench.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Lava produced by Kilauea's Kupaianaha vent, 1983-91. Arrows indicate flow in tubes and crosses at the coast mark sites where lava was entering the ocean in May 1991. Surface flows are shown above the tube's E and W branches. Courtesy of HVO.

Small lava flows broke out during May from the Wahaula tube between ~180 m (600 ft) elevation and the flat area near the coast. Two large flows were active. One (Waiaka) moved downslope atop the Wahaula tube in April, turning E off the tube near the coast and entering the ocean 17 April-2 May. This flow's activity declined during the first 2 weeks in May, and the flow was stagnant by the 16th. In mid-May, a new (Paradise) flow broke away from the Wahaula tube between 150 and 180 m elevation (500-600 ft) and established a new tube to the E. By the end of May, this flow was entering the ocean at the same site as the Waiaka flow.

A lava pond remained in the bottom of Pu`u `O`o crater through May. Kupaianaha's lava pond remained completely crusted over. Fume from the pond area diminished significantly, and the primary area of degassing shifted from the Kupaianaha shield area to a skylight in the tube system near 620 m (2,050 ft) elevation. In early May, all of the skylights along the Wahaula tube overflowed, closing some of those at lower elevations. The upper skylights remained open, and observations of times required for logs thrown into the upper skylight to reach the lower skylight yielded lava velocities of 1.4 m/s.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: T. Moulds, HVO.


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash emission resumes; steady glow

"After 7 months of quiescence, Crater 3 was reactivated. Resumption of activity, which started on 16 May, was manifested by the release of moderately thick white-to-grey vapour clouds with occasional blue vapours, and the recording of explosion earthquakes (2-20/day). After 18 May, deep rumbling noises and/or loud Vulcanian explosions were heard at the Cape Gloucester observation post . . . and light ashfalls occurred on the NW flank of the volcano. A weak steady red glow was observed over this crater at the end of the month.

"Activity at Crater 2 . . . did not seem to be affected. This crater kept on releasing moderate to weak emissions of white vapour and displayed a steady weak night glow."

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower eastern flank of the extinct Talawe volcano. Talawe is the highest volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila volcano was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the north and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit of Langila. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Lascar (Chile) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Lascar

Chile

23.37°S, 67.73°W; summit elev. 5592 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


High crater temperatures detected by satellite

On 8 January, radiant flux from the crater was near the highest levels since 1984, as demonstrated by Open Univ researchers using data from Landsat TM bands 5 and 7 (1.55-1.75 and 2.08-2.35 µm wavelength, respectively) (figure 8). The January images are the third in a set of three night images that have been used to provide improved estimates of radiated power output at Lascar. Previous estimates were based on daylight images (Glaze and others, 1989). No reflected sunlight is mingled with the thermal signal in night images, yielding more reliable thermal radiance values.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Spectral radiance from Lascar measured in 2 short-wavelength infrared bands, 2 December 1984-8 January 1991. Solid line, Landsat TM band 7 (2.08-2.35 µm); dashed line, Landsat TM band 5 (1.55-1.75 µm). Courtesy of D. Rothery and C. Oppenheimer.

The following is from D. Rothery and C. Oppenheimer. "Two of the night images are shown in figure 9. The 12 November 1989 image shows a strong equidimensional radiant anomaly in a position that corresponds to the lava dome, with some isolated radiant pixels just beyond the edges that are probably sites of fumaroles. The 26 March 1990 image shows a much reduced radiant anomaly, following the 20 February 1990 explosive eruption.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Night images of Lascar's active dome on 12 November 1989 (left) and 26 March 1990 (right), recorded at 2.08-2.35 µm wavelengths (Landsat TM band 7). N is toward the top. The individual pixels are ~30 m across. An image recorded on 8 January 1991 is almost identical to the 12 November 1989 image. Courtesy of D. Rothery and C. Oppenheimer.

"Field observations at the summit of Lascar on 23-24 March and 4 April 1990 showed that there were sites of incandescence over regions of the collapsed dome, and that some fumaroles elsewhere were also incandescent. Temperatures of up to 940°C were estimated by the use of an infrared thermometer.

"The most recent image (8 January 1991, not shown here) is almost indistinguishable from the 12 November 1989 image, which suggests a return to earlier conditions."

Reference. Glaze, L.S., Francis, P.W., and Rothery, D.A., 1989, Measuring Thermal Budgets of Active Volcanoes; Nature, v. 338, p. 144-146.

Geologic Background. Láscar is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano contains six overlapping summit craters. Prominent lava flows descend its NW flanks. An older, higher stratovolcano 5 km E, Volcán Aguas Calientes, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit (de Silva and Francis, 1991). Láscar consists of two major edifices; activity began at the eastern volcano and then shifted to the western cone. The largest eruption took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The largest historical eruption took place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows to 8.5 km NW of the summit and ashfall in Buenos Aires.

Information Contacts: D. Rothery and C. Oppenheimer, Open Univ.


Lewotobi (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Lewotobi

Indonesia

8.542°S, 122.775°E; summit elev. 1703 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash emission follows increased seismicity

Ash was erupted to 800 m height, and deposited to 7 km NE and 4 km NW, on 11-13 May. Gas emission continued through the end of May, with 84 emission events recorded during the last week. Twelve shallow and seven deep volcanic earthquakes were also recorded during the last week in May.

Geologic Background. The Lewotobi "husband and wife" twin volcano (also known as Lewetobi) in eastern Flores Island is composed of the Lewotobi Lakilaki and Lewotobi Perempuan stratovolcanoes. Their summits are less than 2 km apart along a NW-SE line. The conical Lakilaki has been frequently active during the 19th and 20th centuries, while the taller and broader Perempuan has erupted only twice in historical time. Small lava domes have grown during the 20th century in both of the crescentic summit craters, which are open to the north. A prominent flank cone, Iliwokar, occurs on the E flank of Perampuan.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Lokon-Empung (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Lokon-Empung

Indonesia

1.358°N, 124.792°E; summit elev. 1580 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Increased gas emission, then ash eruption

Gas emissions to 450 m height were observed during the morning and afternoon of 10 May. One week later (17-18 May), ash was erupted to 200-400 m height. Seismicity then decreased, with one deep and three shallow volcanic earthquakes recorded during the last week of May, down from six deep and nine shallow events the second week of the month.

Geologic Background. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano to the NE has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred. A ridge extending WNW from Lokon includes Tatawiran and Tetempangan peak, 3 km away.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash ejection declines to weak vapor emission

". . . Manam has returned to the low non-erupting pattern displayed since early 1989. Both Main and Southern Craters released thin white vapour emissions. Grey ash-laden clouds commonly rose over Southern Crater until 20 May, associated with weak rumbling noises, presumably due to rockfalls within that crater. No night glow was reported from either crater. Tiltmeter measurements showed a slight radial inflation of ~1 µrad."

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Merapi (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued seismicity but lava dome unchanged

Seismic activity remained unchanged, with three volcanic earthquakes recorded during the first week in May, and seven during the last week in May. No changes were visible at the summit dome.

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Ontakesan (Japan) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Ontakesan

Japan

35.893°N, 137.48°E; summit elev. 3067 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Earthquake swarms and tremor; renewed steam emission from 1979 vent

Many earthquakes and tremor episodes have been detected by a seismometer near the volcano since April, bringing seismicity to its highest levels since the start of regular seismic monitoring in 1988. Earthquake swarms were recorded on 20, 23, and 27 April, and 12 and 13 May, with tremor on 27 and 28 April, and 2 and 12-16 May (figure 8). In mid-May, steam began to emerge from a vent formed in the last eruption (in 1979) that had remained quiet since soon after the eruption ended. Similar seismicity continued in June, and as of the 19th, 170 earthquakes and eight tremor episodes had been recorded.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Daily number of earthquakes (top) and tremor episodes (bottom) at On-take, January-May, 1991.

Geologic Background. The massive Ontakesan stratovolcano, the second highest volcano in Japan, lies at the southern end of the Northern Japan Alps. Ascending this volcano is one of the major objects of religious pilgrimage in central Japan. It is constructed within a largely buried 4 x 5 km caldera and occupies the southern end of the Norikura volcanic zone, which extends northward to Yakedake volcano. The older volcanic complex consisted of at least four major stratovolcanoes constructed from about 680,000 to about 420,000 years ago, after which Ontakesan was inactive for more than 300,000 years. The broad, elongated summit of the younger edifice is cut by a series of small explosion craters along a NNE-trending line. Several phreatic eruptions post-date the roughly 7300-year-old Akahoya tephra from Kikai caldera. The first historical eruption took place in 1979 from fissures near the summit. A non-eruptive landslide in 1984 produced a debris avalanche and lahar that swept down valleys south and east of the volcano. Very minor phreatic activity caused a dusting of ash near the summit in 1991 and 2007. A significant phreatic explosion in September 2014, when a large number of hikers were at or near the summit, resulted in many fatalities.

Information Contacts: JMA.


Pinatubo (Philippines) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Pinatubo

Philippines

15.13°N, 120.35°E; summit elev. 1486 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Major stratospheric cloud, pyroclastic flows, and new summit caldera; >300 killed by eruption and typhoon

After more than 2 months of increasing seismicity, deformation, and emission of small plumes, a series of strong explosions culminated in one of the largest eruptions of this century. The 15-16 June climactic phase lasted more than 15 hours, sending tephra to 30 km altitude, generating voluminous pyroclastic flows, and leaving a small caldera in the former summit region. Ten days later, the aerosol cloud formed a nearly continuous band that stretched 11,000 km from Indonesia to Central Africa. Timely evacuations saved many lives, but the combined effects of the eruption and a typhoon killed more than 300 people.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Map of southern Luzon Is., showing some towns and river valleys.

Minor activity, April-May. Renewed activity was signaled by an explosion on 2 April, at the E end of Pinatubo's geothermal area, about 1.5 km NW of the summit (see 16:4). The explosion devastated about 1 km2 of forested land, stripped leaves and vegetation over several square kilometers, and ejected small steam/ash clouds, depositing ash 10 km away. About 2,000 people were evacuated from a zone of 10-km radius. After the explosion, a line of new fumaroles, roughly 1 km long with six main vents, had developed. Emissions, voluminous and at extremely high pressure, were carried W onto a zone of dead and dying vegetation. Respiratory and eye irritation forced about 5,000 W-flank residents to leave the area.

A seismometer installed on 5 April recorded 50-90 events/day through 10 May. Earthquakes (located beginning 6 May) were dominantly centered 4-8 km NW of the summit (figure 5) at 3-6 km depth, and had magnitudes of 0.1-1.5 (averaging about M 1.0).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Epicenters of earthquakes (crosses) recorded near Pinatubo (dotted outline), 6-24 May (top), 25 May-5 June (middle), and 6-9 June (bottom) 1991. Courtesy of David Harlow.

Increased activity, late May-early June. Emissions from the vents increased in volume, with two large pulses observed on 25 and 26 May. Some ash was reported. SO2 flux, measured by COSPEC, rose from 500 t/d on 13 May to 5,000 t/d on 28 May, but dropped again to 1,700 t/d on 30 May and 1,800 t/d on 3 June. Seismicity continued slightly NW of the fumaroles (at 2-6 km depth), and an increasing number of earthquakes were recorded directly beneath the fumaroles (at 0-2 km depth) at the end of May. A "blast event" during the evening of 3 June produced ash and was immediately followed by harmonic tremor lasting 30 minutes. A similar tremor event was recorded the next day at around 1200. The SO2 flux had dropped to 280 t/d by 4 June.

Increased earthquake amplitudes and more frequent tremor were noted in early June. PHIVOLCS issued an Alert Level 3 announcement (indicating a possible major pyroclastic eruption within 2 weeks) on 5 June. Geologists interpreted the shallow seismicity and harmonic tremor to be caused by the upward movement of magma, and the drop in gas flux to suggest a blockage of escaping gas and an accompanying pressure buildup.

Seismicity increased over the next few days, from about 1,000 to 2,000 recorded earthquakes/day, associated with 25 microradians of tilt recorded on the upper E flank. Most epicenters were just NW of the summit. An explosion at 1640 on 7 June from the main vent near the center of the line of fumaroles (at the head of the Maronut River) ejected ash to 8,000 m height. The explosion occurred about 40 minutes into an hour-long episode of harmonic tremor. At 1700, PHIVOLCS announced an increase to Alert Level 4 (eruption possible within 24 hours) and ordered the evacuation of an area up to 21 km from the summit. About 12,000 residents were evacuated (from Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga Provinces).

Ash emission continued the next day, producing plumes about 5,000 m high and depositing ash to 25 km W. Helicopter reconnaissance in the morning confirmed the extrusion of a lava dome (100 x 60 m, and 30 m high) near the main vent on the volcano's N flank. The press reported that ash emission was continuing on 9 June (table 1) from two craters, with ash falling as far as the South China Sea (~35 km W). Seismographs near the volcano recorded continuous harmonic tremor.

Table 1. Eruptive episodes from Pinatubo, 9-17 June 1991. Times of eruption onsets are from PHIVOLCS and the USGS; times of initial satellite observations of eruptive episodes are shown in the second column. Plume altitudes are from NOAA. Altitudes given in the text are generally ground-based, and often higher than the NOAA estimates. Satellite data were compiled by James Lynch, NOAA/NESDIS, based on analysis of visible/infrared weather satellite imagery. Data in this table are very preliminary and will change as analyses of ground and satellite observations continue.

Date Eruption Time Detection Time Maximum Plume Altitude Direction of Movement Horizontal Extent (time after eruption)
09 Jun 1991 -- 0931 2 km NW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)
11 Jun 1991 -- 1631 3.5 km WSW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)
12 Jun 1991 0851 0931 17-19 km WSW 5.5 x 104 km2 (8 hrs)
12 Jun 1991 2250 2331 17-19 km WSW 1.1 x 105 km2 (8 hrs)
13 Jun 1991 0840 0931 17-19 km WSW 1 x 105 km2 (6 hrs)
14 Jun 1991 1309 1331 20-22 km WSW 5 x 104 km2 (4 hrs)
14 Jun 1991 1408 1431 20-22 km WSW 6 x 104 km2 (5 hrs)
14 Jun 1991 1853 1931 23-25 km WSW 7.5 x 104 km2 (6 hrs)
14 Jun 1991 2018 Indistinguishable from 1853 eruption on satellite images.
14 Jun 1991 2321 2331 23-25 km WSW 5 x 104 km2 (3 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 0114 0131 23-25 km WSW 1.5 x 105 km2 (4 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 0220 Indistinguishable from 0114 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 0555 0631 20-22 km WSW 1.1 x 105 km2 (3 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 0611 Indistinguishable from 0555 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 0809 0831 20-22 km WSW 1.1 x 105 km2 (3 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 0831 Indistinguishable from 0809 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1027 1031 35-40 km WSW 1 x 106 km2 (12 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 1027 1031 35-40 km WSW 1.5 x 106 km2 (18 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 1027 1031 35-40 km WSW 2.2 x 106 km2 (24 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 1027 1031 35-40 km WSW 2.7 x 106 km2 (36 hrs)
Initial, strongest phase of the climactic eruption, apparent on infrared imagery until 2131; column over the volcano reached 35-40 km height; extensive ash plume at 25-30 km. Ash from this phase comprised >95% of the extensive plume.
15 Jun 1991 1117 Indistinguishable from the 1027 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1221 Indistinguishable from the 1027 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1252 Indistinguishable from the 1027 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1342 Indistinguishable from the 1027 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1342 2231 26-28 km WSW --
The second phase of the climactic eruption continued until 0231 on 16 Jun, with a ball-shaped column over the volcano.
16 Jun 1991 -- 0331 23-25 km WSW --
The third phase, smaller than the second,, was characterized by a wedge-shaped plume from the volcano; apparent on satellite imagery until 0731.
16 Jun 1991 -- 1031 5-6 km WSW 1.5 x 104 km2 (3 hrs)
16 Jun 1991 -- 1231 5-6 km WSW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)
16 Jun 1991 -- 1431 5-6 km WSW 1.5 x 104 km2 (3 hrs)
16 Jun 1991 -- 2031 4-5 km WSW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)
17 Jun 1991 1300 1300 3.5 km WSW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)

The evacuation of Clark Air Base (~15 km E of the volcano) was ordered by the U.S. Air Force at 0500 on 10 June. Almost 14,500 servicemen and their families were moved to Subic Bay Naval Base (30 km SSW), while 1,500 personnel remained at Clark. Preliminary hazard maps placed Clark Air Base at the E edge of pyroclastic-flow hazard zones, and flanked by potential mudflow hazard zones. Voluminous ash-laden steam clouds were emitted on 11 June.

Initial strong explosions, 12-early 15 June. A tephra column rose to about 20 km on 12 June, as an explosive episode at 0851 signalled the start of a major pyroclastic phase. The explosions were preceded by around 12-16 hours of continuous tremor and several smaller explosions. Numerous shocks had been felt by scientists working on the volcano earlier in the morning. Pyroclastic flows advanced at least 5 km and perhaps as much as 15 km down the Maronut, O'Donnell, and Marella Rivers on the NW, N, and SW flanks of the volcano, respectively. Six hundred of the remaining 1,500 military personnel at Clark Air Base were evacuated and thousands of people fled adjacent Angeles (population 300,000). All residents within a 20-km radius of the volcano were warned to leave.

The press reported that a smaller explosion occurred at 1149, then explosive activity declined after a few hours. Prevailing winds carried the eruption plume WSW, depositing ash more than 30 km away, but ashfall also apparently occurred N of the volcano, reportedly covering an aerial gunnery range. A small rain-induced mudflow occurred in the Maronut River valley at about 1830 on 12 June.

Weather satellite images showed that the eruption plume had separated from the volcano by 1330, after reaching about 330 km length (figure 6). By 1830, winds had sheared the plume into three different layers; material at 15-18 km altitude traveling WSW at 100 km/hour; at 6-9 km altitude, W at 55 km/hour; and at 6-9 km altitude, WNW at 35 km/hour. The Nimbus-7 satellite's TOMS instrument detected a significant amount of SO2 during its pass over the area about 2.5 hours after the onset of the explosion. Aviation authorities warned aircraft to avoid the plumes and closed several air routes W of the volcano (A461, A583, B460, R77, R93, R468, and R471).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Infrared image from the NOAA 10 polar-orbiting weather satellite on 15 June at about 1830, showing the massive cloud from the climactic explosive phase. Temperature estimates suggest that the main body of the plume is at about 30 km altitude, with the eruption column directly over the volcano rising to 35-40 km. The apparent boundary between sections of the cloud is probably a sampling artifact. Material NE of the volcano is probably at a lower altitude than the bulk of the cloud to the W and SW. Numerous faint bands are evident within the plume in false-color versions of the image. Courtesy of NOAA/NESDIS.

Another large explosive pulse occurred between 2250 and 2305 on 12 June, producing an eruption column that briefly rose to 25 km altitude before declining to a sustained elevation of about 20 km. Tephra fell to the W, NW, and SW, with pumice lapilli falling to 15 km distance, and coarse sand-sized tephra to more than 20 km from the volcano. A similar explosion at 0840 on 13 June lasted for 8 minutes and sent an ash column to 25 km altitude, following about an hour of long-period earthquakes. Satellite images showed large plumes extending [WSW] from the volcano after both explosions.

After a lull of about 28 hours, explosions resumed at 1309 on 14 June, ejecting tephra to 25 km altitude. Intermittent small pulses occurred at 1353 and 1408. Pyroclastic flows in the NW flank's Maronut valley extended 15 km to Sitio Ugik, site of an evacuation camp until increased shallow seismicity prompted additional warnings just before the start of the latest series of explosions. Ash fell to the S, SE, and SW. Another explosion at 1853 sent ash to 24 km altitude and additional pyroclastic flows to the NW. Strong rains during several of the explosive pulses generated mudflows in drainages where pyroclastic-flow deposits and airfall tephra had previously been emplaced.

By 14 June, 79,000 people had been evacuated, including about 15,000 from Clark Air Base. Civil Defense officials reported that four people had been killed, 24 injured, and four were missing in the series of explosions.

A small explosion at 2018 on 14 June sent an ash cloud to 6 km. A period of harmonic tremor preceded a strong explosion at 2321 that produced a column to >20 km [see also 16:6]. Ashfall was reported in San Marcelino (25 km SW) and San Narciso (30 km WSW). Explosions on 15 June at 0114 and about 0220 produced pyroclastic flows that moved down the SW flank.

Climactic explosions, 15-16 June. An explosion at 0555 on 15 June fed a 20-22 km-high ash column [see also 16:6], marking the onset of strong sustained activity that included the climactic explosions and lasted until early 16 June. Effects of the eruption were exacerbated by heavy rains and strong winds from typhoon Yunya. Much of the summit region was removed by explosions or collapse, leaving a caldera 2-3 km in diameter centered slightly north of the former summit.

Pyroclastic flows generated by the first 15 June explosion extended 8-10 km down the N, NNE, NNW flanks. Additional explosions were reported at 0611, 0809, and 0831. Before the strongest activity began, PHIVOLCS expanded the radius of the official danger zone from 30 to 40 km and expressed concern about the possibility of a caldera-forming eruption. The expanded danger zone included Clark Air Base, Subic Naval Base, and their neighboring cities of Angeles and Olongapo. Additional evacuees brought the total to about 200,000. Several thousand military dependents were sent back to the United States.

Satellite data suggested that the climactic phase began with an explosion detected by a nearby barograph at 1027, and continued with recorded explosions at 1117, 1221, and 1252, although ground reports indicated that the strongest activity started with an explosion at 1342 (table 1). A column remained fixed over the volcano through 2131, feeding a massive cloud (figure 7). Comparison of satellite-derived eruption column temperatures with atmospheric temperature profiles from nearby radiosondes yielded an altitude of 25-30 km as the cloud spread WSW toward mainland Asia, and elevations of 35-40 km for the eruption column over the volcano. The maximum altitude of a plume can be underestimated by this technique if its temperature has not fully equilibrated with that of the surrounding air, or if more diffuse material extends above the plume's densest region. Satellite data suggest that more than 95% of the cloud was produced by this 12-hour phase. Visible-band images showed ejection of very dark-colored material throughout the day (from 0631 until 1631), in contrast to the light-colored plumes generated by other phases of the eruption. Noticeably less violent activity, seen on images from 2231 on 15 June until 0231 on 16 June, sustained a ball-shaped cloud over Pinatubo at 26-28 km altitude. Activity had declined further during a third period, from 0331 through 0731, when a wedge-shaped plume extended from the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Infrared image from the NOAA 10 polar orbiting weather satellite on 15 June at about 1830, showing the massive cloud from the climactic explosive phase. Temperature estimates suggest that the main body of the plume is at about 30 km altitude, with the eruption column directly over the volcano rising to 35-40 km. The apparent boundary between sections of the cloud is probably a sampling artifact. Material NE of the volcano is probably at lower altitude than the bulk of the cloud to the W and SW (figure 7-19). Numerous faint concentric bands are evident within the plume in false-color versions of the image.

The bulk of the tephra fell to the SE, S, and SW, but airfall distribution was complicated by the typhoon's winds. Ash was carried by the typhoon to Palawan Island, 500 km SSW of the volcano. The press reported slight ashfall 150 km S (in Batangas Province) and clumps of mud fell on Clark Air Base, Angeles, and the volcano's W flank. Some falling pumice was reportedly apricot-sized. Pumice the size of marbles fell 33 km SSW (at Olongapo) where tephra fall reached 15-30 cm and more than 30 injuries and some deaths were reported. The cloud darkened Manila by 1545, 3 hours before its usual nightfall, although most ashfall amounts there were less than about 1 cm [see also 16:6].

The stratospheric cloud expanded rapidly WSW, and by 1030 the next day, its leading edge had reached the Bangkok area, more than 2,000 km away (figure 8). Preliminary Nimbus-7 satellite data showed very high concentrations of SO2 over a broad area (figure 9), with a total mass that appeared to be approximately double that of the 1982 injection from El Chichón. Light ashfalls were reported in southern Vietnam (from Da Nang to the Mekong Delta, 1,400 km W-1,800 km WSW), northern Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak, 1,000-2,000 km SW), and Singapore (2,500 km SW). By 23 June, a nearly continuous zone of enhanced SO2 as much as 30° wide extended from south of Indochina about 11,000 km to central Africa (figure 10). A small zone of apparent aerosol material had reached about 40°W. [See the Atmospheric Effects chapter for more information about the stratospheric cloud].

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Sketch of the major eruption cloud from Pinatubo as seen on satellite imagery on 16 June at about 1030, about 21 hours after the onset of strongest activity, and 1 hour before the SO2 data in figure 7-20. Courtesy of SAB.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Preliminary SO2 data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus-7 satellite, showing the major eruption cloud from Pinatubo on 16 June at about 1130, 22 hours after the start of the climactic explosions. Each number or letter represents the average SO2 value within an area 50 km across. 0 = 10-35 milliatmosphere-cm (100-350 ppm-m), 1 = 36-60 matm-cm, 2 = 61-85 matm-cm, etc.; 9 is followed by A, B, etc. Data were lost in the barred zone. Courtesy of Scott Doiron.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Preliminary SO2 data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus-7 satellite, showing the major eruption cloud from Pinatubo on 23 June, eight days after the climactic phase. The main body of the cloud, 11,000 km long, has reached central Africa, but a smaller advance segment apparently extended over the eastern Atlantic Ocean, bisected by the 30°W meridian. Only values > 18 matm-cm are shown. Highest values within the dense cloud reached about 75 matm-cm (over Saudi Arabia). Courtesy of Scott Doiron.

Smaller explosions continued during the next several days, but the strongest activity appeared to have ended, and people began to return to their homes. PHIVOLCS reported three periods of ash emission accompanied by tremor on 17 June. Satellite data revealed a small explosion at 1300 and a column to 5-6 km altitude was observed.The Worldwide Standardized Seismic Net detected shallow earthquakes near Pinatubo on 15 June at 1539 (M 4.9), 1831 (M 4.4), 1841 (M 5.4), 1911 (M 4.6), 1915 (M 5.5), and 2026 (M 4.7), on 16 June at 0349 (M 4.9), 0359 (M 4.8), 1008 (M 5.6), 1458 (M 4.9), 1751 (M 5.1), and 2127 (M 4.9), on 17 June at 0441 (M 5.3) and 2333 (M 4.6), and on 18 June at 1120 (M 4.6).

On 18 June geologists reported preliminary cumulative ashfall thicknesses of 15-30 cm at Clark Air Base, 15-30 cm in Olongapo, and an unconfirmed 35.5 cm in some parts of SW Luzon. At a site along the Abacan River, 37 km E of the summit, debris-flow deposits were sandwiched between a coarse basal layer and finer, sand-sized tephra. Several homes at this site had been inundated, and several others swept away by lateral stream erosion, with some resulting casualties. A similar situation was found at a second site along the Baluyot River, 34 km ESE of the summit. Several homes had been lost or buried by mud, but no deaths had occurred.

The leading edge of typhoon Yunya had reached the area by 14 June at about 2000, and strong storms began moving over the volcano at about 0500 on 15 June. The storm had weakened to light-moderate showers 24 hours later, but these persisted through the 16th. Heavy rains soaked the recently fallen tephra, adding substantially to its weight, and the wet tephra soon hardened to a concrete-like material, making it very difficult to remove. Numerous roof and building collapses resulted, and were responsible for many of the casualties from the combined effects of the eruption and typhoon. As of 19 June, the death toll had risen to more than 300.

The 15 June activity forced closure of Manila's international and domestic airports, which remained closed to arriving jet aircraft through 18 June. A limited number of outgoing flights were permitted beginning early 19 June, and propeller-driven aircraft, less vulnerable to the effects of ash clouds, offered limited air service to and from Manila. Preliminary reports indicate that [14] jets encountered ash during the eruption, most on 15 June (table 2). All landed safely, but some sustained engine and/or exterior damage.

Table 2. Preliminary summary of aircraft encounters with clouds from Pinatubo, 12-18 June 1991. Courtesy of T. Casadevall. [Including additional encounters reported in BGVN 16:07.]

Date Time Duration Location Comments
12 Jun 1991 -- 3 minutes Descent into Manila --
13 Jun 1991 0030 20 minutes S China Sea Electrostatic discharge on windscreen; no damage.
14 Jun 1991 early AM 15 minutes 750 km W of Pinatubo, 11 km altitude No significant damage.
14 or 15 Jun 1991 -- 29 minutes -- Two engines replaced; impact damage and ash buildup on engines.
15 Jun 1991 -- 15-20 minutes -- Flew through "heavy ash;" cockpit and cabin contaminated by ash.
15 Jun 1991 early AM -- 1,100 km W, 9 km altitude All four engines damaged.
15 Jun 1991 -- 12 minutes 10.5 km altitude Temperatures of all four engines rose and fluctuated; sparks from windows; ash hit aircraft; no significant exterior or engine damage.
15 Jun 1991 1600 -- Approach to Manila from S Vietnam Much ash in engines; exterior abrasion.
15 Jun 1991 evening -- Leaving Manila Black marks on exterior of left wing.
15 Jun 1991 2347 -- Approach to Manila from S Vietnam Ash, sulfur odor, electrostatic discharge, and blue-green light. No significant damage
16 Jun 1991 0130 25 minutes S China Sea Electrostatic discharge on windscreen; no damage.
16 Jun 1991 0310 30 minutes S China Sea Electrostatic discharge on windscreen; no damage.
17 Jun 1991 -- -- -- Engine 3 shutdown; heavy ash buildup in engines.
18 Jun 1991 0200 -- 11 km altitude Engine 1 stalled, engine 4 lost power; descended to 9 km to restart. Engine 1 replaced.

Further References. Pinatubo Volcano Observatory Team, 1991, Lessons from a major eruption: Mt. Pinatubo, Phillipines: EOS, v. 72, p. 545, 552-3, 555.

Woods, A. and Self, S., 1992, Thermal disequilibrium at the top of volcanic clouds and its effect on estimates of the column height: Nature, v. 355, p. 628-630.

Geologic Background. Prior to 1991 Pinatubo volcano was a relatively unknown, heavily forested lava dome complex located 100 km NW of Manila with no records of historical eruptions. The 1991 eruption, one of the world's largest of the 20th century, ejected massive amounts of tephra and produced voluminous pyroclastic flows, forming a small, 2.5-km-wide summit caldera whose floor is now covered by a lake. Caldera formation lowered the height of the summit by more than 300 m. Although the eruption caused hundreds of fatalities and major damage with severe social and economic impact, successful monitoring efforts greatly reduced the number of fatalities. Widespread lahars that redistributed products of the 1991 eruption have continued to cause severe disruption. Previous major eruptive periods, interrupted by lengthy quiescent periods, have produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that were even more extensive than in 1991.

Information Contacts: R. Punongbayan, PHIVOLCS; R. Janda and J. Ewert, CVO; SAB; Scott Doiron, GSFC; Chris Newhall and Ellen Limburg-Santistevan, USGS Reston; David Harlow, USGS Menlo Park; T. Casadevall, USGS Denver; Nicholas Krull, FAA; Tom Fox, ICAO; NEIC; AP; UPI; Reuters.


Poas (Costa Rica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Poas

Costa Rica

10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong gas emission; rain adds water to nearly dry crater lake

Strong sulfur-gas emission continued from crater fumaroles in May. The crater lake, nearly dry since March, began to refill during the third week of May because of increased rainfall. Small pools coalesced to cover the entire crater floor, and warm mud was frequently ejected to several meters height from the center of the lake. The largest fumarole was in the crater's N sector, and other smaller ones were in the W and SE. Microseismicity decreased at the end of May and the volcano was considered by geologists to have returned to normal rainy season conditions. A new network of five digital seismometers was installed near the volcano by a joint RSN-French group.

Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

Information Contacts: R. Barquero, ICE.


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued low-level seismicity; slight uplift

"Seismicity was at a low level in May. The month's total number of earthquakes was 102 (compared to 126-140 over the last 3 months). Only five earthquakes were locatable, distributed on the NE and W sides of the caldera seismic zone. Levelling measurements on 24 May showed a slight uplift (3.5 mm at the SE end of Matupit Island)."

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More details on 8 May eruption and deposits

The following, from the Univ Nacional, supplements last month's report from ICE.

A phreatic eruption on 8 May ejected lake sediments and ash, and produced small mudflows. The eruption followed several low-frequency earthquakes during the night of 6-7 May, and a low-frequency earthquake with a 155-second duration at 0811 on 7 May. Reports from residents of Dos Ríos de Upala (8 km NW) and from guards at Parque Nacional Rincón de la Vieja described an accompanying explosion and a 1-km-high light-colored plume with ash that traveled NW.

Seven low-frequency microearthquakes preceded the 8 May phreatic eruption. An earthquake that lasted 120 seconds, possibly associated with a small explosion, occurred 18 minutes prior to the eruption, and low-frequency tremor began 7 minutes before it.

The sound wave of the main explosion arrived at the seismometer (6 km SW) 6 seconds after the start of the eruption signal at 1017, and the instrument was saturated for 25 seconds. The subsequent 150-second signal was interpreted to record strong degassing and the initiation of mudflows. Low-frequency harmonic tremor was recorded for 30 minutes, gradually decreasing below detection limits. The main explosion produced a gray ash cloud, 5 km high, that was carried NW. Ash was deposited to 14 km NW from this (figure 1) and the approximately 10 small (columns

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Map showing deposits from the 8 May 1991 phreatic eruption at Rincón de la Vieja. Site numbers correspond to cross-sections in figures 2 and 3, and table 1. Courtesy of OVSICORI.

Table 1. Field observations of 8 May 1991 mudflow deposits from Rincón de la Vieja. Sites correspond to locations in figure 1. Courtesy of OVSICORI.

Site Distance Deposit width Channel width Max. flow height Deposit description
1 7.2 km 41 m 10 m 4-6 m 1.65 m of erosion.
2 6.6 km 185 m 12 m 2-3 m ~8 m deposited.
3 7.0 km 239 m -- 4-5 m 2-60 cm of fine (2-16 mm) material.
4 16.6 km -- -- 2.15 m Blocks (to 1.5 x 2.0 m) and tree trunks (50 cm diameter); 10-50-cm mantle of fine sediment.

Mudflows traveled down the N flank (along the Quebrada Azufrosa, and Río Pénjamo), destroying two small bridges and cutting off access to the towns of Buenos Aires (~12 km NE) and Gavilán. Several smaller mudflows traveled down tributaries to the Río Azul (also to the N). Erosion occurred predominantly between 1,500 and 500 m elevation. Field observations of the mudflow deposits were made at several sites (figures 2 and 3; table 1). Park guards reported small quantities of sediment transported by the Río Colorado (S flank), but no effects on the ecosystem were observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Cross-section of 8 May 1991 Rincón de la Vieja mudflow deposits near a bridge over the Río Azul. Site location is marked in figure 1. Courtesy of OVSICORI.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Cross-section of 8 May 1991 Rincón de la Vieja mudflow deposits near a bridge over the Río Pénjamo. Site location is marked in figure 1. Courtesy of OVSICORI.

Blocks (to 40 x 50 cm) with impact craters and ejected lake sediments were found near the summit during a 9 May visit. Acidity and sediment-fall had variable impacts on nearby vegetation, ranging to complete defoliation. Fumarolic activity continued, as evidenced by a strong sulfur odor, eye irritation, and breathing difficulties near the crater. Rain collected 3 km S had a pH of 3.85.

Seismicity declined to 9 low-frequency recorded earthquakes/day (9 May), with only sporadic (1-2/day) events on later days.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge that was constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of 1916-m-high Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: E. Fernández S., Jorge Brenes M., V. Barboza M., and Tomás Marino H., Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica, Univ Nacional.


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent lithic ash emissions; occasional vigorous earthquake swarms

Lithic ash emissions were frequent during May, depositing material to Manizales (30 km WNW) on 1 May. Short pulses of shallow tremor were associated with the emissions. High-frequency seismicity reached very high levels during a swarm on 8 May (figure 45), which included a M 2.1 earthquake, 2.5 km N of Arenas crater at 5 km depth. A similar swarm occurred on 14 May. Low-frequency seismicity was at a moderate level in May, with peaks of vigorous seismicity on 4 days. Deformation measurements showed no significant changes. The SO2 flux was low; the monthly average was 930 t/d, compared to ~2,740 t/d in April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Daily number of seismic events (bottom) and energy release (top) at Ruiz, May 1991. Solid line, high-frequency events; dashed line, low-frequency events. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: C. Carvajal, INGEOMINAS, Manizales.


Sabancaya (Peru) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Sabancaya

Peru

15.787°S, 71.857°W; summit elev. 5960 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vigorous Vulcanian activity; mudflows force daily clearing of river channel

Strong Vulcanian explosions were observed during a visit on 13-19 April. The explosions, occurring every 20-30 minutes, lasted ~ 1 minute and produced 3-4-km-high, medium-gray ash clouds. Small avalanches were produced by falling blocks at the base of the eruptive columns. Quiet degassing continued between explosions. Light-gray ashfall was frequent during the visit, depositing 2 mm one night ~9.5 km SE of the summit (at Cajamarcana).

The volcano began erupting in late May 1990, reportedly ejecting ash to 7 km. By late June 1990 (15:7), activity had decreased to periodic explosions with weak ash columns 2-3 km high, but then increased slowly through November. High-frequency seismicity (>122 events recorded over one 2-week period) was usually centered ~ 10 km NE, although two earthquakes occurred under the crater. Several tremor episodes were recorded, starting in October.

The plume was black and heavy with ash during an overflight on 10 November, rising an estimated 5-8 km in distinct, but almost continuous pulses. Ash deposited on Hualca Hualca (4 km N) caused increased melting of the glaciers (estimated 20 cm of snow above the ice and berm) producing numerous mudflows. These moved down the N flank nightly, dumping an estimated 13,000 m3 of debris/day into the Majes River drainage system ~ 5 km N of the volcano. Construction crews cleared the channel daily. Airfall deposits were composed of 80% lithics and 20% glassy fragments and breadcrusted material. At one outcrop, the 1990 ash accumulations were 1 cm thick, overlying at progressively greater depth 30 cm soil, 2 cm ash, 40 cm soil, and another 2 cm ash. Eruptive activity observed on 22 December appeared about the same as it was on 10 November.

Geologic Background. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.

Information Contacts: P. Vetsch and R. Haubrichs, SVG, Switzerland; N. Banks, CVO; Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima.


San Jose (Chile-Argentina) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

San Jose

Chile-Argentina

33.789°S, 69.895°W; summit elev. 6070 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New fumarole field on upper S flank

A new fumarole field, 150 m below the rim on the S flank . . . was first observed in late February (figures 1 and 2). On 14 May, geologists from the Univ de Chile noted that the new activity was similar to that of earlier fumaroles associated with a small andesitic dome within the central crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1.Sketch of view looking E at the San José complex, 14 May 1991. Vapor rises from within the crater and from the February 1991 fumarole field. Courtesy of O. González-Ferrán.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Sketch map showing the summit region and craters of the San José complex, May 1991. Courtesy of O. González-Ferrán.

Although no earthquakes were detected at the volcano, an increase in seismicity was recorded by the Univ de Chile's seismic network throughout the roughly N-S fault zone that separates the Valle Central and the Cordillera Andina. Four events were recorded in February, 8 in March, 9 in April, and 14 in May, the largest (M 4.0 and M 3.5) on 8 and 11 April, respectively (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Sketch showing the location of San José and the epicenters of two large earthquakes, April 1991. Courtesy of O. González-Ferrán.

Geologic Background. Volcán San José lies along the Chile-Argentina border at the southern end of a volcano group that includes the Pleistocene volcanoes of Marmolejo and Espíritu Santo. The glaciated 6070-m-high Marmolejo stratovolcano is truncated by a 4-km-wide caldera, breached to the NW, that has been the source of a massive debris avalanche. San José is a 5856-m-high stratovolcano of Pleistocene-Holocene age with a broad 2 km x 0.5 km summit region containing overlapping and nested craters, pyroclastic cones, and blocky lava flows. Volcán la Engorda and Volcán Plantat, located SW of Marmolejo and NW of San Jose, have also been active during the Holocene. An 8-km-long lava flow traveled to the SW from the 1-km-wide summit crater of Espíritu Santo volcano, which overlaps the southern slope of Marmolejo. Mild phreatomagmatic eruptions were recorded from San José in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Information Contacts: O. González-Ferrán, Univ de Chile; P. Acevedo, Univ de la Frontera, Temuco.


Soputan (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Soputan

Indonesia

1.112°N, 124.737°E; summit elev. 1785 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion sounds and incandescence; frequent seismicity

On 22-24 May... loud booming sounds and night glow were reported from the main crater. Up to 100 seismic events were recorded/6-hour period on 28 May.

Geologic Background. The Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano is located SW of Riendengan-Sempu, which some workers have included with Soputan and Manimporok (3.5 km ESE) as a volcanic complex. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Stromboli (Italy) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More frequent explosions

The number of seismically recorded explosions increased briefly in late March and persistently from mid-April (figure 13). After mid-April, the number of earthquakes exceeding instrument saturation level decreased from an average of ~20/day since January to

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Average number of seismically recorded explosion events/hour at Stromboli, 15 March-15 May 1991. The mean value for the period is shown. Courtesy of M. Riuscetti.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Daily number of seismometer-saturating events (lower curve); and average tremor amplitude (upper curve) at Stromboli, 15 March-15 May 1991. Courtesy of M. Riuscetti.

Volcano guides reported infrequent small explosive activity at the 3 craters during visits to the summit on 10, 15, and 16 April, and 1 May. In early May, the first complete gas sampling at Stromboli was made during an inter-explosive phase at fumaroles (410°C) on the NW rim of the active crater complex (table 1).

Table 1. Chemical composition (in volume %) of fumarolic gases from Stromboli, early May 1991. Courtesy of M. Martini.

Gas Volume %
H2O 60.29
CO2 29.68
H2S --
HCl 0.28
HF 0.041
H2 --
N2 6.90
O2 1.29
B 0.0014
Br 0.00017
CO 0.00007
NH4 0.00006
CH4 --

Local residents reported a significant increase in the number of explosions on 19 May, after several weeks of weak activity. During a visit to the summit on the evening of 21 May, frequent strong explosions were observed at craters 1 and 3, with large ejections of incandescent material. Thirty explosions were counted between 2000 on the 21st and 0600 the next day. Many ejecta fell onto the N flank's Sciara del Fuoco. Crater 2 and the small cones continuously emitted gas and vapor.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: M. Riuscetti, Univ di Udine; M. Martini, Univ di Firenze; H. Gaudru, Société Volcanologique Européenne (SVE), Switzerland.


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Large gas plume and numerous weak earthquakes

"Activity remained at the low, non-erupting level displayed since January 1990, gently releasing a white vapour plume and generating an average of ~200 very small low-frequency earthquakes/day.

"An aerial inspection and ground deformation survey was carried out 14-16 May. The plume emitted by the crater, although of moderate volume, seemed rich in SO2 and could distinctly be seen stretching horizontally >40 km downwind. No significant changes were noted in summit crater morphology since the last inspection in May 1990, apart from a series of cracks on the terminal cone's upper W flank, suggesting a slight inward sagging of this side of the crater rim.

"EDM and dry tilt measurements suggest that no significant deformation has occurred over the last 12 months."

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Unzendake (Japan) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Unzendake

Japan

32.761°N, 130.299°E; summit elev. 1483 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


41 killed by pyroclastic flow from lava dome

On 3 June a large pyroclastic flow formed near the summit of Fugen-dake cone and moved down the E flank, reaching the outskirts of Kita-Kamikoba, 3 km from the 20 May lava dome. Forty people were killed, including volcanologists Harry Glicken, and Maurice and Katia Krafft. The pyroclastic flow and accompanying fires destroyed more than 56 houses and portions of Shimabara were blanketed with wet ash. A larger pyroclastic flow, on 8 June, destroyed an additional 73 houses in Shimabara and Fukae, but no injuries were reported. On 11 June, ejecta from an explosive event, not associated with pyroclastic-flow activity, damaged houses and car windows in Shimabara. Ashfall was reported 250 km to the NE. Dome extrusion and pyroclastic-flow activity at Unzen continued as of 24 June.

Premonitory activity and small ash emission. Increased seismicity was initially centered in Chijiiwa Bay, 13 km W, in November 1989, and gradually migrated E in July-October 1990, when seismicity increased further and the first volcanic tremor was recorded. Following several earthquake swarms, including one on 13-14 November (centered 5 km W of the summit at shallow depth), the volcano erupted on 17 November, weakly emitting ash to heights of 300-400 m from two newly formed vents (Jigoku-ato and Tsukumo-jima) within existing craters roughly 650 m E of the summit (figure 17). Ash emissions, tremor, and swarm activity quickly ceased, but steam emission continued and seismicity remained at high levels. An earthquake swarm occurred on 15 January and tremor resumed on 25 January (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Map showing the distribution of the three facies of the 3 June pyroclastic flow at Unzen. Crosses represent locations of recovered bodies. Data from Kyushu and Kagoshima universities. Body locations from The Japan Times. Courtesy of JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Daily number of earthquakes (top) and tremor episodes (bottom) at Unzen, January-18 June 1991. Arrows represent resumption of explosive activity on 12 February and dome appearance on 20 May 1991. Courtesy of JMA.

Phreato-magmatic activity, February-May. A second eruption on 12 February produced 500-m ash plumes from a new 50-m-long line of small vents (named Byobu-iwa) 170 m WSW of Jigoku-ato crater and 500 m E of the summit. Deposits of ash and lapilli reached 30 cm thick (10 m E of the vent) but no incandescence was seen and no juvenile material was detected in the ash. Frequent small ash emissions continued from Byobu-iwa vent and seismicity remained at high levels.

In early April, ash emissions resumed at Jigoku-ato vent, which widened and began to eject bombs. By mid-April, Jigoku-ato was the site of the most intense activity. The Geographic Survey Institute detected a summit offset of 11 cm to the W on 12 April.

Juvenile volcanic glass was first recognized on 12 May, although emissions remained small. Shallow microseismicity beneath Jigoku-ato rose sharply the next day, and EDM measurements showed rapid inflation of the summit region.

Debris flows, 15 and 19 May. Heavy rains on accumulated ash deposits triggered debris flows along the Mizunashi River on 15 and 19 May that destroyed two bridges and caused the temporary evacuation of about 1,300 people from Shimabara.

Lava extrusion, 20-23 May. On 20 May, high-silica dacite (table 6) lava extrusion began in Jigoku-ato crater. By the following day large fractures had appeared and the dome had separated into four parts. Debris flows along the Mizunashi River continued; after the fourth debris flow, at 0252 on 21 May, about 1,100 people were evacuated. Water level in the river dropped following a debris flow at 0445, and people were allowed to return home at 0555.

Table 6. Chemical composition of eruptive products from Unzen. Sample 1 - block from 24 May 1991 pyroclastic flow. Sample 2 - surface of lava dome 1 June 1991. Sample 3 - pumice block from 8 June 1991 pyroclastic flow. Sample 4 - 1792 lava flow. Total Fe as Fe2O3. Analyses performed by XRF at Kyushu Univ, normalized anhydrous.

Component Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4
SiO2 65.92 66.03 66.18 66.1
TiO2 0.66 0.64 0.65 0.65
Al2O3 15.46 15.47 15.46 15.8
Fe2O3* 4.18 4.14 4.07 4.28
MnO 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.09
MgO 2.39 2.37 2.34 2.24
CaO 4.90 4.98 4.86 4.56
Na2O 3.85 3.77 3.80 3.78
K2O 2.39 2.35 2.41 2.39
P2O5 0.16 0.17 0.16 0.13
Total 100.02 100.00 100.01 100.02

The dome continued to grow, reaching about 110 m diameter and 44 m height (a few tens of meters above the crater rim) on 23 May, when material began spalling from its margins down the steep outer slopes. Large blocks, to 5 m in diameter (60-70 m3 volume), were observed falling from the dome, and explosive events produced grayish clouds to 100 m height. The Geological Society of Japan reported that Fugen-dake cone had expanded 89 cm from 10 to 22 May (figure 19), and that the lava dome front was moving E at 70-80 cm/hour.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Results of EDM measurements between points T1 and F2 on the S flank of Fugen-dake cone at Unzen, 10 May-8 June. Shortening of this line reflects expansion of the cone as F2 moves toward T1. Data from the GSJ. Courtesy of JMA.

Pyroclastic flows begin, 24 May. At 0810 on 24 May, a large explosion was heard as a portion of the lava dome collapsed, producing a pyroclastic flow that traveled about 1 km down the E flank to within 2 km of Kita-Kamikoba. The flow discolored trees and transported blocks 10 m in diameter. Smaller collapse/pyroclastic flow events occurred at 1755 and 1920.

About 1,300 people were evacuated on 24 May because of increasing mudflow hazard along the Mizunashi River, as volcanic debris accumulated and heavy rains continued. During the evening, workers dredged material from above a dam (2 km from the summit) constructed after the November 1990 eruption to reduce the mudflow danger. By 0600 the following morning the evacuation recommendation was withdrawn and residents were allowed to return home.

Heavy rain on 25 May made observation difficult, but dust and ash from a pyroclastic flow was seen at around 1145. The lava dome continued to grow at an estimated rate of 80,000 m3/day. Rain continued on 26 May, and ash plumes 600 m high were reported, but little is known about activity at the dome.

At 1130 on 26 May, a pyroclastic flow traveled into the Mizunashi valley, injuring a worker (2.6 km from the crater) who had climbed up from the dredging area for better views of the volcano. The flow traveled 3 km, to within 600 m of Kita-Kamikoba, and deposited ash 5 km E on Shimabara. Bursts of tremor accompanied this flow and the prior pyroclastic flow at 1113, suggesting that the tremor signal could be used to detect and count pyroclastic flows (figure 20).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Daily number of pyroclastic flows determined seismically at Unzen, 20 May-18 June 1991. Number represents counts of tremor lasting >30 seconds with amplitudes larger than an empirical threshold. Courtesy of JMA.

The 1130 pyroclastic flow, and the continued accumulation of debris in the river channel, prompted the evacuation of around 3,500 people from the surrounding valley. Several mudflows were reported during that evening, and rain soaked previously-deposited dust and ash to create more mud. Many people were allowed to return home the next day when the rain ceased.

Observations of the dome (27 May) revealed a v-shaped vent, from which a 60-m-wide tongue of lava was being extruded. Pyroclastic flows spawned from the margins of the lava tongue traveled along E and SE paths that joined at mid-flank. On 28 May, fluid (no longer blocky) lava overflowed the crater's E rim and moved down the outer flank, reaching about 700 m elevation by midnight.

The 26 May evacuation order was extended. Pyroclastic flows continued to form, reaching to within 500 m of Kita-Kamikoba on the 29th, and within 200 m on the 30th. Trees in the valley were burned to charcoal, suggesting that flow temperatures had increased. On 31 May, lava was observed emerging from the vent, and then avalanching 1 km down the steep slope in 30 seconds, producing a roaring sound that was heard 6 km E in Shimabara.

Pyroclastic flow kills 41, 3 June. At about 1610 on 3 June, an audible explosion and 6 minutes of recorded tremor signaled the collapse of a portion of the summit dome and lava flow. The resulting large pyroclastic flow moved down the Mizunashi River at reported speeds of up to 100 km/hour and entered Kita-Kamikoba. The core of the pyroclastic flow traveled about 3.2 km (figure 17) over a vertical drop of 1,000 m. An ash cloud surge apparently detached from the flow and traveled an additional 0.8 km, knocking down trees, burning houses, and leaving deposits up to 30 cm thick. Blasted zones occurred in places along the margins of the flow and surge. The volume of the deposits was estimated to be 7.3 x 105 m3.

All of the casualties were within an evacuated "forbidden" zone and all were caused by the detached surge. The victims consisted of: 15 members of the Japanese press, three volcanologists, four taxi drivers, a few local residents, and members of police and fire brigades. Of the 41 people listed dead, 27 bodies were recovered, four remain missing and are presumed dead, and 10 died in hospitals from burns.

Pyroclastic flows continued over the next several days, hampering rescue and recovery efforts, but were less frequent. Lava effusion occurred at a constant rate of around 105 m3/day, producing a tongue 70-80 m wide and 100 m long by 5 June. Periodic explosions produced gas/ash columns 100 m high. One helicopter was grounded due to ash-related engine problems on 6 June. On 7 June, the evacuated zone was widened to include an additional 1,500 people, bringing the total number of evacuees to more than 7,200, and a fine of $75 was imposed on people entering the evacuated area. Observers reported that despite continued growth of the dome it had not yet recovered half of its pre-3 June size.

Large pyroclastic flow, 8 June. An increase in pyroclastic flow activity occurred in the afternoon of 8 June, with numerous small flows over a 5-hour period leading to a larger flow at 1723. The evacuation zone was again widened, to include parts of Fukae, bringing the total number evacuated to about 8,500. Multiple pyroclastic flows began at 1930. Finally, from 1951 to 2016, a continuous series of pyroclastic flows traveled 5.5 km down the Mizunashi River, through parts of Shimabara and Fukae, to within 50 m of Highway 57 (2 km from the sea). Deposits reached 100 m wide and had an estimated volume of ~1.0 x 106 m3. The flows destroyed 73 houses, but no injuries were reported.

Activity continued, with an explosion (detected by infrared camera) at 2007 and a small pyroclastic flow at 2120. Ashfall from the explosion was deposited 90 km NE (in Hida) and 80 km N (in Fukuoka). Clasts 5 cm in diameter fell to 5 km.

Evacuation zones were expanded on 9 June and again on 10 June, to a total of 9,800 people. Mudflow hazards were considered high given the more than 1 x 106 m3 of debris that completely filled the Mizunashi River channel and covered the surrounding valley.

Large explosive event, 11 June. By 11 June, a 50-m-wide dome partly filled the large horseshoe-shaped depression that formed 8 June on the E side of the summit dome. A large explosive ash emission, not associated with pyroclastic-flow formation, occurred at 2359-0003, accompanied by strong tremor and sharp deflation (10 µrad; figure 21). Houses, car windows, and two helicopters were damaged by tephra clasts (d = 1.0-2.0 g/cm3) >=15 cm in diameter that fell to 3.5 km (figure 22). Ash was deposited to 130 km NE (Oita) and 250 km NE (Matsuyama, Shikoku Is.). Two hours after the explosion, 25 µrad of inflation was recorded over a 10-hour period, suggesting rising magma.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Change of ground tilt 850 m W of Unzen's dome, 6-15 June, 1991. Arrows represent large eruptive events on 8 and 11 June. E up corresponds to inflation of the summit area. Data from the Joint Monitoring Group of National Universities. Courtesy of JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Isopleth map of maximum pumice clast sizes from the explosion at Unzen on 11 June at 2359. Data from Kyushu and Kagoshima universities. Courtesy of JMA.

Continued activity. Dome extrusion and pyroclastic-flow formation continued at Unzen as of 24 June. On 14 June, the dome was 100 m wide and 50 m high; it grew another 20 m in height by 16 June. Cracks in the dome emitted gas to 200-300 m height, and periodic explosions produced 1-km-high ash columns. The evacuation area was again expanded on 17 June, bringing the total number of evacuees to more than 10,000.

Actions by Coordinating Committee. The following is from Daisuke Shimozuru, Chairman of the Coordinating Committee for the Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions. "The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) dispatched an observation team in mid-October to intensify seismic observation, assisting JMA's local observatory. Early in November, volcanic tremors were observed. We were very worried about an impending eruption, and asked the Ministry for financial aid for observations by university scientists. On 9 November, the Ministry decided to provide financial aid for observations by 6 universities. The university team set up seismic and deformation nets, in cooperation with Shimabara Volcano Observatory of Kyushu Univ." A chronology of Unzen's activity and statements and warnings issued by the Coordinating Committee is shown in table 7 (see following report).

Geologic Background. The massive Unzendake volcanic complex comprises much of the Shimabara Peninsula east of the city of Nagasaki. An E-W graben, 30-40 km long, extends across the peninsula. Three large stratovolcanoes with complex structures, Kinugasa on the north, Fugen-dake at the east-center, and Kusenbu on the south, form topographic highs on the broad peninsula. Fugendake and Mayuyama volcanoes in the east-central portion of the andesitic-to-dacitic volcanic complex have been active during the Holocene. The Mayuyama lava dome complex, located along the eastern coast west of Shimabara City, formed about 4000 years ago and was the source of a devastating 1792 CE debris avalanche and tsunami. Historical eruptive activity has been restricted to the summit and flanks of Fugendake. The latest activity during 1990-95 formed a lava dome at the summit, accompanied by pyroclastic flows that caused fatalities and damaged populated areas near Shimabara City.

Information Contacts: JMA; D. Shimozuru, Tokyo Univ of Agriculture; H. Kamata, GSJ; Public Works Research Institute, Ministry of Construction; K. Uto, USGS; M. Takahashi, SI; Kyodo News Service; The Japan Times; Asahi Shinbun; Yomiuri Shinbun; AP; UPI; Reuters.


White Island (New Zealand) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

White Island

New Zealand

37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 321 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash emission from new vent; continued deformation

Ash-laden steam emission was reported starting 23 April and continued as of 27 May. An 18 May visit revealed that activity was centered at a newly formed vent in the NE part of 1978/91 Crater (figure 13), near a zone of hot ground first observed on 21 April. Considerable ash accumulation had already occurred in the surrounding area.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Sketch map of White Island on 27 May 1991, showing the new May 91 Vent. Dots mark deformation bench marks. Contour interval, 40 m. Courtesy of DSIR.

During 27May fieldwork, the new vent (named May 91) almost continuously (>=1 pulse/second) emitted a column of gas and minor ash 500-600 m high, depositing dry material, plus some moist sub-millimeter aggregates. The vent, against the NE crater wall, was surrounded by a tuff cone 35-40 m in diameter and 8-10 m high, but no ballistic ejecta were visible. Orca and TV1 Craters quietly emitted weak steam.

Up to 95 mm of ash had accumulated since 21 May at a site 125 m SSE of May 91 vent, of which at least 25 mm was from the new vent. Tephra had infilled the small lake in the vicinity of R.F. Vent (near the SE wall of 1978/90 Crater), and small mudflows traveled across the crater floor. Ash contained a high proportion of fresh material, but lacked vesiculated clasts.

Little change was observed at the 40-45-m-deep collapse pit NW of formerly active Donald Duck Crater. Two passages (20-30 m wide) led from the pit; one connected to Donald Duck Crater (to the SE), and the other headed at least 50-60 m N towards Noisy Nellie. The SE passage contained large sulfur stalactites and stalagmites.

Deformation measurements on 27 May showed that subsidence centered at Donald Mound and Noisy Nellie continued, but at lower rates than the last measurements on 13 February. Minor uplift was measured ~200 m S of Donald Mound.

Seismicity (typically small A- and B-type earthquakes) remained at low levels since 21 April, with periods of 2-3 days without recorded events. One uncharacteristically large E-type event, similar to an event preceding the formation of TV1 Crater (BGVN 15:09) was recorded at 0538 on 23 May. Weak low-frequency tremor has been recorded since 10 May.

Geologic Background. Uninhabited 2 x 2.4 km White Island, one of New Zealand's most active volcanoes, is the emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes; the summit crater appears to be breached to the SE, because the shoreline corresponds to the level of several notches in the SE crater wall. Volckner Rocks, four sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NNE. Intermittent moderate phreatomagmatic and strombolian eruptions have occurred throughout the short historical period beginning in 1826, but its activity also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. Formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries has produced rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project.

Information Contacts: B. Scott and B. Houghton, DSIR Geology & Geophysics, Rotorua; J. Cole, Univ of Canterbury, Christchurch.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).