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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.

Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Pacaya (Guatemala) Strombolian explosions, multiple lava flows, and the formation of a small cone during February-July 2020

Sangeang Api (Indonesia) Two ash plumes and small thermal anomalies during February-June 2020

Stromboli (Italy) Strombolian explosions persist at both summit craters during January-April 2020

Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) Lava dome confirmed inside Arenas crater; intermittent thermal anomalies and ash emissions, January-June 2020

Asosan (Japan) Daily ash emissions continue through mid-June 2020 when activity decreases

Aira (Japan) Near-daily explosions with ash plumes continue, large block ejected 3 km from Minamidake crater on 4 June 2020

Nevados de Chillan (Chile) Explosions and pyroclastic flows continue; new dome emerges from Nicanor crater in June 2020

Kerinci (Indonesia) Intermittent ash emissions during January-early May 2020

Tinakula (Solomon Islands) Intermittent small thermal anomalies and gas-and-steam plumes during January-June 2020

Ibu (Indonesia) Frequent ash emissions and summit incandescence; Strombolian explosions in March 2020

Suwanosejima (Japan) Frequent explosions, ash plumes, and summit incandescence in January-June 2020

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Ash plumes during 29 February-2 March and 1 May 2020



Pacaya (Guatemala) — August 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Pacaya

Guatemala

14.382°N, 90.601°W; summit elev. 2569 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions, multiple lava flows, and the formation of a small cone during February-July 2020

Pacaya, located in Guatemala, is a highly active volcano that has previously produced continuous Strombolian explosions, multiple lava flows, and the formation of a small cone within the crater due to the constant deposition of ejected material (BGVN 45:02). This reporting period updates information from February through July 2020 consisting of similar activity that dominantly originates from the Mackenney crater. Information primarily comes from reports by the Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH) in Guatemala and various satellite data.

Strombolian explosions were recorded consistently throughout this reporting period. During February 2020, explosions ejected incandescent material 100 m above the Mackenney crater. At night and during the early morning the explosions were accompanied by incandescence from lava flows. Multiple lava flows were active during most of February, traveling primarily down the SW and NW flanks and reaching 500 m on 25 February. On 5 February the lava flow on the SW flank divided into three flows measuring 200, 150, and 100 m. White and occasionally blue gas-and-steam emissions rose up to 2.7 km altitude on 11 and 14 February and drifted in multiple directions. On 16 February Matthew Watson utilized UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) to take detailed, close up photos of Pacaya and report that there were five active vents at the summit exhibiting lava flows from the summit, gas-and-steam emissions, and small Strombolian explosions (figure 122).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 122. Drone image of active summit vents at Pacaya on 16 February 2020 with incandescence and white gas-and-steam emissions. Courtesy of Matthew Watson, University of Bristol, posted on 17 February 2020.

Activity remained consistent during March with Strombolian explosions ejecting material 100 m above the crater accompanied by occasional incandescence and white and occasionally blue gas-and-steam emissions drifting in multiple directions. Multiple lava flows were detected on the NW and W flanks reaching as far as 400 m on 9-10 March.

In April, frequent Strombolian explosions were accompanied by active lava flows moving dominantly down the SW flank and white gas-and-steam emissions. These repeated explosions ejected material up to 100 m above the crater and then deposited it within the Mackenney crater, forming a small cone. On 27 April seismicity increased at 2140 due to a lava flow moving SW as far as 400 m (figure 123); there were also six strong explosions and a fissure opened on the NW flank in front of the Los Llanos Village, allowing gas-and-steam to rise.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 123. Infrared image of Pacaya on 28 April 2020, showing a lava flow approximately 500 m long and moving down the S flank on the day after seismicity increased and six strong explosions were detected. Courtesy of ISIVUMEH (Reporte Volcán de Pacaya July 2020).

During May, Strombolian explosions continued to eject incandescent material up to 100 m above the Mackenney crater, accompanied by active lava flows on 1-2, 17-18, 22, 25-26, and 29-30 May down the SE, SW, NW, and NE flanks up to 700 m on 30 May. White gas-and-steam emissions continued to be observed up to 100 m above the crater drifting in multiple directions. Between the end of May and mid-June, the plateau between the Mackenney cone and the Cerro Chiquito had become inundated with lava flows (figure 124).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 124. Aerial views of the lava flows at Pacaya to the NW during a) 18 September 2019 and b) 16 June 2020 showing the lava flow advancement toward the Cerro Chiquito. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Reporte Volcán de Pacaya July 2020).

Lava flows extended 700 m on 8 June down multiple flanks. On 9 June, a lava flow traveled N and NW 500 m and originating from a vent on the N flank about 100 m below the Mackenney crater. Active lava flows continued to originate from this vent through at least 19 June while white gas-and-steam emissions were observed rising 300 m above the crater. At night and during the early mornings of 24 and 29 June Strombolian explosions were observed ejecting incandescent material up to 200 m above the crater (figure 125). These explosions continued to destroy and then rebuild the small cone within the Mackenney crater with fresh ejecta. Active lava flows on the SW flank were mostly 100-600 m long but had advanced to 2 km by 30 June.

On 10 July a 1.2 km lava flow divided in two which moved on the NE and N flanks. On 11 July, another 800 m lava flow divided in two, on the N and NE flanks (figure 126). On 14 and 19 July, INSIVUMEH registered constant seismic tremors and stated they were associated with the lava flows. No active lava flows were observed on 18-19 July, though some may have continued to advance on the SW, NW, N, and NE flanks. On 20 July, lava emerged from a vent at the NW base of the Mackenney cone near Cerro Chino, extending SE. Strombolian explosions ejected incandescent material up to 200 m above the crater on 22 July, accompanied by active incandescent lava flows on the SW, N, NW, NE, and W flanks. Three lava flows on the NW flank were observed on 22-24 July originating from the base of the Mackenney cone. Explosive activity during 22 July vibrated the windows and roofs of the houses in the villages of San Francisco de Sales, El Patrocinio, El Rodeo, and others located 4 km from the volcano. The lava flow activity had decreased by 25 July, but remnants of the lava flow on the NW flank persisted with weak incandescence observed at night, which was no longer observed by 26 July. Strombolian explosions continued to be detected through the rest of the month, accompanied by frequent white gas-and-steam emissions that extended up to 2 km from the volcano; no active lava flows were observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 125. Photos of Pacaya on 11 July 2020 showing Strombolian explosions and lava flows moving down the N and NE flanks. Courtesy of William Chigna, CONRED, posted on 12 July 2020.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 126. Infrared image of Pacaya on 20 July 2020 showing a hot lava flow accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (BEPAC 47 Julio 2020-22).

During February through July 2020, multiple lava flows and thermal anomalies within the Mackenney crater were detected in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (figure 127). These lava flows were observed moving down multiple flanks and were occasionally accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions. Thermal anomalies were also recorded by the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system during 10 August through July 2020 within 5 km of the crater summit (figure 128). There were a few breaks in thermal activity from early to mid-March, late April, early May, and early June; however, each of these gaps were followed by a pulse of strong and frequent thermal anomalies. According to the MODVOLC algorithm, 77 thermal alerts were recorded within the summit crater during February through July 2020.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 127. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images of Pacaya showing thermal activity (bright yellow-orange) primarily as lava flows originating from the summit crater during February to July 2020 frequently accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions. All images with "Atmospheric penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 128. The MIROVA thermal activity graph (Log Radiative Power) at Pacaya during 10 August to July 2020 shows strong, frequent thermal anomalies through late July with brief gaps in activity during early to mid-March, late April, early May, and early June. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Eruptions from Pacaya, one of Guatemala's most active volcanoes, are frequently visible from Guatemala City, the nation's capital. This complex basaltic volcano was constructed just outside the southern topographic rim of the 14 x 16 km Pleistocene Amatitlán caldera. A cluster of dacitic lava domes occupies the southern caldera floor. The post-caldera Pacaya massif includes the ancestral Pacaya Viejo and Cerro Grande stratovolcanoes and the currently active Mackenney stratovolcano. Collapse of Pacaya Viejo between 600 and 1500 years ago produced a debris-avalanche deposit that extends 25 km onto the Pacific coastal plain and left an arcuate somma rim inside which the modern Pacaya volcano (Mackenney cone) grew. A subsidiary crater, Cerro Chino, was constructed on the NW somma rim and was last active in the 19th century. During the past several decades, activity has consisted of frequent strombolian eruptions with intermittent lava flow extrusion that has partially filled in the caldera moat and armored the flanks of Mackenney cone, punctuated by occasional larger explosive eruptions that partially destroy the summit of the growing young stratovolcano.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Matthew Watson, School of Earth Sciences at the University of Bristol (Twitter: @Matthew__Watson, https://twitter.com/Matthew__Watson); William Chigna, CONRED (URL: https://twitter.com/william_chigna).


Sangeang Api (Indonesia) — August 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangeang Api

Indonesia

8.2°S, 119.07°E; summit elev. 1912 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Two ash plumes and small thermal anomalies during February-June 2020

Sangeang Api is a 13-km-wide island located off the NE coast of Sumbawa Island, part of Indonesia's Lesser Sunda Islands. Documentation of historical eruptions date back to 1512. The most recent eruptive episode began in July 2017 and included frequent Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and block avalanches. The previous report (BGVN 45:02) described activity consisting of a new lava flow originating from the active Doro Api summit crater, short-lived explosions, and ash-and-gas emissions. This report updates information during February through July 2020 using information from the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reports, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, or CVGHM) reports, and various satellite data.

Volcanism during this reporting period was relatively low compared to the previous reports (BGVN 44:05 and BGVN 45:02). A Darwin VAAC notice reported an ash plume rose 2.1 km altitude and drifted E on 10 May 2020. Another ash plume rose to a maximum of 3 km altitude drifting NE on 10 June, as seen in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery.

The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data detected a total of 12 low power thermal anomalies within 5 km from the summit during February through May 2020 (figure 42). No thermal anomalies were recorded during June and July according to the MIROVA graph. Though the MODVOLC algorithm did not detect any thermal signatures between February to July, many small thermal hotspots within the summit crater could be seen in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (figure 43).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Thermal anomalies at Sangeang Api from 10 August 2019 through July 2020 recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were infrequent and low power during February through May 2020. No thermal anomalies were detected during June and July. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery using “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering showed small thermal hotspots (orange-yellow) at the summit of Sangeang Api during February through June 2020. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Sangeang Api volcano, one of the most active in the Lesser Sunda Islands, forms a small 13-km-wide island off the NE coast of Sumbawa Island. Two large trachybasaltic-to-tranchyandesitic volcanic cones, Doro Api and Doro Mantoi, were constructed in the center and on the eastern rim, respectively, of an older, largely obscured caldera. Flank vents occur on the south side of Doro Mantoi and near the northern coast. Intermittent historical eruptions have been recorded since 1512, most of them during in the 20th century.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Stromboli (Italy) — August 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian explosions persist at both summit craters during January-April 2020

Stromboli is a stratovolcano located in the northeastern-most part of the Aeolian Islands composed of two active summit vents: the Northern (N) Crater and the Central-South (CS) Crater that are situated at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a large scarp that runs from the summit down the NW side of the volcano. The ongoing eruption began in 1934 and has been characterized by regular Strombolian explosions in both summit craters, ash plumes, and occasional lava flows (BGVN 45:08). This report updates activity from January to April 2020 with information primarily from daily and weekly reports by Italy's Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) and various satellite data.

Activity was consistent during this reporting period. Explosion rates ranged from 1-20 per hour and were of variable intensity, producing material that rose from less than 80 to over 250 m above the vents (table 8). Strombolian explosions were often accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions, spattering, and lava flows which has resulted in fallout deposited on the Sciara del Fuoco and incandescent blocks rolling toward the coast up to a few hundred meters down the slopes of the volcano. According to INGV, the average SO2 emissions measured 300-650 tons/day.

Table 8. Summary of activity at Stromboli during January-April 2020. Low-intensity activity indicates ejecta rising less than 80 m, medium-intensity is ejecta rising less than 150 m, and high-intensity is ejecta rising over 200 m above the vent. Data courtesy of INGV.

Month Activity
Jan 2020 Strombolian activity and degassing continued with some spattering. Explosion rates varied from 2-20 per hour. Ejected material rose 80-150 m above the N crater and 150-200 m above the CS crater. A small cone is growing on the S1 crater and has produced some explosions and ejected coarse material mixed with fine ash. The average SO2 emissions measured 300 tons/day.
Feb 2020 Strombolian activity and degassing continued. Explosion rates varied from 2-14 per hour. Ejected material rose 80-200 m above the N crater and 80-250 m above the CS crater. The average SO2 emissions measured 300 tons/day.
Mar 2020 Strombolian activity and degassing continued with discontinuous spattering. Explosion rates varied from 1-16 per hour. Ejected material rose 80-150 m above the N crater and 150-250 m above the CS crater. Intense spattering was observed in the N crater. The average SO2 emissions measured 300-650 tons/day.
Apr 2020 Strombolian activity and degassing continued with spattering. Explosion rates varied from 1-17 per hour. Ejected material rose 80-150 m above the N crater and 150-250 m above the CS crater. Spattering was observed in the N crater. The average SO2 emissions measured 300-650 tons/day.

During January 2020, explosive activity mainly originated from three vents in the N crater and at least three vents in the CS crater. Ejecta from numerous Strombolian explosions covered the slopes on the upper Sciara del Fuoco, some of which rolled hundreds of meters down toward the coast. Explosion rates varied from 2-12 per hour in the N crater and 9-14 per hour in the CS crater; ejected material rose 80-200 m above the craters. According to INGV, a small cone growing in the S1 crater produced some explosions that ejected coarse material mixed with fine ash. On 18 and 19 January a lava flow was observed, both of which originated in the N crater. In addition, two explosions were detected in the N crater that was associated with two landslide events.

Explosive activity in February primarily originated from 2-3 eruptive vents in the N crater and at least three vents in the CS crater (figure 177). The Strombolian explosions ejected material 80-250 m above the craters, some of which fell onto the upper part of the Sciara. Explosion rates varied from 3-12 per hour in the N crater and 2-14 per hour in the CS crater (figure 178). On 3 February a short-lived lava flow was reported in the N crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 177. A drone image showed spattering accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions at Stromboli rising above the N crater on 15 February 2020. Courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 08/2020, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 10/02/2020 - 16/02/2020, data emissione 18/02/2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 178. a) Strombolian explosions during the week of 17-23 February 2020 in the N1 crater of Stromboli were seen from Pizzo Sopra La Fossa. b) Spattering at Stromboli accompanied by white gas-and-steam emissions was detected in the N1 and S2 craters during the week of 17-23 February 2020. c) Spattering at Stromboli accompanied by a dense ash plume was seen in the N1 and S2 craters during the week of 17-23 February 2020. All photos by F. Ciancitto, courtesy of INGV (Rep. No. 09/2020, Stromboli, Bollettino Settimanale, 17/02/2020 - 23/02/2020, data emissione 25/02/2020).

Ongoing explosive activity continued into March, originating from three eruptive vents in the N crater and at least three vents in the CS crater. Ejected lapilli and bombs rose 80-250 m above the craters resulting in fallout covering the slopes in the upper Sciara del Fuoco with blocks rolling down the slopes toward the coast and explosions varied from 4-13 per hour in the N crater and 1-16 per hour in the CS crater. Discontinuous spattering was observed during 9-19 March. On 19 March, intense spattering was observed in the N crater, which produced a lava flow that stretched along the upper part of the Sciara for a few hundred meters. Another lava flow was detected in the N crater on 28 March for about 4 hours into 29 March, which resulted in incandescent blocks breaking off the front of the flow and rolling down the slope of the volcano. On 30 March a lava flow originated from the N crater and remained active until the next day on 31 March. Landslides accompanied by incandescent blocks rolling down the Sciara del Fuoco were also observed.

Strombolian activity accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions continued into April, primarily produced in 3-4 eruptive vents in the N crater and 2-3 vents in the CS crater. Ejected material from these explosions rose 80-250 m above the craters, resulting in fallout products covering the slopes on the Sciara and blocks rolling down the slopes. Explosions varied from 4-15 per hour in the N crater and 1-10 per hour in the CS crater. On 1 April a thermal anomaly was detected in satellite imagery accompanied by gas-and-steam and ash emissions downstream of the Sciara del Fuoco. A lava flow was observed on 15 April in the N crater accompanied by gas-and-steam and ash emissions; at the front of the flow incandescent blocks detached and rolled down the Sciara (figure 179). This flow continued until 16 April, ending by 0956; a thermal anomaly persisted downslope from the lava flow. Spatter was ejected tens of meters from the vent. Another lava flow was detected on 19 April in the N crater, followed by detached blocks from the front of the flow rolling down the slopes. Spattering continued during 20-21 April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 179. A webcam image of an ash plume accompanied by blocks ejected from Stromboli on 15 April 2020 rolling down the Sciara del Fuoco. Courtesy of INGV via Facebook posted on 15 April 2020.

Moderate thermal activity occurred frequently during 16 October to April 2020 as recorded in the MIROVA Log Radiative Power graph using MODIS infrared satellite information (figure 180). The MODVOLC thermal alerts recorded a total of 14 thermal signatures over the course of nine different days between late February and mid-April. Many of these thermal signatures were captured as hotspots in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery in both summit craters (figure 181).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 180. Low to moderate thermal activity at Stromboli occurred frequently during 16 October-April 2020 as shown in the MIROVA graph (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 181. Thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) at Stromboli were observed in thermal satellite imagery from both of the summit vents throughout January-April 2020. Images with Atmospheric Penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Sezione di Catania, Piazza Roma 2, 95123 Catania, Italy (URL: http://www.ct.ingv.it/en/, Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/ingvvulcani/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — August 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava dome confirmed inside Arenas crater; intermittent thermal anomalies and ash emissions, January-June 2020

Columbia’s broad, glacier-capped Nevado del Ruiz has an eruption history documented back 8,600 years, and historical observations since 1570. It’s profound notoriety stems from an eruption on 13 November 1985 that produced an ash plume and pyroclastic flows onto the glacier, triggering large lahars that washed down 11 valleys, inundating most severely the towns of Armero (46 km W) and Chinchiná (34 km E) where approximately 25,000 residents were killed. It remains the second deadliest volcanic eruption of the 20th century after Mt. Pelee killed 28,000 in 1902. Ruiz remained quiet for 20 years after the September 1985-July 1991 eruption until a new explosive event occurred in February 2012; a series of explosive events lasted into 2013. Renewed activity beginning in November 2014 included ash and gas-and-steam plumes, ashfall, and the appearance of a lava dome inside the Arenas crater in August 2015 which has regularly displayed thermal anomalies through 2019. This report covers ongoing activity from January-June 2020 using information primarily from reports by the Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) and the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) notices, and various sources of satellite data.

Gas and ash emissions continued at Nevado del Ruiz throughout January-June 2020; they generally rose to 5.8-6.1 km altitude with the highest reported plume at 7 km altitude during early March. SGC confirmed the presence of the growing lava dome inside Arenas crater during an overflight in January; infrared satellite imagery indicated a continued heat source from the dome through April. SGC interpreted repeated episodes of ‘drumbeat seismicity’ as an indication of continued dome growth throughout the period. Small- to moderate-density sulfur dioxide emissions were measured daily with satellite instruments. The MIROVA graph of thermal activity indicated a heat source consistent with a growing dome from January through April (figure 102).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. The MIROVA graph of thermal activity at Nevado del Ruiz from 2 July 2019 through June 2020 indicated persistent thermal anomalies from mid-November 2019-April 2020. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Activity during January-March 2020. During January 2020 some of the frequent tremor seismic events were associated with gas and ash emissions, and several episodes of “drumbeat” seismicity were recorded; they have been related by SGC to the growth of the lava dome on the floor of the Arenas crater. An overflight on 10 January, with the support of the Columbian Air Force, confirmed the presence of the dome which was first proposed in August 2015 (BGVN 42:06) (figure 103). The Arenas crater had dimensions of 900 x 980 m elongate to the SW-NE and was about 300 m deep (figure 104). The dome inside the crater was estimated to be 173 m in diameter and 60 m high with an approximate volume of 1,500,000 m3 (figures 105 and 106). In addition to the dome, the scientists also noted ash deposits on the summit ice cap (figure 107). The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume on 19 January that rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted SW, dissipating quickly. On 30 January they reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery extending 15 km NW from the summit at 5.8 km altitude. A single MODVOLC alert was issued on 15 January and data from the VIIRS satellite instrument reported thermal anomalies inside the summit crater on 14 days of the month. Sulfur dioxide plumes with DU values greater than 2 were recorded by the TROPOMI satellite instrument daily during the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. SGC confirmed the presence of a lava dome inside the Arenas crater at Nevado del Ruiz on 10 January 2020. The dome is shown in brown, and zones of fumarolic activity are labelled around the dome. Courtesy of SGC (El Nuevo Domo de Lava del Volcán Nevado del Ruiz y la Geomorfología Actual del Cráter Arenas 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 104. A view of the Arenas crater at the summit of Nevado del Ruiz on 10 January 2020 (left) is compared with a view from 2010 (right). They were both taken during overflights supported by the Colombian Air Force (FAC). Ash deposits on the ice fields are visible in both images. Fumarolic activity rises from the inner walls of the crater in January 2020. Courtesy of SGC (El Nuevo Domo de Lava del Volcán Nevado del Ruiz y la Geomorfología Actual del Cráter Arenas 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 105. The dome inside the Arenas crater at Nevado del Ruiz appeared dark against the crater rim and ash-covered ice field on 10 January 2020. Features observed include (A) the edge of the Arenas crater, (B) a secondary crater 150 m in diameter located to the west, (C) interior cornices, (D) the lava dome, (E) a depression in the center of the dome caused by possible subsidence and cooling of the lava, (F) a source of gas and ash emission with a diameter of approximately 15 m (secondary crater), and (G, H, and I) several sources of gas emission located around the crater. Courtesy of SGC (El Nuevo Domo de Lava del Volcán Nevado del Ruiz y la Geomorfología Actual del Cráter Arenas 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 106. Images of the summit of Nevado del Ruiz captured by the PlanetScope satellite system on 14 March 2018 (A) and 10 January 2020 (B) show the lava dome at the bottom of Arenas crater. Courtesy Planet Lab Inc. and SGC (El Nuevo Domo de Lava del Volcán Nevado del Ruiz y la Geomorfología Actual del Cráter Arenas 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 107. Ash covered the snow and ice field around the Arenas crater at the summit of Nevado del Ruiz on 10 January 2020. The lava dome is the dark area on the right. Courtesy of SGC (posted on Twitter @sgcol).

The Washington VAAC reported multiple ash plumes during February 2020. On 4 February an ash plume was observed in satellite imagery drifting 35 km W from the summit at 5.8 km altitude. The following day a plume rose to 6.1 km altitude and extended 37 km W from the summit before dissipating by the end of the day (figure 108). On 6 February an ash cloud was observed in satellite imagery centered 45 km W of the summit at 5.8 km altitude. Although it had dissipated by midday, a hotspot remained in shortwave imagery until the evening. Late in the day another plume rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted W. Diffuse ash was seen in satellite imagery on 13 February fanning towards the W at 5.8 km altitude. On 18 February at 1720 UTC the Bogota Meteorological Weather Office (MWO) reported an ash emission drifting NW at 5.8 km altitude; a second plume was reported a few hours later at the same altitude. Intermittent emissions continued the next day at 5.8-6.1 km altitude that reached as far as 50 km NW before dissipating. A plume on 21 February rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted W (figure 109). Occasional emissions on 25 February at the same altitude reached 25 km SW of the summit before dissipating. A discrete ash emission around 1550 UTC on 26 February rose to 6.1 km altitude and drifted W. Two similar plumes were reported the next day. On 28 and 29 February plumes rose to 5.8 km altitude and drifted W.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 108. Emissions rose from the Arenas crater at Nevado del Ruiz on 5 February 2020. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume that day that rose to 6.1 km altitude and drifted 37 km W before dissipating. Courtesy of Camilo Cupitre.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 109. Emissions rose from the Arenas crater at Nevado del Ruiz around 0600 on 21 February 2020. The Washington VAAC reported ash emissions that day that rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted W. Courtesy of Manuel MR.

SGC reported several episodes of drumbeat type seismicity on 2, 8, 9, and 27 February which they attributed to effusion related to the growing lava dome in the summit crater. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed ring-shaped thermal anomalies characteristic of dome growth within Arenas crater several times during January and February (figure 110). The VIIRS satellite instrument recorded thermal anomalies on twelve days during February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 110. Persistent thermal anomalies from Sentinel-2 satellite imagery during January and February 2020 suggested that the lava dome inside Nevado del Ruiz’s Arenas crater was still actively growing. Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

On 4, 14, and 19 March 2020 thermal anomalies were visible in Sentinel-2 satellite data from within the Arenas crater. Thermal anomalies were recorded by the VIIRS satellite instrument on eight days during the month. Several episodes of drumbeat seismicity were recorded during the first half of the month and on 30-31 March. Distinct SO2 plumes with DU values greater than 2 were recorded by the TROPOMI satellite instrument daily throughout February and March (figure 111). The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission on 1 March that rose to 5.8 km altitude and drifted NW; it was centered 15 km from the summit when detected in satellite imagery. The next day a plume was seen in satellite imagery moving SW at 7.0 km altitude, extending nearly 40 km from the summit. Additional ash emissions were reported on 4, 14, 15, 21, 28, 29, and 31 March; the plumes rose to 5.8-6.7 km altitude and drifted generally W, some reaching 45 km from the summit before dissipating.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 111. Distinct SO2 plumes with Dobson values (DU) greater than 2 were recorded by the TROPOMI satellite instrument daily during February and March 2020. Ecuador’s Sangay produced smaller but distinct plumes most of the time as well. Dates are shown at the top of each image. Courtesy of NASA’s Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Activity during April-June 2020. The Washington VAAC reported an ash emission that rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted W on 1 April 2020. On 2 April, emission plumes were visible from the community of Tena in the Cundinamarca municipality which is located 100 km ESE (figure 112). The unusually clear skies were attributed to the reduction in air pollution in nearby Bogota resulting from the COVID-19 Pandemic quarantine. On 4 April the Bogota MWO reported an emission drifting SW at 5.8 km altitude. An ash plume on 8 April rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted W. On 25 April the last reported ash plume from the Washington VAAC for the period rose to 6.1 km altitude and was observed in satellite imagery moving W at 30 km from the summit; after that, only steam and gas emissions were observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 112. On the evening of 2 April 2020, emission plumes from Nevado del Ruiz were visible from Santa Bárbara village in Tena, Cundinamarca municipality which is located 100 km ESE. The unusually clear skies were attributed to the reduction in air pollution in the nearby city of Bogota resulting from the COVID-19 Pandemic quarantine. Photo by Williama Garcia, courtesy of Semana Sostenible (3 April 2020).

Distinct SO2 plumes with DU values greater than 2 were recorded by the TROPOMI satellite instrument daily throughout the month. On 13 April, a Sentinel-2 thermal image showed a hot spot inside the Arenas crater largely obscured by steam and clouds. Cloudy images through May and June prevented observation of additional thermal anomalies in satellite imagery, but the VIIRS thermal data indicated anomalies on 3, 4, and 26 April. SGC reported low-energy episodes of drumbeat seismicity on 4, 9, 10, 12, 15, 16, 20, and 23 April which they interpreted as related to growth of the lava dome inside the Arenas crater. The seismic events were located 1.5-2.0 km below the floor of the crater.

Small emissions of ash and gas were reported by SGC during May 2020 and the first half of June, with the primary drift direction being NW. Gas and steam plumes rose 560-1,400 m above the summit during May and June (figure 113). Drumbeat seismicity was reported a few times each month. Sulfur dioxide emissions continued daily; increased SO2 activity was recorded during 10-13 June (figure 114).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 113. Gas and steam plumes rose 560-1,400 m above the summit of Nevado del Ruiz during May and June 2020, including in the early morning of 11 June. Courtesy of Carlos-Enrique Ruiz.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 114. Increased SO2 activity during 10-13 June 2020 at Nevado del Ruiz was recorded by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite. Sangay also emitted SO2 on those days. Courtesy of NASA Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: El Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC), Diagonal 53 No. 34-53 - Bogotá D.C., Colombia (URL: https://www.sgc.gov.co/volcanes, https://twitter.com/sgcol); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); NASA Worldview (URL: https://worldview.earthdata.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Camilo Cupitre (URL: https://twitter.com/Ccupitre/status/1225207439701704709); Manuel MR (URL: https://twitter.com/ElPlanetaManuel/status/1230837262088384512); Semana Sostenible (URL: https://sostenibilidad.semana.com/actualidad/articulo/fumarola-del-nevado-del-ruiz-fue-captada-desde-tena-cundinamarca/49597); Carlos-Enrique Ruiz (URL: https://twitter.com/Aleph43/status/1271800027841794049).


Asosan (Japan) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Asosan

Japan

32.884°N, 131.104°E; summit elev. 1592 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Daily ash emissions continue through mid-June 2020 when activity decreases

Japan's 24-km-wide Asosan caldera on the island of Kyushu has been active throughout the Holocene. Nakadake has been the most active of 17 central cones for 2,000 years; all historical activity is from Nakadake Crater 1. The largest ash plume in 20 years occurred on 8 October 2016. Asosan remained quiet until renewed activity from Crater 1 began in mid-April 2019; explosions with ash plumes continued through the first half of 2020 and are covered in this report. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides monthly reports of activity; the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) issues aviation alerts reporting on possible ash plumes, and Sentinel-2 satellite images provide data on ash emissions and thermal activity.

The Tokyo VAAC issued multiple daily reports of ash plumes from Nakadake Crater 1 from 1 January-14 June 2020. They were commonly at 1.8-2.1 km altitude, and often drifted E or S. JMA reported that ashfall continued downwind from the ash plumes until mid-June; seismic activity was relatively high during January and February and decreased steadily after that time. The measured SO2 emissions ranged from 1,000-4,900 tons per day through mid-June and dropped to 500 tons per day during the second half of June. Intermittent thermal activity was recorded at the crater through mid-May.

Explosive activity during January-June 2020. Ash plumes rose up to 1.1 km above the crater rim at Nakadake Crater 1 during January 2020 (figure 70). Ashfall was confirmed downwind of an explosion on 7 January. During February, ash plumes rose up to 1.7 km above the crater, and ashfall was again reported downwind. The crater camera provided by the Aso Volcano Museum occasionally observed incandescence at the floor of the crater during both months. Incandescence was also occasionally observed with the Kusasenri webcam (3 km W) and was seen on 20 February from a webcam in Minamiaso village (8 km SW).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. Ash plumes rose up to 1.1 km above the Nakadake Crater 1 at Asosan during January 2020 (left) and up to 1.7 km above the crater during February 2020 (right) as seen in these images from the Kusasenri webcam. Ashfall was reported downwind multiple times. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material for Mt. Aso, January and February 2020).

During March 2020, ash plumes rose as high as 1.3 km. Ashfall was reported on 9 March in Ichinomiyamachi, Aso City (figure 71). In field surveys conducted on the 18th and 25th, there was no visible water inside the crater, and high-temperature grayish-white plumes were observed. The temperature at the base of the plume was measured at 300°C (figure 72).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Ashfall from Asosan appeared on 9 March 2020 in Ichinomiyamachi, Aso City around 10 km N. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material for Mt. Aso, March 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. During a field survey of Nakadake Crater 1 at Asosan on 25 March 2020, JMA staff observed a gray ash plume rising from the crater floor (left). The maximum temperature of the ash plume was measured at about 300°C with an infrared thermal imaging device (right). Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material for Mt. Aso, March 2020).

Occasional incandescence was observed at the bottom of the crater during April and May 2020; ash plumes rose 1.1 km above the crater on most days in April and were slightly higher, rising to 1.8 km during May, although activity was more intermittent (figure 73). A brief increase in SO2 activity was reported by JMA during field surveys on 7 and 8 May; satellite data captured small plumes of SO2 on 1 and 6 May (figure 74). A brief increase in tremor amplitude was reported by JMA on 16 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Although activity at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater 1 was more intermittent during April and May 2020 than earlier in the year, ash plumes were still reported most days and incandescence was seen at the bottom of the crater multiple times until 15 May. Left image taken 11 May 2020 from the Kusachiri webcam; right image taken from the crater webcam on 10 May provided by the Aso Volcano Museum. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material for Mt. Aso, May 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. The TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite detected small but distinct SO2 plumes from Asosan on 1 and 6 May 2020. Additional small plumes are visible from Aira caldera’s Sakurajima volcano. Courtesy of NASA’s Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page.

The last report of ash emissions at Nakadake Crater 1 from the Tokyo VAAC was on 14 June 2020. JMA also reported that no eruption was observed after mid-June. On 8 June they reported an ash plume that rose 1.4 km above the crater. During a field survey on 16 June, only steam was observed at the crater; the plume rose about 100 m (figure 75). In addition, a small plume of steam rose from a fumarole on the S crater wall.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. A steam plume rose about 100 m from the floor of Nakadake Crater 1 on 16 June 2020. A small steam plume was also observed by the S crater wall. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary material for Mt. Aso, June 2020).

Thermal activity during January-June 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite data indicated thermal anomalies present at Nakadake Crater 1 on 2 January, 6 and 21 February, 16 April, and 11 May (figure 76). In addition, thermal anomalies from agricultural fires appeared in satellite images on 11 February, 7 and 17 March (figure 77). The fires were around 5 km from the crater, thus they appear on the MIROVA thermal anomaly graph in black, but are likely unrelated to volcanic activity (figure 78). No thermal anomalies were recorded in satellite data from the Nakadake Crater 1 after 11 May, and none appeared in the MIROVA data as well.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Thermal anomalies appeared at Asosan’s Nakadake Crater 1 on 2 January, 6 and 21 February, 16 April and 11 May 2020. On 2 January a small ash plume drifted SSE from the crater (left). On 6 February a dense ash plume drifted S from the crater (center). Only a small steam plume was visible above the crater on 21 February (right). Images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Thermal anomalies from agricultural fires located about 5 km from the crater appeared in satellite images on 11 February, and 7 and 17 March 2020. Although a dense ash plume drifted SSE from the crater on 11 February (left), no thermal anomalies appear at the crater on these dates. Images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A), courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. The MIROVA project plot of Log Radiative Power at Asosan from 29 June 2019 through June 2020 shows only a few small thermal alerts within 5 km of the summit crater during January-June 2020, and a spike in activity during February and March located around 5 km away. These data correlate well with the Sentinel-2 satellite data that show intermittent thermal anomalies at the summit throughout January-May and agricultural fires located several kilometers from the crater during February and March. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The 24-km-wide Asosan caldera was formed during four major explosive eruptions from 300,000 to 90,000 years ago. These produced voluminous pyroclastic flows that covered much of Kyushu. The last of these, the Aso-4 eruption, produced more than 600 km3 of airfall tephra and pyroclastic-flow deposits. A group of 17 central cones was constructed in the middle of the caldera, one of which, Nakadake, is one of Japan's most active volcanoes. It was the location of Japan's first documented historical eruption in 553 CE. The Nakadake complex has remained active throughout the Holocene. Several other cones have been active during the Holocene, including the Kometsuka scoria cone as recently as about 210 CE. Historical eruptions have largely consisted of basaltic to basaltic-andesite ash emission with periodic strombolian and phreatomagmatic activity. The summit crater of Nakadake is accessible by toll road and cable car, and is one of Kyushu's most popular tourist destinations.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Aira (Japan) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Near-daily explosions with ash plumes continue, large block ejected 3 km from Minamidake crater on 4 June 2020

Sakurajima rises from Kagoshima Bay, which fills the Aira Caldera near the southern tip of Japan's Kyushu Island. Frequent explosive and occasional effusive activity has been ongoing for centuries. The Minamidake summit cone has been the location of persistent activity since 1955; the adjacent Showa crater on its E flank has also been intermittently active since 2006. Numerous explosions and ash-bearing emissions have been occurring each month at either Minamidake or Showa crater since the latest eruptive episode began in late March 2017. This report covers ongoing activity at Minamidake from January through June 2020; the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides regular reports on activity, and the Tokyo VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Center) issues tens of reports each month about the frequent ash plumes.

Activity continued during January-June 2020 at Minamidake crater with tens of explosions each month. The Tokyo VAAC issued multiple daily reports of ash emissions during January and February. Less activity occurred during the first half of March but picked up again with multiple daily reports from mid-March through mid-April. Emissions were more intermittent but continued through early June, when activity decreased significantly. JMA reported explosions with ash plumes rising 2.5-4.2 km above the summit, and ejecta traveling generally up to 1,700 m from the crater, although a big explosion in early June send a large block of tephra 3 km from the crater (table 23). Thermal anomalies were visible in satellite imagery on a few days most months and were persistent in the MIROVA thermal anomaly data from November 2019 through early June 2020 (figure 94). Incandescence was often visible at night in the webcams through early June; the Showa crater remained quiet throughout the period.

Table 23. Monthly summary of eruptive events recorded at Sakurajima's Minamidake crater within the Aira Caldera, January through June 2020. The number of events that were explosive in nature are in parentheses. No events were recorded at the Showa crater during this time. Ashfall is measured at the Kagoshima Local Meteorological Observatory (KLMO), 10 km W of Showa crater. Data courtesy of JMA (January to June 2020 monthly reports).

Month Ash emissions (explosive) Max plume height above crater Max ejecta distance from crater Total amount of ashfall (g/m2) Total ashfall previous month
Jan 2020 104 (65) 2.5 km 1,700 m 75 (12 days) 280,000 tons
Feb 2020 129 (67) 2.6 km 1,800 m 21 (14 days) 230,000 tons
Mar 2020 26 (10) 3.0 km 1,700 m 3 (8 days) 360,000 tons
Apr 2020 51 (14) 3.8 km 1,700 m less than 0.5 (2 days) 160,000 tons
May 2020 51 (24) 4.2 km 1,300 m 19 (8 days) 280,000 tons
Jun 2020 28 (16) 3.7 km 3,000 m 71 (9 days) 150,000 tons
Figure (see Caption) Figure 94. Persistent thermal anomalies were recorded in the MIROVA thermal energy data for the period from 2 July 2019 through June 2020. Thermal activity increased in October 2019 and remained steady through May 2020, decreasing abruptly at the beginning of June. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Explosions continued at Minamidake crater during January 2020 with 65 ash plumes reported. The highest ash plume rose 2.5 km above the crater on 30 January, and incandescent ejecta reached up to 1,700 m from the Minamidake crater on 22 and 29 January (figure 95). Slight inflation of the volcano since September 2019 continued to be measured with inclinometers and extensometers on Sakurajima Island. Field surveys conducted on 15, 20, and 31 January measured the amount of sulfur dioxide gas released as very high at 3,400-4,700 tons per day, as compared with 1,000-3,000 tons in December 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 95. An explosion at the Minamidake summit crater of Aira’s Sakurajima volcano on 29 January 2020 produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km above the crater rim and drifted SE (left). On 22 January incandescent ejecta reached 1,700 m from the summit during explosive events. Courtesy of JMA (Sakurajima Volcanic Activity Commentary, January 2020).

About the same number of explosions produced ash plumes during February 2020 (67) as in January (65) (figure 96). On 10 February a large block was ejected 1,800 m from the crater, the first to reach that far since 5 February 2016. The tallest plume, on 26 February rose 2.6 km above the crater. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery indicated two distinct thermal anomalies within the Minamidake crater on both 1 and 6 February (figure 97). Activity diminished during March 2020 with only 10 explosions out of 26 eruptive events. On 21 March a large bomb reached 1,700 m from the crater. The tallest ash plume rose 3 km above the crater on 17 March. Scientists noted during an overflight on 16 March that a small steam plume was rising from the inner wall on the south side of the Showa crater; a larger steam plume rose to 300 m above the Minamidake crater and drifted S (figure 98). Sulfur dioxide emissions were similar in February (1,900 to 3,100 tons) and March (1,300 to 3,400 tons per day).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 96. An ash plume rose from the Minamidake crater at the summit of Aira’s Sakurajima volcano on 6 February 2020 at 1752 local time, as seen looking S from the Kitadake crater. Courtesy of JMA (Sakurajima Volcanic Activity Commentary, February 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 97. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery revealed two distinct thermal anomalies within the Minamidake crater at Aira’s Sakurajima volcano on 1 and 6 February 2020. Images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 98. During an overflight of Aira’s Sakurajima volcano on 16 March 2020, JMA captured this view to the SW of the Kitadake crater on the right, the steam-covered Minamidake crater in the center, and the smaller Showa crater on the left adjacent to Minamidake. Courtesy of JMA and the Maritime Self-Defense Force 1st Air Group P-1 (Sakurajima Volcanic Activity Commentary, March 2020).

During April 2020, ejecta again reached as far as 1,700 m from the crater; 14 explosions were identified from the 51 reported eruptive events, an increase from March. The tallest plume, on 4 April, rose 3.8 km above the crater (figure 99). The same number of eruptive events occurred during May 2020, but 24 were explosive in nature. A large plume on 9 May rose to 4.2 km above the rim of Minamidake crater, the tallest of the period (figure 100). On 20 May, incandescent ejecta reached 1,300 m from the summit. Sulfur dioxide emissions during April (1,700-2,100 tons per day) and May (1,200-2,700 tons per day) were slightly lower than previous months.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 99. A large ash plume at Aira’s Sakurajima volcano rose from Minamidake crater at 1621 on 4 April 2020. The plume rose to 3.8 km above the crater and drifted SE. Courtesy of JMA (Sakurajima Volcanic Activity Commentary, April 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 100. Activity continued at Aira’s Sakurajima volcano during May 2020. A large plume rose to 4.2 km above the summit and drifted N in the early morning of 9 May (left). The Kaigata webcam located at the Osumi River National Highway Office captured abundant incandescent ejecta reaching 1,300 m from the crater during the evening of 20 May. Courtesy of JMA (Sakurajima Volcanic Activity Commentary, May 2020).

A major explosion on 4 June 2020 produced 137 Pa of air vibration at the Seto 2 observation point on Sakurajima Island. It was the first time that air vibrations exceeding 100 Pa have been observed at the Seto 2 station since the 21 May 2015 explosion at the Showa crater. The ash plume associated with the explosion rose 1.5 km above the crater rim. During an 8 June field survey conducted in Higashisakurajima-cho, Kagoshima City, a large impact crater believed to be associated with this explosion was located near the coast 3 km SSW from Minamidake. The crater formed by the ejected block was about 6 m in diameter and 2 m deep (figure 101); fragments found nearby were 10-20 cm in diameter (figure 102). A nearby roof was also damaged by the blocks. Smaller bombs were found in Kurokami-cho, Kagoshima City, around 4- 5 km E of Minamidake on 5 June; the largest fragment was 5 cm in diameter. Multiple ash plumes rose to 3 km or more above the summit during the first ten days of June; explosions on 4 and 5 June reached 3.7 km above the crater (figure 103). Larger than normal inflation and deflation before and after the explosions was recorded during early June in the inclinometers and extensometers located on the island. Incandescence at the summit was observed at night through the first half of June. The Tokyo VAAC issued multiple daily ash advisories during 1-10 June after which activity declined abruptly. Two brief explosions on 23 June and one on 28 June were the only two additional ash explosions reported in June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 101. A large crater measuring 6 m wide and 2 m deep was discovered 3 km from the Minamidake crater in Higashisakurajima, part of Kagoshima City, on 8 June 2020. It was believed to be from the impact of a large block ejected during the 4 June explosion at Aira’s Sakurajima volcano. Photo courtesy of Kagoshima City and JMA (Sakurajima Volcanic Activity Commentary, June 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 102. Fragments 10-30 cm in diameter from a large bomb that traveled 3 km from Minamidake crater on Sakurajima were found a few days after the 4 June 2020 explosion at Aira. Courtesy of JMA, photo courtesy of Kagoshima City (Sakurajima Volcanic Activity Commentary, June 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 103. An ash plume rose 3.7 km above the Minamidake crater at Aira’s Sakurajima volcano on 5 June 2020 and was recorded in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. Image uses Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub playground.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Nevados de Chillan (Chile) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevados de Chillan

Chile

36.868°S, 71.378°W; summit elev. 3180 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions and pyroclastic flows continue; new dome emerges from Nicanor crater in June 2020

Nevados de Chillán is a complex of late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes in the Chilean Central Andes. An eruption started with a phreatic explosion and ash emission on 8 January 2016 from a new crater (Nicanor) on the E flank of the Nuevo crater, itself on the NW flank of the large Volcán Viejo stratovolcano. Strombolian explosions and ash emissions continued throughout 2016 and 2017; a lava dome within the Nicanor crater was confirmed in early January 2018. Explosions and pyroclastic flows continued during 2018 and 2019, with several lava flows appearing in late 2019. This report covers continuing activity from January-June 2020 when ongoing explosive events produced ash plumes, pyroclastic flows, and the growth of new dome inside the crater. Information for this report is provided primarily by Chile's Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)-Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), and by the Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Explosions with ash plumes rising up to three kilometers above the summit area were intermittent from late January through early June 2020. Some of the larger explosions produced pyroclastic flows that traveled down multiple flanks. Thermal anomalies within the Nicanor crater were recorded in satellite data several times each month from February through June. A reduction in overall activity led SERNAGEOMIN to lower the Alert Level from Orange to Yellow (on a 4-level, Green-Yellow-Orange-Red scale) during the first week of March, although tens of explosions with ash plumes were still recorded during March and April. Explosive activity diminished in early June and SERNAGEOMIN reported the growth of a new dome inside the Nicanor crater. By the end of June, a new flow had extended about 100 m down the N flank. Thermal activity recorded by the MIROVA project showed a drop in thermal energy in mid-December 2019 after the lava flows of September-November stopped advancing. A decrease in activity in January and February 2020 was followed by an increase in thermal and explosive activity in March and April. Renewed thermal activity from the growth of a new dome inside the Nicanor crater was recorded beginning in mid-June (figure 52).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. MIROVA thermal anomaly data for Nevados de Chillan from 8 September 2019 through June 2020 showed a drop in thermal activity in mid-December 2019 after the lava flows of September-November stopped advancing. A decrease in activity in January and February 2020 was followed by an increase in explosive activity in March and April. Renewed thermal activity from the growth of a new dome inside the Nicanor crater was recorded beginning in mid-June. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Weak gas emissions were reported daily during January 2020 until a series of explosions began on the 21st. The first explosion rose 100 m above the active crater; the following day, the highest explosion rose 1.6 km above the crater. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported pulse emissions visible in satellite imagery on 21 and 24 January that rose to 3.9-4.3 km altitude and drifted SE and NE, respectively. Intermittent explosions continued through 26 January. Incandescent ejecta was observed during the night of 28-29 January. The VAAC reported an isolated emission on 29 January that rose to 5.2 km altitude and drifted E. A larger explosion on 30 January produced an ash plume that SERNAGEOMIN reported at 3.4 km above the crater (figure 53). It produced pyroclastic flows that traveled down ravines on the NNE and SE flanks. The Washington VAAC reported on behalf of the Buenos Aires VAAC that an emission was observed in satellite imagery on 30 January that rose to 4.9 km altitude and was moving rapidly E, reaching 15 km from the summit at midday. The altitude of the ash plume was revised two hours later to 7.3 km, drifting NNE and rapidly dissipating. Satellite images identified two areas of thermal anomalies within the Nicanor crater that day. One was the same emission center (CE4) identified in November 2019, and the second was a new emission center (CE5) located 60 m NW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. A significant explosion and ash plume from the Nicanor crater at Nevados de Chillan on 30 January 2020 produced an ash plume reported at 7.3 km altitude. The left image was taken within one minute of the initial explosion. Images posted by Twitter accounts #EmergenciasÑuble (left) and T13 (right); original photographers unknown.

When the weather permitted, low-altitude mostly white degassing was seen during February 2020, often with traces of fine-grained particulate material. Incandescence at the crater was observed overnight during 4-5 February. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported an emission on 14 February visible in the webcam. The next day, an emission was visible in satellite imagery at 3.9 km altitude that drifted E. Episodes of pulsating white and gray plumes were first observed by SERNAGEOMIN beginning on 18 February and continued through 25 February (figure 54). The Buenos Aires VAAC reported pulses of ash emissions moving SE on 18 February at 4.3 km altitude. Ash drifted E the next day at 3.9 km altitude and a faint plume was briefly observed on 20 February drifting N at 3.7 km altitude before dissipating. Sporadic pulses of ash moved SE from the volcano on 22 February at 4.3 km altitude, briefly observed in satellite imagery before dissipating. Thermal anomalies were visible from the Nicanor crater in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 23 and 28 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. An ash emission at Nevados de Chillan on 18 February 2020 was captured in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery drifting SE (left). Thermal anomalies within the Nicanor crater were measured on 23 (right) and 28 February. Images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Only low-altitude degassing of mostly steam was reported for the first half of March 2020. When SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level from Orange to Yellow on 5 March, they reduced the affected area from 5 km NE and 3 km SW of the crater to a radius of 2 km around the active crater. Thermal anomalies were recorded at the Nicanor crater in Sentinel-2 imagery on 4, 9, 11, 16, and 19 March (figure 55). A new series of explosions began on 19 March; 44 events were recorded during the second half of the month (figure 56). Webcams captured multiple explosions with dense ash plumes; on 25 and 30 March the plumes rose more than 2 km above the crater. Fine-grained ashfall occurred in Las Trancas (10 km SW) on 25 March. Pyroclastic flows on 25 and 30 March traveled 300 m NE, SE, and SW from the crater. Incandescence was observed at night multiple times after 20 March. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported several discrete pulses of ash that rose to 4.3 km altitude and drifted SE on 20 and 21 March, SW on 25 March, and SE on 29 and 30 March. Another ash emission rose to 5.5 km altitude later on 30 March and drifted SE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Sentinel-2 Satellite imagery of Nevados de Chillan during March 2020 showed thermal anomalies on five different dates at the Nicanor crater, including on 9, 11, and 16 March. A second thermal anomaly of unknown origin was also visible on 11 March about 2 km SW of the crater (center). Images use Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Forty-four explosive events were recorded at Nevados de Chillan during the second half of March 2020 including on 19 March. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN webcams and chillanonlinenoticia.

In their semi-monthly reports for April 2020, SERNAGEOMIN reported 94 explosive events during the first half of the month and 49 during the second half; many produced dense ash plumes. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported frequent intermittent ash emissions during 1-13 April reaching altitudes of 3.7-4.3 km (figure 57). They reported the plume on 8 April visible in satellite imagery at 7.3 km altitude drifting SE. An emission on 13 April was also visible in satellite imagery at 6.1 km altitude drifting NE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery captured a strong thermal anomaly and an ash plume drifting SE from Nevados de Chillan on 10 April 2020. Image uses Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the second half of April 2020, SERNAGEOMIN reported that only one plume exceeded 2 km in height; on 21 April, it rose to 2.4 km above the crater (figure 58). The Buenos Aires VAAC reported isolated pulses of ash on 18, 26, 28, and 30 April. During the second half of April SERNAGEOMIN also reported that a pyroclastic flow traveled about 1,200 m from the crater rim down the SE flank. The ash from the pyroclastic flow drifted SE and S as far as 3.5 km. Satellite images showed continued activity from multiple emission centers around the crater. Pronounced scarps were noted on the internal walls of the crater, attributed to the deepening of the crater from explosive activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Tens of explosions were reported at Nevados de Chillan during the second half of April 2020 that produced dense ash plumes. The plume on 21 April rose 2.4 km above the Nicanor crater. Photo by Josefa Carrasco Acuña from San Fabián de Alico; posted by Noticias Valpo Express.

Intermittent explosive activity continued during May 2020. The plumes contained abundant particulate material and were accompanied by periodic pyroclastic flows and incandescent ejecta around the active crater, especially visible at night. The Buenos Aires VAAC reported several sporadic weak ash emissions during the first week of May that rose to 3.7-5.2 km altitude and drifted NE. SERNAGEOMIN reported that only one explosion produced an ash emission that rose more than two km above the crater during the first two weeks of the month; on 6 May it rose to 2.5 km above the crater and drifted NE. They also observed pyroclastic flows on the E and SE flanks that day. Additional pyroclastic flows traveled 450 m down the S flank during the first half of the month, and similar deposits were observed to the N and NE. Satellite observations showed various emission points along the NW-trending lineament at the summit and multiple erosion scarps. Major erosion was noted at the NE rim of the crater along with an increase in degassing around the rim.

During the second half of May 2020 most of the ash plumes rose less than 2 km above the crater; a plume from one explosion on 22 May rose 2.2 km above the crater; the Buenos Aires VAAC reported the plume at 5.5 km altitude drifting NW (figure 59). Continuing pyroclastic emissions deposited material as far as 1.5 km from the crater rim on the NNW flank. There were also multiple pyroclastic deposits up to 500 m from the crater directed N and NE during the period. SERNAGEOMIN reported an increase in steam degassing between Nuevo-Nicanor and Nicanor-Arrau craters.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Explosions produced dense ash plumes and pyroclastic flows at Nevados de Chillan multiple times during May 2020 including on 22 May. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Webcam images during the first two weeks of June 2020 indicated multiple incandescent explosions. On 3 and 4 June plumes from explosions reached heights of over 1.25 km above the crater; the Buenos Aires VAAC reported them drifting NW at 3.9 km altitude. Incandescent ejecta on 6 June rose 760 m above the vent and drifted NE. In addition, pyroclastic flows were distributed on the N, NW, E and SE flanks. Significant daytime and nighttime incandescence was reported on 6, 9, and 10 June (figure 60). The VAAC reported emission pulses on 6 and 9 June drifting E and SE at 4.3 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Multiple ash plumes with incandescence were reported at Nevados de Chillan during the first ten days of June 2020 including on 6 June, after which explosive activity decreased significantly. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIIN and Sismo Alerta Mexicana.

SERNAGEOMIN reported that beginning on the afternoon of 9 June 2020 a tremor-type seismic signal was first recorded, associated with continuous emission of gas and dark gray ash that drifted SE (figure 61). A little over an hour later another tremor signal began that lasted for about four hours, followed by smaller discrete explosions. A hybrid-type earthquake in the early morning of 10 June was followed by a series of explosions that ejected gas and particulate matter from the active crater. The vent where the emissions occurred was located within the Nicanor crater close to the Arrau crater; it had been degassing since 30 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. A tremor-type seismic signal was first recorded on the afternoon of 9 June 2020 at Nevados de Chillan. It was associated with the continuous emission of gas and dark gray ash that drifted SE, and incandescent ejecta visible after dark. View is to the S, courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN webcam, posted by Volcanology Chile.

After the explosions on the afternoon of 9 June, a number of other nearby vents became active. In particular, the vent located between the Nuevo and Nicanor craters began emitting material for the first time during this eruptive cycle. The explosion also generated pyroclastic flows that traveled less than 50 m in multiple directions away from the vent. Abundant incandescent material was reported during the explosion early on 10 June. Deformation measurements showed inflation over the previous 12 days.

SERNAGEOMIN identified a surface feature in satellite imagery on 11 June 2020 that they interpreted as a new effusive lava dome. It was elliptical with dimensions of about 85 x 120 m. In addition to a thermal anomaly attributed to the dome, they noted three other thermal anomalies between the Nuevo, Arrau, and Nicanor craters. They reported that within four days the base of the active crater was filled with effusive material. Seismometers recorded tremor activity after 11 June that was interpreted as associated with lava effusion. Incandescent emissions were visible at night around the active crater. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery recorded a bright thermal anomaly inside the Nicanor crater on 14 June (figure 62).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. A bright thermal anomaly was recorded inside the Nicanor crater at Nevados de Chillan on 14 June 2020. SERNAGEOMIN scientists attributed it to the growth of a new lava dome within the crater. Image uses Atmospheric penetration rendering (bands 12, 11, 8a); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A special report from SERNAGEOMIN on 24 June 2020 noted that vertical inflation had increased during the previous few weeks. After 20 June the inflation rate reached 2.49 cm/month, which was considered high. The accumulated inflation measured since July 2019 was 22.5 cm. Satellite imagery continued to show the growth of the dome, and SERNAGEOMIN scientists estimated that it reached the E edge of the Nicanor crater on 23 June. Based on these images, they estimated an eruptive rate of 0.1-0.3 m3/s, about two orders of magnitude faster than the Gil-Cruz dome that emerged between December 2018 and early 2019.

Webcams revealed continued low-level explosive activity and incandescence visible both during the day and at night. By the end of June, webcams recorded a lava flow that extended 94 m down the N flank from the Nicanor crater and continued to advance. Small explosions with abundant pyroclastic debris produced recurring incandescence at night. Satellite infrared imagery indicated thermal radiance from effusive material that covered an area of 37,000 m2, largely filling the crater. DEM analysis suggested that the size of the crater had tripled in volume since December 2019 due largely to erosion from explosive activity since May 2020. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery showed a bright thermal anomaly inside the crater on 27 June.

Geologic Background. The compound volcano of Nevados de Chillán is one of the most active of the Central Andes. Three late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes were constructed along a NNW-SSE line within three nested Pleistocene calderas, which produced ignimbrite sheets extending more than 100 km into the Central Depression of Chile. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, Cerro Blanco (Volcán Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group. Volcán Viejo (Volcán Chillán), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcán Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcán Viejo in elevation. The Volcán Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcán Nuevo between 1973 and 1986 and eventually exceeded its height.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/, https://twitter.com/Sernageomin); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); #EmergenciasÑuble (URL: https://twitter.com/urgenciasnuble/status/1222943399185207296); T13, Channel 13 Press Department (URL: https://twitter.com/T13/status/1222951071443771394); Chillanonlinenoticia (URL: https://twitter.com/ChillanOnline/status/1240754211932995595); Noticias Valpo Express (URL: https://twitter.com/NoticiasValpoEx/status/1252715033131388928); Sismo Alerta Mexicana (URL: https://twitter.com/Sismoalertamex/status/1269351579095691265); Volcanology Chile (URL: https://twitter.com/volcanologiachl/status/1270548008191643651).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash emissions during January-early May 2020

Kerinci is a stratovolcano located in Sumatra, Indonesia that has been characterized by explosive eruptions with ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions. The most recent eruptive episode began in April 2018 which has included intermittent explosions and ash plumes. The previous report (BGVN 44:12) described more recent activity consisting of intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes which occurred during June through early November 2019. This volcanism continued through May 2020, though little to no activity was reported during December 2019. The primary source of information for this report comes from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM) and the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC).

Activity during December 2019 consisted of white gas-and-steam emissions rising 100-500 m above the summit. White and brown emissions continued intermittently through May 2020, rising to a maximum altitude of 1 km above the summit on 14 April. During 3-6 and 8-9 January 2020, the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG issued notices reporting brown volcanic ash rising 150-600 m above the summit drifting S and ESE (figure 19). PVMBG published a VONA notice on 24 January at 0828 reporting ash rising 400 m above the summit. Brown emissions continued intermittently throughout the reporting period. On 1 February, volcanic ash was observed rising 300-960 m above the summit and drifting NE; PVMBG reported continuing brown emissions during 1-3 February. During 16-17 February, two VONA notices reported that brown ash plumes rose 150-400 m above the summit and drifted SW accompanied by consistent white gas-and-steam emissions (figure 20).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Brown ash plume rose 500-600 m above Kerinci on 4 January 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia via Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. White gas-and-steam emissions rose 400 m above Kerinci on 19 February 2020. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia via Øystein Lund Andersen.

During 1-16 and 25-26 March 2020 brown ash emissions were frequently observed rising 100-500 m above the summit drifting in multiple directions. During 6-8 and 10-15, April brown ash emissions were reported 50-1,000 m above the summit. The most recent Darwin VAAC and VONA notices were published on 14 April, reporting volcanic ash rising 400 and 600 m above the summit, respectively; however, PVMBG reported brown emissions rising up to 1,000 m. By 25-27 April brown ash emissions rose 50-300 m above the summit. Intermittent white gas-and-steam emissions continued through May. The last brown emissions seen in May were reported on the 7th rising 50-100 m above the summit.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com, images at https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse/status/1213658331564269569/photo/1 and https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse/status/1230419965209018369/photo/1).


Tinakula (Solomon Islands) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Tinakula

Solomon Islands

10.386°S, 165.804°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent small thermal anomalies and gas-and-steam plumes during January-June 2020

Tinakula is a remote stratovolcano located 100 km NE of the Solomon Trench at the N end of the Santa Cruz. In 1971, an eruption with lava flows and ash explosions caused the small population to evacuate the island. Volcanism has previously been characterized by an ash explosion in October 2017 and the most recent eruptive period that began in December 2018 with renewed thermal activity. Activity since then has consisted of intermittent thermal activity and dense gas-and-steam plumes (BGVN 45:01), which continues into the current reporting period. This report updates information from January-June 2020 using primary source information from various satellite data, as ground observations are rarely available.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed weak, intermittent, but ongoing thermal activity during January-June 2020 (figure 41). A small cluster of slightly stronger thermal signatures was detected in late February to early March, which is correlated to MODVOLC thermal alert data; four thermal hotspots were recorded on 20, 27, and 29 February and 1 March. However, observations using Sentinel-2 satellite imagery were often obscured by clouds. In addition to the weak thermal signatures, dense gas-and-steam plumes were observed in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery rising from the summit during this reporting period (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Weak thermal anomalies at Tinakula from 26 June 2019 through June 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were intermittent and clustered more strongly in late February to early March.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery shows ongoing gas-and-steam plumes rising from Tinakula during January through May 2020. Images with atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8a) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Three distinct thermal anomalies were observed in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery on 22 January, 11 April, and 6 May 2020, accompanied by some gas-and-steam emissions (figure 43). The hotspot on 22 January was slightly weaker than the other two days, and was seen on the W flank, compared to the other two that were observed in the summit crater. According to MODVOLC thermal alerts, a hotspot was recorded on 6 May, which corresponded to a Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image with a notable anomaly in the summit crater (figure 43). On 10 June no thermal anomaly was seen in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery due to the presence of clouds; however, what appeared to be a dense gas-and-steam plume was extending W from the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing a weak thermal activity (bright yellow-orange) on 22 January 2020 on the W flank of Tinakula (top) and slightly stronger thermal hotspots on 11 April (middle) and 6 May (bottom) in at the summit, which are accompanied by gas-and-steam emissions. Images with atmospheric penetration (bands 12, 11, 8a) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The small 3.5-km-wide island of Tinakula is the exposed summit of a massive stratovolcano at the NW end of the Santa Cruz islands. Similar to Stromboli, it has a breached summit crater that extends from the summit to below sea level. Landslides enlarged this scarp in 1965, creating an embayment on the NW coast. The satellitic cone of Mendana is located on the SE side. The dominantly andesitic volcano has frequently been observed in eruption since the era of Spanish exploration began in 1595. In about 1840, an explosive eruption apparently produced pyroclastic flows that swept all sides of the island, killing its inhabitants. Frequent historical eruptions have originated from a cone constructed within the large breached crater. These have left the upper flanks and the steep apron of lava flows and volcaniclastic debris within the breach unvegetated.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Ibu (Indonesia) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Ibu

Indonesia

1.488°N, 127.63°E; summit elev. 1325 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent ash emissions and summit incandescence; Strombolian explosions in March 2020

Ibu is an active stratovolcano located along the NW coast of Halmahera Island in Indonesia. Volcanism has recently been characterized by frequent ash explosions, ash plumes, and small lava flows within the crater throughout 2019 (BGVN 45:01). Activity continues, consisting of frequent white-and-gray emissions, ash explosions, ash plumes, and lava flows. This report updates activity through June 2020, using data from the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), and various satellites.

Volcanism during the entire reporting period dominantly consisted of white-and-gray emissions that rose 200-800 m above the summit drifting in multiple directions. The ash plume with the maximum altitude of 13.7 km altitude occurred on 16 May 2020. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery detected multiple smaller hotspots within the crater throughout the reporting period.

Continuous ash emissions were reported on 6 February rising to 2.1 km altitude drifting E, accompanied by a hotspot visible in infrared satellite imagery. On 16 February, a ground observer reported an eruption that produced an ash plume rising 800 m above the summit drifting W, according to a Darwin VAAC notice. Ash plumes continued through the month, drifting in multiple directions and rising up to 2.1 km altitude. During 8-10 March, video footage captured multiple Strombolian explosions that ejected incandescent material and produced ash plumes from the summit (figures 21 and 22). Occasionally volcanic lightning was observed within the ash column, as recorded in video footage by Martin Rietze. This event was also documented by a Darwin VAAC notice, which stated that multiple ash emissions rose 2.1 km altitude drifting SE. PVMBG published a VONA notice on 10 March at 1044 reporting ash plumes rising 400 m above the summit. PVMBG and Darwin VAAC notices described intermittent eruptions on 26, 28, and 29 March, all of which produced ash plumes rising 300-800 m above the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Strombolian explosions recorded at the crater summit of Ibu during 8-10 March 2020 ejected incandescent ejecta and a dense ash plume. Video footage copyright by Martin Rietze, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Strombolian explosions recorded at the crater summit of Ibu during 8-10 March 2020 ejected incandescent ejecta and ash. Frequent volcanic lightning was also observed. Video footage copyright by Martin Rietze, used with permission.

A majority of days in April included white-and-gray emissions rising up to 800 m above the summit. A ground observer reported an eruption on 9 April, according to a Darwin VAAC report, and a hotspot was observed in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery. Minor eruptions were reported intermittently during mid-April and early to mid-May. On 12 May at 1052 a VONA from PVMBG reported an ash plume 800-1,100 m above the summit. A large short-lived eruption on 16 May produced an ash plume that rose to a maximum of 13.7 km altitude and drifted S, according to the Darwin VAAC report. By June, volcanism consisted predominantly of white-and-gray emissions rising 800 m above the summit, with an ash eruption on 15 June. This eruptive event resulted in an ash plume that rose 1.8 km altitude drifting WNW and was accompanied by a hotspot detected in HIMAWARI-8 satellite imagery, according to a Darwin VAAC notice.

The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system detected frequent hotspots during July 2019 through June 2020 (figure 23). In comparison, the MODVOLC thermal alerts recorded a total of 24 thermal signatures over the course of 19 different days between January and June. Many thermal signatures were captured as small thermal hotspots in Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery within the crater (figure 24).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Thermal anomalies recorded at Ibu from 2 July 2019 through June 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were frequent and consistent in power. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery (bands 12, 11, 8A) showed occasional thermal hotspots (bright orange) in the Ibu summit crater during January through June 2020. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Martin Rietze, Taubenstr. 1, D-82223 Eichenau, Germany (URL: https://mrietze.com/, https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC5LzAA_nyNWEUfpcUFOCpJw/videos, video at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qMkfT1e4HQQ).


Suwanosejima (Japan) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent explosions, ash plumes, and summit incandescence in January-June 2020

Suwanosejima is an active stratovolcano located in the northern Ryukyu Islands. Volcanism has previously been characterized by Strombolian explosions, ash plumes, and summit incandescence (BGVN 45:01), which continues to occur intermittently. A majority of this activity originates from vents within the large Otake summit crater. This report updates information during January through June 2020 using monthly reports from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

During 3-10 January 2020, 13 explosions were detected from the Otake crater rising to 1.4 km altitude; material was ejected as far as 600 m away and ashfall was reported in areas 4 km SSW, according to JMA. Occasional small eruptive events continued during 12-17 January, which resulted in ash plumes that rose 1 km above the crater rim and ashfall was again reported 4 km SSW. Crater incandescence was visible nightly during 17-24 January, while white plumes rose as high as 700 m above the crater rim.

Nightly incandescence during 7-29 February, and 1-6 March, was accompanied by intermittent explosions that produced ash plumes rising up to 1.2 km above the crater rim (figure 44); activity during early February resulted in ashfall 4 km SSW. On 19 February an eruption produced a gray-white ash plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater (figure 45), resulting in ashfall in Toshima village (4 km SSW), according to JMA. Explosive events during 23-24 February ejected blocks onto the flanks. Two explosions were recorded during 1-6 March, which sent ash plumes as high as 900-1,000 m above the crater rim and ejected large blocks 300 m from the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Surveillance camera images of summit incandescence at Suwanosejima on 29 January (top left), 21 (middle left) and 23 (top right) February, and 25 March (bottom left and right) 2020. Courtesy of JMA (Monthly bulletin reports 511, January, February, and March 2020).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Surveillance camera images of which and white-and-gray gas-and-steam emissions rising from Suwanosejima on 5 January (top), 19 February (middle), and 24 March 2020 (bottom). Courtesy of JMA (Monthly bulletin reports 511, January, February, and March 2020).

Nightly incandescence continued to be visible during 13-31 March, 1-10 and 17-24 April, 1-8, 15-31 May, 1-5 and 12-30 June 2020; activity during the latter part of March was relatively low and consisted of few explosive events. In contrast, incandescence was frequently accompanied by explosions in April and May. On 28 April at 0432 an eruption produced an ash plume that rose 1.6 km above the crater rim and drifted SE and E, and ejected blocks as far as 800 m from the crater. The MODVOLC thermal alerts algorithm also detected four thermal signatures during this eruption within the summit crater. An explosion at 1214 on 29 April caused glass in windows to vibrate up to 4 km SSW away while ash emissions continued to be observed following the explosion the previous day, according to the Tokyo VAAC.

During 1-8 May explosions occurred twice a day, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 1 km above the crater rim and ejecting material 400 m from the crater. An explosion on 29 May at 0210 produced an off-white plume that rose as high as 500 m above the crater rim and ejected large blocks up to 200 m above the rim. On 5 June an explosion produced gray-white plumes rising 1 km above the crater. Small eruptive events continued in late June, producing ash plumes that rose as high as 900 m above the crater rim.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed relatively stronger thermal anomalies in late February and late April 2020 with an additional six weaker thermal anomalies detected in early January (2), early February (1), mid-April (2), and mid-May (1) (figure 46). Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery in late January through mid-April showed two distinct thermal hotspots within the summit crater (figure 47).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Prominent thermal anomalies at Suwanosejima during July-June 2020 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) occurred in late February and late April. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing small thermal anomalies (bright yellow-orange) from two locations within the Otake summit crater at Suwanosejima. Images with “Atmospheric penetration” (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — July 2020 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes during 29 February-2 March and 1 May 2020

Bagana lies in a nearly inaccessible mountainous tropical rainforest area of Bougainville Island in Papua New Guinea and is primarily monitored by satellite imagery of ash plumes and thermal anomalies. After a state of elevated activity that lasted through December 2018 (BGVN 43:05, 44:06, 44:12), the volcano entered a quieter period that persisted through at least May 2020. This report focuses on activity between December 2019 and May 2020.

Atmospheric clouds often obscured satellite views of the volcano during the reporting period. When the volcano could be observed, light-colored gas plumes were often observed (figure 43). Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC) reported that during 29 February-2 March ash plumes rose to an altitude of 1.8-2.1 km and drifted SW and N. On 1 May an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted NW and W. According to both Darwin VAAC volcanic ash advisories, the Aviation Color Code was Orange (second highest of four hazard levels).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Sentinel-2 image of Bagana, showing a gas plume drifting SE on 13 March 2020, during a period when the Darwin VAAC had not reported any ash explosions (Natural Color rendering, bands 4, 3, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the reporting period, the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system recorded only intermittent thermal anomalies, all of which were of low radiative power. Sulfur dioxide emissions detected by satellite-based instruments over this reporting period were at low levels.

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 16, Number 05 (May 1991)

Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland

Aira (Japan)

Frequent explosions continue

Arenal (Costa Rica)

Strombolian activity and seismicity increase, then decline; block lava flows on S and SW flanks

Barren Island (India)

Explosions and lava flows from NE flank vent

Colima (Mexico)

Continued lava dome growth; increased avalanching follows earthquakes and tremor episodes

Deception Island (Antarctica)

Stronger earthquakes; anomalous water temperature in caldera center

Etna (Italy)

Strong degassing

Galeras (Colombia)

More seismic events but lower energy release; thermal activity remains moderate

Gede-Pangrango (Indonesia)

Brief earthquake swarm

Guallatiri (Chile)

Strong fumarolic activity

Irazu (Costa Rica)

Tectonic earthquake swarm

Kavachi (Solomon Islands)

Continued explosions from new island

Kilauea (United States)

E rift lava continues to flow through tubes into the ocean

Langila (Papua New Guinea)

Ash emission resumes; steady glow

Lascar (Chile)

High crater temperatures detected by satellite

Lewotobi (Indonesia)

Ash emission follows increased seismicity

Lokon-Empung (Indonesia)

Increased gas emission, then ash eruption

Manam (Papua New Guinea)

Ash ejection declines to weak vapor emission

Merapi (Indonesia)

Continued seismicity but lava dome unchanged

Obituary Notices (Unknown)

Deaths of three volcanologists (Maurice and Katia Krafft, Harry Glicken) at Unzen

Ontakesan (Japan)

Earthquake swarms and tremor; renewed steam emission from 1979 vent

Pinatubo (Philippines)

Major stratospheric cloud, pyroclastic flows, and new summit caldera; >300 killed by eruption and typhoon

Poas (Costa Rica)

Strong gas emission; rain adds water to nearly dry crater lake

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea)

Continued low-level seismicity; slight uplift

Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica)

More details on 8 May eruption and deposits

Ruiz, Nevado del (Colombia)

Frequent lithic ash emissions; occasional vigorous earthquake swarms

Sabancaya (Peru)

Vigorous Vulcanian activity; mudflows force daily clearing of river channel

San Jose (Chile-Argentina)

New fumarole field on upper S flank

Soputan (Indonesia)

Explosion sounds and incandescence; frequent seismicity

Stromboli (Italy)

More frequent explosions

Ulawun (Papua New Guinea)

Large gas plume and numerous weak earthquakes

Unzendake (Japan)

41 killed by pyroclastic flow from lava dome

Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand)

Ash emission from new vent; continued deformation



Aira (Japan) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent explosions continue

Frequent explosions continued through mid-June, with 17 recorded in May and 20 as of 19 June, bringing the year's total to 142. The highest ash clouds rose 3,000 m on 3 May and 2300 m on 18 June. An air shock from a 10 May explosion broke a window, the first explosion damage since December 1990.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: JMA.


Arenal (Costa Rica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Arenal

Costa Rica

10.463°N, 84.703°W; summit elev. 1670 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strombolian activity and seismicity increase, then decline; block lava flows on S and SW flanks

On 20 April, seismic explosion signals became moderately more frequent, and seismicity increased to >40 recorded earthquakes/day (RSN network). Seismicity was similar in May, with a daily average of 20 recorded earthquakes and a maximum of 43 (Univ Nacional network). Strombolian explosive activity was stronger, more voluminous, and more frequent, especially on 19-26 May when explosions vibrated windows and were heard 34 km SE (in Quesada). Several explosions were recorded at a seismic station 98 km away (Juan Diaz). Plumes rose to 1 km height above Crater C, depositing ash to Chambacú (17.5 km NE) and La Palma (4 km N). After 26 May, seismic and eruptive activity returned to normal levels. Gas emission continued with periodic, smaller explosions; plumes were carried predominantly to the NE, W, and SW. Block lava flows continued down the SW and S flanks, reaching 700 m elevation by the end of April.

Geologic Background. Conical Volcán Arenal is the youngest stratovolcano in Costa Rica and one of its most active. The 1670-m-high andesitic volcano towers above the eastern shores of Lake Arenal, which has been enlarged by a hydroelectric project. Arenal lies along a volcanic chain that has migrated to the NW from the late-Pleistocene Los Perdidos lava domes through the Pleistocene-to-Holocene Chato volcano, which contains a 500-m-wide, lake-filled summit crater. The earliest known eruptions of Arenal took place about 7000 years ago, and it was active concurrently with Cerro Chato until the activity of Chato ended about 3500 years ago. Growth of Arenal has been characterized by periodic major explosive eruptions at several-hundred-year intervals and periods of lava effusion that armor the cone. An eruptive period that began with a major explosive eruption in 1968 ended in December 2010; continuous explosive activity accompanied by slow lava effusion and the occasional emission of pyroclastic flows characterized the eruption from vents at the summit and on the upper western flank.

Information Contacts: E. Fernández, J. Brenes, V. Barboza, and T. Marino, OVSICORI; R. Barquero, ICE.


Barren Island (India) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Barren Island

India

12.278°N, 93.858°E; summit elev. 354 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosions and lava flows from NE flank vent

Reports of strong emissions of "thick smoke" on 30 April prompted a visit to the island on 16 May by geologists from the GSI [see additional information about the start of the eruption in 16:10]. Lava poured continuously from a subsidiary vent on the NE face of the central volcanic cone, travelling N into a valley, then W along the course of the 1803 lava flow (figure 1). An area of ~800 x 200 m had been covered by fresh lava, with an average thickness of 5-6 m. Explosions at the vent occurred at intervals of several seconds, ejecting bombs, lapilli, and ash to heights >50 m.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Geologic sketch map of Barren Island, by D. Haldar, T. Laskar, and J.K. Biswas. Courtesy of the GSI.

On 7 June at 1602, John Deed, pilot of Thai Airways International flight 307, observed a gray to dark-gray plume rising ~3 km above the summit and extending roughly 90 km NE. No lava was visible.

Geologic Background. Barren Island, a possession of India in the Andaman Sea about 135 km NE of Port Blair in the Andaman Islands, is the only historically active volcano along the N-S volcanic arc extending between Sumatra and Burma (Myanmar). It is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises from a depth of about 2250 m. The small, uninhabited 3-km-wide island contains a roughly 2-km-wide caldera with walls 250-350 m high. The caldera, which is open to the sea on the west, was created during a major explosive eruption in the late Pleistocene that produced pyroclastic-flow and -surge deposits. Historical eruptions have changed the morphology of the pyroclastic cone in the center of the caldera, and lava flows that fill much of the caldera floor have reached the sea along the western coast.

Information Contacts: Director General, GSI; Deputy Director General, GSI Eastern Region; T. Fox, ICAO.


Colima (Mexico) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Colima

Mexico

19.514°N, 103.62°W; summit elev. 3850 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued lava dome growth; increased avalanching follows earthquakes and tremor episodes

During the weeks preceding 5 June, volcanic seismicity recorded by RESCO remained at low levels, showing only a few avalanches/day. Poor visibility prevented daily visual observations from the city of Colima, but sporadic observations from sites near the volcano (Yerbabuena and La Joya) have shown strong fumarolic activity (mainly vapor and a small grayish plume) and continued growth of the dome extrusion.

On 6 June between about 0000 and 0200, a tremor episode was clearly recorded by station EZV7 (at Volcancito, ~1 km NE of the summit), but was barely detectable at other stations. Activity then returned to previous levels. A second tremor episode, much stronger and clearly recorded by several stations, occurred between about 1800 and 2100, after which seismicity again returned to relative quiet. The activity was interpreted as probably being of phreatic origin, given recent rainfall in the region. Witnesses about 13 km from the volcano (in the Tonila area) reported conspicuous incandescence at the crater.

A third seismic episode, on 8 June between about 2000 and 2200, consisted of four large, complex shallow earthquakes followed by almost monochromatic harmonic tremor. The caretaker at nearby La Joya reported hearing four explosions followed by strong sustained whistling. On 9 June, a few small closely-spaced B-type earthquakes seemed to mark the onset of another tremor episode, but it did not materialize and no further tremor activity had been recorded as of 13 June.

During the evening of 9 June, there was an increase in both the number and duration of avalanche events, which remained of small magnitude. Long-duration avalanches continued as of 13 June, but their numbers had decreased. Geophysicists noted that the increased number and duration of avalanches on 9 June was similar to that observed before the 16 April dome collapse. No deep seismicity, indicating stress at depth, has been detected, but the tremor, not previously observed, suggested changes in activity requiring careful monitoring.

Geologic Background. The Colima volcanic complex is the most prominent volcanic center of the western Mexican Volcanic Belt. It consists of two southward-younging volcanoes, Nevado de Colima (the high point of the complex) on the north and the historically active Volcán de Colima at the south. A group of late-Pleistocene cinder cones is located on the floor of the Colima graben west and east of the complex. Volcán de Colima (also known as Volcán Fuego) is a youthful stratovolcano constructed within a 5-km-wide caldera, breached to the south, that has been the source of large debris avalanches. Major slope failures have occurred repeatedly from both the Nevado and Colima cones, producing thick debris-avalanche deposits on three sides of the complex. Frequent historical eruptions date back to the 16th century. Occasional major explosive eruptions have destroyed the summit (most recently in 1913) and left a deep, steep-sided crater that was slowly refilled and then overtopped by lava dome growth.

Information Contacts: F. Alejandro Nava, Francisco Núñez-Cornú, Gilberto Ornelas-Arciniega, Ariel Ramírez-Vázquez, G.A. Reyes-Dávila, Hector Tamez, and R. García, CICT, Universidad de Colima; Z. Jiménez, I. Yokoyama, and S. de la Cruz-Reyna, UNAM.


Deception Island (Antarctica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Deception Island

Antarctica

63.001°S, 60.652°W; summit elev. 602 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Stronger earthquakes; anomalous water temperature in caldera center

"Spanish-Argentine volcanological, geophysical, and geodetic scientists visited Deception Island during the 1990-91 austral summer (28 November 1990-13 March 1991) to provide measurements of the background activity. The present activity generally has remained unchanged from previous years.

"A digital microseismic network was installed to record the local and regional seismic activity for 3 months (figure 3). On 14 January, a M 3.2 earthquake was recorded on the NE sector of the island. After this event the seismic activity changed dramatically compared to that recorded during the previous 4 summers, increasing in magnitude and decreasing in frequency. In general, the epicenters are related to the 1970 eruption vents and they are associated with the fissure system (figure 4). Episodes of volcanic tremors were also recorded in Fumarole Bay.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Daily number of seismic events recorded by a temporary digital microseismic network at Deception Island, 14 December 1990-23 February 1991. Courtesy of Ramón Ortiz.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Epicenters of earthquakes (mb >1.2) recorded at Deception Island, 1 December 1990-23 February 1991. Courtesy of Ramón Ortiz.

"During the 1990-91 fieldwork, more than 300 gravimetric measurements were carried out, the magnetic map of the island was completed, and temperatures in fumaroles and hot soils were monitored. A volcanologically oriented GPS network was established and four GPS benchmarks (Argentine Station, Pendulum Cove, Fumarole Bay, and Whalers Bay) were measured with double-frequency receivers. Finally, three dry-tilt stations were installed in Telefon Bay (1970 eruption area), Crater Lake (1842 eruption sector), and Fumarole Bay.

"The Spanish Oceanographic vessel Las Palmas recorded water temperature and salinity distribution in Port Foster. An area of anomalous temperature was detected in the central part of the caldera."

Geologic Background. Ring-shaped Deception Island, one of Antarctica's most well known volcanoes, contains a 7-km-wide caldera flooded by the sea. Deception Island is located at the SW end of the Shetland Islands, NE of Graham Land Peninsula, and was constructed along the axis of the Bransfield Rift spreading center. A narrow passageway named Neptunes Bellows provides entrance to a natural harbor that was utilized as an Antarctic whaling station. Numerous vents located along ring fractures circling the low, 14-km-wide island have been active during historical time. Maars line the shores of 190-m-deep Port Foster, the caldera bay. Among the largest of these maars is 1-km-wide Whalers Bay, at the entrance to the harbor. Eruptions from Deception Island during the past 8700 years have been dated from ash layers in lake sediments on the Antarctic Peninsula and neighboring islands.

Information Contacts: R. Ortiz, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Spain; J. Viramonte, Univ Nacional de Salta, Argentina; R. Soto, Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada, Spain.


Etna (Italy) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Etna

Italy

37.748°N, 14.999°E; summit elev. 3320 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong degassing

Nearly continuous degassing was observed ... on 24 May. Northeast Crater's active vent was slightly incandescent and weakly emitting gas. Normal degassing, with sporadic rumbling, occurred at La Voragine, whose elliptical vent E of the central crater floor had reopened. The floors of Bocca Nuova and Southeast Crater were not visible due to their strong degassing.

Geologic Background. Mount Etna, towering above Catania, Sicily's second largest city, has one of the world's longest documented records of historical volcanism, dating back to 1500 BCE. Historical lava flows of basaltic composition cover much of the surface of this massive volcano, whose edifice is the highest and most voluminous in Italy. The Mongibello stratovolcano, truncated by several small calderas, was constructed during the late Pleistocene and Holocene over an older shield volcano. The most prominent morphological feature of Etna is the Valle del Bove, a 5 x 10 km horseshoe-shaped caldera open to the east. Two styles of eruptive activity typically occur, sometimes simultaneously. Persistent explosive eruptions, sometimes with minor lava emissions, take place from one or more summit craters. Flank vents, typically with higher effusion rates, are less frequently active and originate from fissures that open progressively downward from near the summit (usually accompanied by Strombolian eruptions at the upper end). Cinder cones are commonly constructed over the vents of lower-flank lava flows. Lava flows extend to the foot of the volcano on all sides and have reached the sea over a broad area on the SE flank.

Information Contacts: H. Gaudru, EVS, Switzerland; Franco Emmi, Etna guide.


Galeras (Colombia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Galeras

Colombia

1.22°N, 77.37°W; summit elev. 4276 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More seismic events but lower energy release; thermal activity remains moderate

The number of seismic events (high-frequency, low-frequency, and long-period) increased during May, while seismic energy release and reduced displacement decreased from April values (figures 40 and 41). The high-frequency activity (M 0.5-1.9) was centered W of the crater at 2-8 km depth. Tremor episodes were less frequent and had lower reduced displacements than in April. The tiltmeter 0.9 km E of the crater (Crater Station) continued to show deformation, with 20 µrad inflation (tangential component) in May, for a total inflation since September of 102 µrad. Other stations showed oscillations or only very low cumulative inflation.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Daily number of high-frequency events (bottom) and energy release (top) at Galeras, May 1991. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Daily number of long-period events (bottom) and reduced displacement (top) at Galeras, May 1991. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

SO2 flux, measured by COSPEC, varied between low and moderate levels. Fumarole temperatures in Besolima fissure continued to decrease (436°C in May compared to 468°C in April), while temperatures remained fairly constant at Deformes (254°C compared to 250-265°C since December 1990) and Calvache (89°C compared to 88-92°C since December 1989).

Geologic Background. Galeras, a stratovolcano with a large breached caldera located immediately west of the city of Pasto, is one of Colombia's most frequently active volcanoes. The dominantly andesitic complex has been active for more than 1 million years, and two major caldera collapse eruptions took place during the late Pleistocene. Long-term extensive hydrothermal alteration has contributed to large-scale edifice collapse on at least three occasions, producing debris avalanches that swept to the west and left a large horseshoe-shaped caldera inside which the modern cone has been constructed. Major explosive eruptions since the mid-Holocene have produced widespread tephra deposits and pyroclastic flows that swept all but the southern flanks. A central cone slightly lower than the caldera rim has been the site of numerous small-to-moderate historical eruptions since the time of the Spanish conquistadors.

Information Contacts: INGEOMINAS-OVP.


Gede-Pangrango (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Gede-Pangrango

Indonesia

6.77°S, 106.965°E; summit elev. 3008 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Brief earthquake swarm

Three shocks were felt (intensities I-III) on 30 April. Seismicity later returned to normal levels (10-15 events/day) during the second week of May (table 1).

Table 1. Number of earthquakes at Gede, May 1991. Courtesy of VSI.

Dates Deep Volcanic (VT) Shallow Volcanic Tectonic
01-04 May 1991 22 51 47
05-11 May 1991 197 635 9
12-18 May 1991 8 16 20
19-25 May 1991 23 8 9
26-31 May 1991 9 8 13

Geologic Background. Gede volcano is one of the most prominent in western Java, forming a twin volcano with Pangrango volcano to the NW. The major cities of Cianjur, Sukabumi, and Bogor are situated below the volcanic complex to the E, S, and NW, respectively. Gunung Pangrango, constructed over the NE rim of a 3 x 5 km caldera, forms the high point of the complex at just over 3000 m elevation. Many lava flows are visible on the flanks of the younger Gunung Gede, including some that may have been erupted in historical time. The steep-walled summit crater has migrated about 1 km NNW over time. Two large debris-avalanche deposits on its flanks, one of which underlies the city of Cianjur, record previous large-scale collapses. Historical activity, recorded since the 16th century, typically consists of small explosive eruptions of short duration.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Guallatiri (Chile) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Guallatiri

Chile

18.42°S, 69.092°W; summit elev. 6071 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong fumarolic activity

Two strongly active zones of fumaroles were observed during a summit visit on 2 November 1990. The more intense fumaroles, 80 m below the . . . summit, produced a plume 200 m high accompanied by a jet-engine noise. Some boiling mud pools were also seen. The second zone, on the S side of the volcano at ~3,000 m elev, contained about 10 fumaroles. The volcano was otherwise snow-covered.

Geologic Background. One of northern Chile's most active volcanoes, Volcán Guallatiri is a symmetrical ice-clad stratovolcano at the SW end of the Nevados de Quimsachata volcano group. It lies just W of the border with Bolivia and is capped by a central dacitic dome or lava complex, with the active vent situated on its S side. Thick lava flows are prominent on the lower N and W flanks of the andesitic-to-rhyolitic volcano. Minor explosive eruptions have been reported since the beginning of the 19th century. Intense fumarolic activity with "jet-like" noises continues, and numerous solfataras extend more than 300 m down the W flank.

Information Contacts: P. Vetsch and R. Haubrichs, SVG, Switzerland.


Irazu (Costa Rica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Irazu

Costa Rica

9.979°N, 83.852°W; summit elev. 3432 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Tectonic earthquake swarm

A large swarm of tectonic earthquakes was recorded just S of the crater from 2 January through the end of February. On 25 May, a rapid increase in the number of tectonic earthquakes marked the start of a second swarm in the same zone. A shock located about 1 km E of the crater was felt on 28 May (M 3.5), and two others centered near the crater were felt on 5 June at 0534 (M 3.5) and 0540 (M 3.2). Scientists believe that the seismicity may represent reactivation of the fault zone involved in the M [7.6] earthquake that occurred about 90 km ESE on 22 April. No changes in surface activity at the volcano were reported.

Geologic Background. Irazú, one of Costa Rica's most active volcanoes, rises immediately E of the capital city of San José. The massive volcano covers an area of 500 km2 and is vegetated to within a few hundred meters of its broad flat-topped summit crater complex. At least 10 satellitic cones are located on its S flank. No lava flows have been identified since the eruption of the massive Cervantes lava flows from S-flank vents about 14,000 years ago, and all known Holocene eruptions have been explosive. The focus of eruptions at the summit crater complex has migrated to the W towards the historically active crater, which contains a small lake of variable size and color. Although eruptions may have occurred around the time of the Spanish conquest, the first well-documented historical eruption occurred in 1723, and frequent explosive eruptions have occurred since. Ashfall from the last major eruption during 1963-65 caused significant disruption to San José and surrounding areas.

Information Contacts: R. Barquero, ICE; Mario Fernández, Red Sismológica Nacional (RSN), Univ de Costa Rica; ACAN news service, Panamá City, Panamá.


Kavachi (Solomon Islands) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Kavachi

Solomon Islands

8.991°S, 157.979°E; summit elev. -20 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued explosions from new island

Pilots from Solomon Islands Airways reported that "the volcano is still active and increasing in size, though slowly" as of 14 June. Photographs taken on 12 May (by Rod Marsland, a Rabaul-based pilot) show the island to have been ~110 m in diameter, with a 15-m-diameter crater (assuming a height of 25 m based on an average of several visual estimates). Lava was being ejected to 30 m height in the photos. The new island's exact location remains uncertain.

Geologic Background. Named for a sea-god of the Gatokae and Vangunu peoples, Kavachi is one of the most active submarine volcanoes in the SW Pacific, located in the Solomon Islands south of Vangunu Island. Sometimes referred to as Rejo te Kvachi ("Kavachi's Oven"), this shallow submarine basaltic-to-andesitic volcano has produced ephemeral islands up to 1 km long many times since its first recorded eruption during 1939. Residents of the nearby islands of Vanguna and Nggatokae (Gatokae) reported "fire on the water" prior to 1939, a possible reference to earlier eruptions. The roughly conical edifice rises from water depths of 1.1-1.2 km on the north and greater depths to the SE. Frequent shallow submarine and occasional subaerial eruptions produce phreatomagmatic explosions that eject steam, ash, and incandescent bombs. On a number of occasions lava flows were observed on the ephemeral islands.

Information Contacts: P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Kilauea (United States) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


E rift lava continues to flow through tubes into the ocean

Lava . . . continued to flow into the sea at two sites on the W side of the flow field (figure 79). More than 95% of the lava advanced through the Wahaula tube system, which divided a few hundred meters from the coast and fed the W and E entry points in the Poupou area. The W Poupou entry has been persistently explosive, continuing to throw tephra onto a large littoral cone on the old sea cliff. Growth of the littoral cone halted in May as erosional mechanisms (weather and cliff collapse) kept pace with explosive activity at the lava/sea interface. Below the old sea cliff, the W entry had built a small bench that extended <10-15 m into the ocean and was easily broken up by high surf. The E branch of the tube continued to feed the E Poupou entry points, which in previous months had built a sizeable 2-level bench below the old sea cliff. Throughout May, there were at least two major entry points off this bench. In early May, fluid lava flows broke out onto the E bench from its junction with the old sea cliff, covering the W side of the bench and entering the ocean. Successive overflows and inflation (perhaps caused by lava underplating) continued to build the lower bench, and by the end of the month it was within 1-2 m of the upper bench.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Lava produced by Kilauea's Kupaianaha vent, 1983-91. Arrows indicate flow in tubes and crosses at the coast mark sites where lava was entering the ocean in May 1991. Surface flows are shown above the tube's E and W branches. Courtesy of HVO.

Small lava flows broke out during May from the Wahaula tube between ~180 m (600 ft) elevation and the flat area near the coast. Two large flows were active. One (Waiaka) moved downslope atop the Wahaula tube in April, turning E off the tube near the coast and entering the ocean 17 April-2 May. This flow's activity declined during the first 2 weeks in May, and the flow was stagnant by the 16th. In mid-May, a new (Paradise) flow broke away from the Wahaula tube between 150 and 180 m elevation (500-600 ft) and established a new tube to the E. By the end of May, this flow was entering the ocean at the same site as the Waiaka flow.

A lava pond remained in the bottom of Pu`u `O`o crater through May. Kupaianaha's lava pond remained completely crusted over. Fume from the pond area diminished significantly, and the primary area of degassing shifted from the Kupaianaha shield area to a skylight in the tube system near 620 m (2,050 ft) elevation. In early May, all of the skylights along the Wahaula tube overflowed, closing some of those at lower elevations. The upper skylights remained open, and observations of times required for logs thrown into the upper skylight to reach the lower skylight yielded lava velocities of 1.4 m/s.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: T. Moulds, HVO.


Langila (Papua New Guinea) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Langila

Papua New Guinea

5.525°S, 148.42°E; summit elev. 1330 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash emission resumes; steady glow

"After 7 months of quiescence, Crater 3 was reactivated. Resumption of activity, which started on 16 May, was manifested by the release of moderately thick white-to-grey vapour clouds with occasional blue vapours, and the recording of explosion earthquakes (2-20/day). After 18 May, deep rumbling noises and/or loud Vulcanian explosions were heard at the Cape Gloucester observation post . . . and light ashfalls occurred on the NW flank of the volcano. A weak steady red glow was observed over this crater at the end of the month.

"Activity at Crater 2 . . . did not seem to be affected. This crater kept on releasing moderate to weak emissions of white vapour and displayed a steady weak night glow."

Geologic Background. Langila, one of the most active volcanoes of New Britain, consists of a group of four small overlapping composite basaltic-andesitic cones on the lower E flank of the extinct Talawe volcano in the Cape Gloucester area of NW New Britain. A rectangular, 2.5-km-long crater is breached widely to the SE; Langila was constructed NE of the breached crater of Talawe. An extensive lava field reaches the coast on the N and NE sides of Langila. Frequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded since the 19th century from three active craters at the summit. The youngest and smallest crater (no. 3 crater) was formed in 1960 and has a diameter of 150 m.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Lascar (Chile) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Lascar

Chile

23.37°S, 67.73°W; summit elev. 5592 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


High crater temperatures detected by satellite

On 8 January, radiant flux from the crater was near the highest levels since 1984, as demonstrated by Open Univ researchers using data from Landsat TM bands 5 and 7 (1.55-1.75 and 2.08-2.35 µm wavelength, respectively) (figure 8). The January images are the third in a set of three night images that have been used to provide improved estimates of radiated power output at Lascar. Previous estimates were based on daylight images (Glaze and others, 1989). No reflected sunlight is mingled with the thermal signal in night images, yielding more reliable thermal radiance values.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Spectral radiance from Lascar measured in 2 short-wavelength infrared bands, 2 December 1984-8 January 1991. Solid line, Landsat TM band 7 (2.08-2.35 µm); dashed line, Landsat TM band 5 (1.55-1.75 µm). Courtesy of D. Rothery and C. Oppenheimer.

The following is from D. Rothery and C. Oppenheimer. "Two of the night images are shown in figure 9. The 12 November 1989 image shows a strong equidimensional radiant anomaly in a position that corresponds to the lava dome, with some isolated radiant pixels just beyond the edges that are probably sites of fumaroles. The 26 March 1990 image shows a much reduced radiant anomaly, following the 20 February 1990 explosive eruption.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Night images of Lascar's active dome on 12 November 1989 (left) and 26 March 1990 (right), recorded at 2.08-2.35 µm wavelengths (Landsat TM band 7). N is toward the top. The individual pixels are ~30 m across. An image recorded on 8 January 1991 is almost identical to the 12 November 1989 image. Courtesy of D. Rothery and C. Oppenheimer.

"Field observations at the summit of Lascar on 23-24 March and 4 April 1990 showed that there were sites of incandescence over regions of the collapsed dome, and that some fumaroles elsewhere were also incandescent. Temperatures of up to 940°C were estimated by the use of an infrared thermometer.

"The most recent image (8 January 1991, not shown here) is almost indistinguishable from the 12 November 1989 image, which suggests a return to earlier conditions."

Reference. Glaze, L.S., Francis, P.W., and Rothery, D.A., 1989, Measuring Thermal Budgets of Active Volcanoes; Nature, v. 338, p. 144-146.

Geologic Background. Láscar is the most active volcano of the northern Chilean Andes. The andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcano contains six overlapping summit craters. Prominent lava flows descend its NW flanks. An older, higher stratovolcano 5 km E, Volcán Aguas Calientes, displays a well-developed summit crater and a probable Holocene lava flow near its summit (de Silva and Francis, 1991). Láscar consists of two major edifices; activity began at the eastern volcano and then shifted to the western cone. The largest eruption took place about 26,500 years ago, and following the eruption of the Tumbres scoria flow about 9000 years ago, activity shifted back to the eastern edifice, where three overlapping craters were formed. Frequent small-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the mid-19th century, along with periodic larger eruptions that produced ashfall hundreds of kilometers away. The largest historical eruption took place in 1993, producing pyroclastic flows to 8.5 km NW of the summit and ashfall in Buenos Aires.

Information Contacts: D. Rothery and C. Oppenheimer, Open Univ.


Lewotobi (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Lewotobi

Indonesia

8.542°S, 122.775°E; summit elev. 1703 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash emission follows increased seismicity

Ash was erupted to 800 m height, and deposited to 7 km NE and 4 km NW, on 11-13 May. Gas emission continued through the end of May, with 84 emission events recorded during the last week. Twelve shallow and seven deep volcanic earthquakes were also recorded during the last week in May.

Geologic Background. The Lewotobi "husband and wife" twin volcano (also known as Lewetobi) in eastern Flores Island is composed of the Lewotobi Lakilaki and Lewotobi Perempuan stratovolcanoes. Their summits are less than 2 km apart along a NW-SE line. The conical Lakilaki has been frequently active during the 19th and 20th centuries, while the taller and broader Perempuan has erupted only twice in historical time. Small lava domes have grown during the 20th century in both of the crescentic summit craters, which are open to the north. A prominent flank cone, Iliwokar, occurs on the E flank of Perampuan.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Lokon-Empung (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Lokon-Empung

Indonesia

1.358°N, 124.792°E; summit elev. 1580 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Increased gas emission, then ash eruption

Gas emissions to 450 m height were observed during the morning and afternoon of 10 May. One week later (17-18 May), ash was erupted to 200-400 m height. Seismicity then decreased, with one deep and three shallow volcanic earthquakes recorded during the last week of May, down from six deep and nine shallow events the second week of the month.

Geologic Background. The twin volcanoes Lokon and Empung, rising about 800 m above the plain of Tondano, are among the most active volcanoes of Sulawesi. Lokon, the higher of the two peaks (whose summits are only 2 km apart), has a flat, craterless top. The morphologically younger Empung volcano to the NE has a 400-m-wide, 150-m-deep crater that erupted last in the 18th century, but all subsequent eruptions have originated from Tompaluan, a 150 x 250 m wide double crater situated in the saddle between the two peaks. Historical eruptions have primarily produced small-to-moderate ash plumes that have occasionally damaged croplands and houses, but lava-dome growth and pyroclastic flows have also occurred. A ridge extending WNW from Lokon includes Tatawiran and Tetempangan peak, 3 km away.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash ejection declines to weak vapor emission

". . . Manam has returned to the low non-erupting pattern displayed since early 1989. Both Main and Southern Craters released thin white vapour emissions. Grey ash-laden clouds commonly rose over Southern Crater until 20 May, associated with weak rumbling noises, presumably due to rockfalls within that crater. No night glow was reported from either crater. Tiltmeter measurements showed a slight radial inflation of ~1 µrad."

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These valleys channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most observed eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Merapi (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued seismicity but lava dome unchanged

Seismic activity remained unchanged, with three volcanic earthquakes recorded during the first week in May, and seven during the last week in May. No changes were visible at the summit dome.

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2,000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequent growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Obituary Notices (Unknown) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Obituary Notices

Unknown

Unknown, Unknown; summit elev. m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Deaths of three volcanologists (Maurice and Katia Krafft, Harry Glicken) at Unzen

Volcanology has lost three of its most valuable professionals and our network has lost three of our most faithful contributors. Maurice and Katia Krafft, 45 and 44, were natives of Alsace who blended art and science in unique ways. They were famous not only for their superb photography and books, but for the enthusiasm and humor that made friends for them throughout the world. Always a close team, they were scholarly, selective collectors of volcanological literature and art. They had recently compiled guidebooks to the Comores and Zaire, a history of volcanology, a beautiful book of still photographs, and an informative IAVCEI video on volcanic hazards.

Harry Glicken, 33, was a Californian working as a post-doctoral fellow at Tokyo Metropolitan University. His study of the 1980 debris avalanche at Mt. St. Helens was a landmark. His brief but geographically diverse research career took him to Indonesia, Alaska, the Caribbean, and Japan, where he worked on the 1888 Bandai eruption, and most recently on pyroclastic surge deposits from Oshima volcano. All three of these fine people had much yet to give to volcanology, and we mourn their loss.

Geologic Background. Obituary notices for volcanologists are sometimes written when scientists are killed during an eruption or have had a special relationship with the Global Volcanism Program.

Information Contacts:


Ontakesan (Japan) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Ontakesan

Japan

35.893°N, 137.48°E; summit elev. 3067 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Earthquake swarms and tremor; renewed steam emission from 1979 vent

Many earthquakes and tremor episodes have been detected by a seismometer near the volcano since April, bringing seismicity to its highest levels since the start of regular seismic monitoring in 1988. Earthquake swarms were recorded on 20, 23, and 27 April, and 12 and 13 May, with tremor on 27 and 28 April, and 2 and 12-16 May (figure 8). In mid-May, steam began to emerge from a vent formed in the last eruption (in 1979) that had remained quiet since soon after the eruption ended. Similar seismicity continued in June, and as of the 19th, 170 earthquakes and eight tremor episodes had been recorded.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Daily number of earthquakes (top) and tremor episodes (bottom) at On-take, January-May, 1991.

Geologic Background. The massive Ontakesan stratovolcano, the second highest volcano in Japan, lies at the southern end of the Northern Japan Alps. Ascending this volcano is one of the major objects of religious pilgrimage in central Japan. It is constructed within a largely buried 4 x 5 km caldera and occupies the southern end of the Norikura volcanic zone, which extends northward to Yakedake volcano. The older volcanic complex consisted of at least four major stratovolcanoes constructed from about 680,000 to about 420,000 years ago, after which Ontakesan was inactive for more than 300,000 years. The broad, elongated summit of the younger edifice is cut by a series of small explosion craters along a NNE-trending line. Several phreatic eruptions post-date the roughly 7300-year-old Akahoya tephra from Kikai caldera. The first historical eruption took place in 1979 from fissures near the summit. A non-eruptive landslide in 1984 produced a debris avalanche and lahar that swept down valleys south and east of the volcano. Very minor phreatic activity caused a dusting of ash near the summit in 1991 and 2007. A significant phreatic explosion in September 2014, when a large number of hikers were at or near the summit, resulted in many fatalities.

Information Contacts: JMA.


Pinatubo (Philippines) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Pinatubo

Philippines

15.13°N, 120.35°E; summit elev. 1486 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Major stratospheric cloud, pyroclastic flows, and new summit caldera; >300 killed by eruption and typhoon

After more than 2 months of increasing seismicity, deformation, and emission of small plumes, a series of strong explosions culminated in one of the largest eruptions of this century. The 15-16 June climactic phase lasted more than 15 hours, sending tephra to 30 km altitude, generating voluminous pyroclastic flows, and leaving a small caldera in the former summit region. Ten days later, the aerosol cloud formed a nearly continuous band that stretched 11,000 km from Indonesia to Central Africa. Timely evacuations saved many lives, but the combined effects of the eruption and a typhoon killed more than 300 people.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Map of southern Luzon Is., showing some towns and river valleys.

Minor activity, April-May. Renewed activity was signaled by an explosion on 2 April, at the E end of Pinatubo's geothermal area, about 1.5 km NW of the summit (see 16:4). The explosion devastated about 1 km2 of forested land, stripped leaves and vegetation over several square kilometers, and ejected small steam/ash clouds, depositing ash 10 km away. About 2,000 people were evacuated from a zone of 10-km radius. After the explosion, a line of new fumaroles, roughly 1 km long with six main vents, had developed. Emissions, voluminous and at extremely high pressure, were carried W onto a zone of dead and dying vegetation. Respiratory and eye irritation forced about 5,000 W-flank residents to leave the area.

A seismometer installed on 5 April recorded 50-90 events/day through 10 May. Earthquakes (located beginning 6 May) were dominantly centered 4-8 km NW of the summit (figure 5) at 3-6 km depth, and had magnitudes of 0.1-1.5 (averaging about M 1.0).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Epicenters of earthquakes (crosses) recorded near Pinatubo (dotted outline), 6-24 May (top), 25 May-5 June (middle), and 6-9 June (bottom) 1991. Courtesy of David Harlow.

Increased activity, late May-early June. Emissions from the vents increased in volume, with two large pulses observed on 25 and 26 May. Some ash was reported. SO2 flux, measured by COSPEC, rose from 500 t/d on 13 May to 5,000 t/d on 28 May, but dropped again to 1,700 t/d on 30 May and 1,800 t/d on 3 June. Seismicity continued slightly NW of the fumaroles (at 2-6 km depth), and an increasing number of earthquakes were recorded directly beneath the fumaroles (at 0-2 km depth) at the end of May. A "blast event" during the evening of 3 June produced ash and was immediately followed by harmonic tremor lasting 30 minutes. A similar tremor event was recorded the next day at around 1200. The SO2 flux had dropped to 280 t/d by 4 June.

Increased earthquake amplitudes and more frequent tremor were noted in early June. PHIVOLCS issued an Alert Level 3 announcement (indicating a possible major pyroclastic eruption within 2 weeks) on 5 June. Geologists interpreted the shallow seismicity and harmonic tremor to be caused by the upward movement of magma, and the drop in gas flux to suggest a blockage of escaping gas and an accompanying pressure buildup.

Seismicity increased over the next few days, from about 1,000 to 2,000 recorded earthquakes/day, associated with 25 microradians of tilt recorded on the upper E flank. Most epicenters were just NW of the summit. An explosion at 1640 on 7 June from the main vent near the center of the line of fumaroles (at the head of the Maronut River) ejected ash to 8,000 m height. The explosion occurred about 40 minutes into an hour-long episode of harmonic tremor. At 1700, PHIVOLCS announced an increase to Alert Level 4 (eruption possible within 24 hours) and ordered the evacuation of an area up to 21 km from the summit. About 12,000 residents were evacuated (from Zambales, Tarlac, and Pampanga Provinces).

Ash emission continued the next day, producing plumes about 5,000 m high and depositing ash to 25 km W. Helicopter reconnaissance in the morning confirmed the extrusion of a lava dome (100 x 60 m, and 30 m high) near the main vent on the volcano's N flank. The press reported that ash emission was continuing on 9 June (table 1) from two craters, with ash falling as far as the South China Sea (~35 km W). Seismographs near the volcano recorded continuous harmonic tremor.

Table 1. Eruptive episodes from Pinatubo, 9-17 June 1991. Times of eruption onsets are from PHIVOLCS and the USGS; times of initial satellite observations of eruptive episodes are shown in the second column. Plume altitudes are from NOAA. Altitudes given in the text are generally ground-based, and often higher than the NOAA estimates. Satellite data were compiled by James Lynch, NOAA/NESDIS, based on analysis of visible/infrared weather satellite imagery. Data in this table are very preliminary and will change as analyses of ground and satellite observations continue.

Date Eruption Time Detection Time Maximum Plume Altitude Direction of Movement Horizontal Extent (time after eruption)
09 Jun 1991 -- 0931 2 km NW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)
11 Jun 1991 -- 1631 3.5 km WSW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)
12 Jun 1991 0851 0931 17-19 km WSW 5.5 x 104 km2 (8 hrs)
12 Jun 1991 2250 2331 17-19 km WSW 1.1 x 105 km2 (8 hrs)
13 Jun 1991 0840 0931 17-19 km WSW 1 x 105 km2 (6 hrs)
14 Jun 1991 1309 1331 20-22 km WSW 5 x 104 km2 (4 hrs)
14 Jun 1991 1408 1431 20-22 km WSW 6 x 104 km2 (5 hrs)
14 Jun 1991 1853 1931 23-25 km WSW 7.5 x 104 km2 (6 hrs)
14 Jun 1991 2018 Indistinguishable from 1853 eruption on satellite images.
14 Jun 1991 2321 2331 23-25 km WSW 5 x 104 km2 (3 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 0114 0131 23-25 km WSW 1.5 x 105 km2 (4 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 0220 Indistinguishable from 0114 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 0555 0631 20-22 km WSW 1.1 x 105 km2 (3 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 0611 Indistinguishable from 0555 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 0809 0831 20-22 km WSW 1.1 x 105 km2 (3 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 0831 Indistinguishable from 0809 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1027 1031 35-40 km WSW 1 x 106 km2 (12 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 1027 1031 35-40 km WSW 1.5 x 106 km2 (18 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 1027 1031 35-40 km WSW 2.2 x 106 km2 (24 hrs)
15 Jun 1991 1027 1031 35-40 km WSW 2.7 x 106 km2 (36 hrs)
Initial, strongest phase of the climactic eruption, apparent on infrared imagery until 2131; column over the volcano reached 35-40 km height; extensive ash plume at 25-30 km. Ash from this phase comprised >95% of the extensive plume.
15 Jun 1991 1117 Indistinguishable from the 1027 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1221 Indistinguishable from the 1027 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1252 Indistinguishable from the 1027 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1342 Indistinguishable from the 1027 eruption on satellite images.
15 Jun 1991 1342 2231 26-28 km WSW --
The second phase of the climactic eruption continued until 0231 on 16 Jun, with a ball-shaped column over the volcano.
16 Jun 1991 -- 0331 23-25 km WSW --
The third phase, smaller than the second,, was characterized by a wedge-shaped plume from the volcano; apparent on satellite imagery until 0731.
16 Jun 1991 -- 1031 5-6 km WSW 1.5 x 104 km2 (3 hrs)
16 Jun 1991 -- 1231 5-6 km WSW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)
16 Jun 1991 -- 1431 5-6 km WSW 1.5 x 104 km2 (3 hrs)
16 Jun 1991 -- 2031 4-5 km WSW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)
17 Jun 1991 1300 1300 3.5 km WSW less than 1 x 104 km2 (2 hrs)

The evacuation of Clark Air Base (~15 km E of the volcano) was ordered by the U.S. Air Force at 0500 on 10 June. Almost 14,500 servicemen and their families were moved to Subic Bay Naval Base (30 km SSW), while 1,500 personnel remained at Clark. Preliminary hazard maps placed Clark Air Base at the E edge of pyroclastic-flow hazard zones, and flanked by potential mudflow hazard zones. Voluminous ash-laden steam clouds were emitted on 11 June.

Initial strong explosions, 12-early 15 June. A tephra column rose to about 20 km on 12 June, as an explosive episode at 0851 signalled the start of a major pyroclastic phase. The explosions were preceded by around 12-16 hours of continuous tremor and several smaller explosions. Numerous shocks had been felt by scientists working on the volcano earlier in the morning. Pyroclastic flows advanced at least 5 km and perhaps as much as 15 km down the Maronut, O'Donnell, and Marella Rivers on the NW, N, and SW flanks of the volcano, respectively. Six hundred of the remaining 1,500 military personnel at Clark Air Base were evacuated and thousands of people fled adjacent Angeles (population 300,000). All residents within a 20-km radius of the volcano were warned to leave.

The press reported that a smaller explosion occurred at 1149, then explosive activity declined after a few hours. Prevailing winds carried the eruption plume WSW, depositing ash more than 30 km away, but ashfall also apparently occurred N of the volcano, reportedly covering an aerial gunnery range. A small rain-induced mudflow occurred in the Maronut River valley at about 1830 on 12 June.

Weather satellite images showed that the eruption plume had separated from the volcano by 1330, after reaching about 330 km length (figure 6). By 1830, winds had sheared the plume into three different layers; material at 15-18 km altitude traveling WSW at 100 km/hour; at 6-9 km altitude, W at 55 km/hour; and at 6-9 km altitude, WNW at 35 km/hour. The Nimbus-7 satellite's TOMS instrument detected a significant amount of SO2 during its pass over the area about 2.5 hours after the onset of the explosion. Aviation authorities warned aircraft to avoid the plumes and closed several air routes W of the volcano (A461, A583, B460, R77, R93, R468, and R471).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Infrared image from the NOAA 10 polar-orbiting weather satellite on 15 June at about 1830, showing the massive cloud from the climactic explosive phase. Temperature estimates suggest that the main body of the plume is at about 30 km altitude, with the eruption column directly over the volcano rising to 35-40 km. The apparent boundary between sections of the cloud is probably a sampling artifact. Material NE of the volcano is probably at a lower altitude than the bulk of the cloud to the W and SW. Numerous faint bands are evident within the plume in false-color versions of the image. Courtesy of NOAA/NESDIS.

Another large explosive pulse occurred between 2250 and 2305 on 12 June, producing an eruption column that briefly rose to 25 km altitude before declining to a sustained elevation of about 20 km. Tephra fell to the W, NW, and SW, with pumice lapilli falling to 15 km distance, and coarse sand-sized tephra to more than 20 km from the volcano. A similar explosion at 0840 on 13 June lasted for 8 minutes and sent an ash column to 25 km altitude, following about an hour of long-period earthquakes. Satellite images showed large plumes extending [WSW] from the volcano after both explosions.

After a lull of about 28 hours, explosions resumed at 1309 on 14 June, ejecting tephra to 25 km altitude. Intermittent small pulses occurred at 1353 and 1408. Pyroclastic flows in the NW flank's Maronut valley extended 15 km to Sitio Ugik, site of an evacuation camp until increased shallow seismicity prompted additional warnings just before the start of the latest series of explosions. Ash fell to the S, SE, and SW. Another explosion at 1853 sent ash to 24 km altitude and additional pyroclastic flows to the NW. Strong rains during several of the explosive pulses generated mudflows in drainages where pyroclastic-flow deposits and airfall tephra had previously been emplaced.

By 14 June, 79,000 people had been evacuated, including about 15,000 from Clark Air Base. Civil Defense officials reported that four people had been killed, 24 injured, and four were missing in the series of explosions.

A small explosion at 2018 on 14 June sent an ash cloud to 6 km. A period of harmonic tremor preceded a strong explosion at 2321 that produced a column to >20 km [see also 16:6]. Ashfall was reported in San Marcelino (25 km SW) and San Narciso (30 km WSW). Explosions on 15 June at 0114 and about 0220 produced pyroclastic flows that moved down the SW flank.

Climactic explosions, 15-16 June. An explosion at 0555 on 15 June fed a 20-22 km-high ash column [see also 16:6], marking the onset of strong sustained activity that included the climactic explosions and lasted until early 16 June. Effects of the eruption were exacerbated by heavy rains and strong winds from typhoon Yunya. Much of the summit region was removed by explosions or collapse, leaving a caldera 2-3 km in diameter centered slightly north of the former summit.

Pyroclastic flows generated by the first 15 June explosion extended 8-10 km down the N, NNE, NNW flanks. Additional explosions were reported at 0611, 0809, and 0831. Before the strongest activity began, PHIVOLCS expanded the radius of the official danger zone from 30 to 40 km and expressed concern about the possibility of a caldera-forming eruption. The expanded danger zone included Clark Air Base, Subic Naval Base, and their neighboring cities of Angeles and Olongapo. Additional evacuees brought the total to about 200,000. Several thousand military dependents were sent back to the United States.

Satellite data suggested that the climactic phase began with an explosion detected by a nearby barograph at 1027, and continued with recorded explosions at 1117, 1221, and 1252, although ground reports indicated that the strongest activity started with an explosion at 1342 (table 1). A column remained fixed over the volcano through 2131, feeding a massive cloud (figure 7). Comparison of satellite-derived eruption column temperatures with atmospheric temperature profiles from nearby radiosondes yielded an altitude of 25-30 km as the cloud spread WSW toward mainland Asia, and elevations of 35-40 km for the eruption column over the volcano. The maximum altitude of a plume can be underestimated by this technique if its temperature has not fully equilibrated with that of the surrounding air, or if more diffuse material extends above the plume's densest region. Satellite data suggest that more than 95% of the cloud was produced by this 12-hour phase. Visible-band images showed ejection of very dark-colored material throughout the day (from 0631 until 1631), in contrast to the light-colored plumes generated by other phases of the eruption. Noticeably less violent activity, seen on images from 2231 on 15 June until 0231 on 16 June, sustained a ball-shaped cloud over Pinatubo at 26-28 km altitude. Activity had declined further during a third period, from 0331 through 0731, when a wedge-shaped plume extended from the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. Infrared image from the NOAA 10 polar orbiting weather satellite on 15 June at about 1830, showing the massive cloud from the climactic explosive phase. Temperature estimates suggest that the main body of the plume is at about 30 km altitude, with the eruption column directly over the volcano rising to 35-40 km. The apparent boundary between sections of the cloud is probably a sampling artifact. Material NE of the volcano is probably at lower altitude than the bulk of the cloud to the W and SW (figure 7-19). Numerous faint concentric bands are evident within the plume in false-color versions of the image.

The bulk of the tephra fell to the SE, S, and SW, but airfall distribution was complicated by the typhoon's winds. Ash was carried by the typhoon to Palawan Island, 500 km SSW of the volcano. The press reported slight ashfall 150 km S (in Batangas Province) and clumps of mud fell on Clark Air Base, Angeles, and the volcano's W flank. Some falling pumice was reportedly apricot-sized. Pumice the size of marbles fell 33 km SSW (at Olongapo) where tephra fall reached 15-30 cm and more than 30 injuries and some deaths were reported. The cloud darkened Manila by 1545, 3 hours before its usual nightfall, although most ashfall amounts there were less than about 1 cm [see also 16:6].

The stratospheric cloud expanded rapidly WSW, and by 1030 the next day, its leading edge had reached the Bangkok area, more than 2,000 km away (figure 8). Preliminary Nimbus-7 satellite data showed very high concentrations of SO2 over a broad area (figure 9), with a total mass that appeared to be approximately double that of the 1982 injection from El Chichón. Light ashfalls were reported in southern Vietnam (from Da Nang to the Mekong Delta, 1,400 km W-1,800 km WSW), northern Borneo (Sabah and Sarawak, 1,000-2,000 km SW), and Singapore (2,500 km SW). By 23 June, a nearly continuous zone of enhanced SO2 as much as 30° wide extended from south of Indochina about 11,000 km to central Africa (figure 10). A small zone of apparent aerosol material had reached about 40°W. [See the Atmospheric Effects chapter for more information about the stratospheric cloud].

Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Sketch of the major eruption cloud from Pinatubo as seen on satellite imagery on 16 June at about 1030, about 21 hours after the onset of strongest activity, and 1 hour before the SO2 data in figure 7-20. Courtesy of SAB.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Preliminary SO2 data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus-7 satellite, showing the major eruption cloud from Pinatubo on 16 June at about 1130, 22 hours after the start of the climactic explosions. Each number or letter represents the average SO2 value within an area 50 km across. 0 = 10-35 milliatmosphere-cm (100-350 ppm-m), 1 = 36-60 matm-cm, 2 = 61-85 matm-cm, etc.; 9 is followed by A, B, etc. Data were lost in the barred zone. Courtesy of Scott Doiron.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. Preliminary SO2 data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer on the Nimbus-7 satellite, showing the major eruption cloud from Pinatubo on 23 June, eight days after the climactic phase. The main body of the cloud, 11,000 km long, has reached central Africa, but a smaller advance segment apparently extended over the eastern Atlantic Ocean, bisected by the 30°W meridian. Only values > 18 matm-cm are shown. Highest values within the dense cloud reached about 75 matm-cm (over Saudi Arabia). Courtesy of Scott Doiron.

Smaller explosions continued during the next several days, but the strongest activity appeared to have ended, and people began to return to their homes. PHIVOLCS reported three periods of ash emission accompanied by tremor on 17 June. Satellite data revealed a small explosion at 1300 and a column to 5-6 km altitude was observed.The Worldwide Standardized Seismic Net detected shallow earthquakes near Pinatubo on 15 June at 1539 (M 4.9), 1831 (M 4.4), 1841 (M 5.4), 1911 (M 4.6), 1915 (M 5.5), and 2026 (M 4.7), on 16 June at 0349 (M 4.9), 0359 (M 4.8), 1008 (M 5.6), 1458 (M 4.9), 1751 (M 5.1), and 2127 (M 4.9), on 17 June at 0441 (M 5.3) and 2333 (M 4.6), and on 18 June at 1120 (M 4.6).

On 18 June geologists reported preliminary cumulative ashfall thicknesses of 15-30 cm at Clark Air Base, 15-30 cm in Olongapo, and an unconfirmed 35.5 cm in some parts of SW Luzon. At a site along the Abacan River, 37 km E of the summit, debris-flow deposits were sandwiched between a coarse basal layer and finer, sand-sized tephra. Several homes at this site had been inundated, and several others swept away by lateral stream erosion, with some resulting casualties. A similar situation was found at a second site along the Baluyot River, 34 km ESE of the summit. Several homes had been lost or buried by mud, but no deaths had occurred.

The leading edge of typhoon Yunya had reached the area by 14 June at about 2000, and strong storms began moving over the volcano at about 0500 on 15 June. The storm had weakened to light-moderate showers 24 hours later, but these persisted through the 16th. Heavy rains soaked the recently fallen tephra, adding substantially to its weight, and the wet tephra soon hardened to a concrete-like material, making it very difficult to remove. Numerous roof and building collapses resulted, and were responsible for many of the casualties from the combined effects of the eruption and typhoon. As of 19 June, the death toll had risen to more than 300.

The 15 June activity forced closure of Manila's international and domestic airports, which remained closed to arriving jet aircraft through 18 June. A limited number of outgoing flights were permitted beginning early 19 June, and propeller-driven aircraft, less vulnerable to the effects of ash clouds, offered limited air service to and from Manila. Preliminary reports indicate that [14] jets encountered ash during the eruption, most on 15 June (table 2). All landed safely, but some sustained engine and/or exterior damage.

Table 2. Preliminary summary of aircraft encounters with clouds from Pinatubo, 12-18 June 1991. Courtesy of T. Casadevall. [Including additional encounters reported in BGVN 16:07.]

Date Time Duration Location Comments
12 Jun 1991 -- 3 minutes Descent into Manila --
13 Jun 1991 0030 20 minutes S China Sea Electrostatic discharge on windscreen; no damage.
14 Jun 1991 early AM 15 minutes 750 km W of Pinatubo, 11 km altitude No significant damage.
14 or 15 Jun 1991 -- 29 minutes -- Two engines replaced; impact damage and ash buildup on engines.
15 Jun 1991 -- 15-20 minutes -- Flew through "heavy ash;" cockpit and cabin contaminated by ash.
15 Jun 1991 early AM -- 1,100 km W, 9 km altitude All four engines damaged.
15 Jun 1991 -- 12 minutes 10.5 km altitude Temperatures of all four engines rose and fluctuated; sparks from windows; ash hit aircraft; no significant exterior or engine damage.
15 Jun 1991 1600 -- Approach to Manila from S Vietnam Much ash in engines; exterior abrasion.
15 Jun 1991 evening -- Leaving Manila Black marks on exterior of left wing.
15 Jun 1991 2347 -- Approach to Manila from S Vietnam Ash, sulfur odor, electrostatic discharge, and blue-green light. No significant damage
16 Jun 1991 0130 25 minutes S China Sea Electrostatic discharge on windscreen; no damage.
16 Jun 1991 0310 30 minutes S China Sea Electrostatic discharge on windscreen; no damage.
17 Jun 1991 -- -- -- Engine 3 shutdown; heavy ash buildup in engines.
18 Jun 1991 0200 -- 11 km altitude Engine 1 stalled, engine 4 lost power; descended to 9 km to restart. Engine 1 replaced.

Further References. Pinatubo Volcano Observatory Team, 1991, Lessons from a major eruption: Mt. Pinatubo, Phillipines: EOS, v. 72, p. 545, 552-3, 555.

Woods, A. and Self, S., 1992, Thermal disequilibrium at the top of volcanic clouds and its effect on estimates of the column height: Nature, v. 355, p. 628-630.

Geologic Background. Prior to 1991 Pinatubo volcano was a relatively unknown, heavily forested lava dome complex located 100 km NW of Manila with no records of historical eruptions. The 1991 eruption, one of the world's largest of the 20th century, ejected massive amounts of tephra and produced voluminous pyroclastic flows, forming a small, 2.5-km-wide summit caldera whose floor is now covered by a lake. Caldera formation lowered the height of the summit by more than 300 m. Although the eruption caused hundreds of fatalities and major damage with severe social and economic impact, successful monitoring efforts greatly reduced the number of fatalities. Widespread lahars that redistributed products of the 1991 eruption have continued to cause severe disruption. Previous major eruptive periods, interrupted by lengthy quiescent periods, have produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that were even more extensive than in 1991.

Information Contacts: R. Punongbayan, PHIVOLCS; R. Janda and J. Ewert, CVO; SAB; Scott Doiron, GSFC; Chris Newhall and Ellen Limburg-Santistevan, USGS Reston; David Harlow, USGS Menlo Park; T. Casadevall, USGS Denver; Nicholas Krull, FAA; Tom Fox, ICAO; NEIC; AP; UPI; Reuters.


Poas (Costa Rica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Poas

Costa Rica

10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong gas emission; rain adds water to nearly dry crater lake

Strong sulfur-gas emission continued from crater fumaroles in May. The crater lake, nearly dry since March, began to refill during the third week of May because of increased rainfall. Small pools coalesced to cover the entire crater floor, and warm mud was frequently ejected to several meters height from the center of the lake. The largest fumarole was in the crater's N sector, and other smaller ones were in the W and SE. Microseismicity decreased at the end of May and the volcano was considered by geologists to have returned to normal rainy season conditions. A new network of five digital seismometers was installed near the volcano by a joint RSN-French group.

Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

Information Contacts: R. Barquero, ICE.


Rabaul (Papua New Guinea) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Rabaul

Papua New Guinea

4.271°S, 152.203°E; summit elev. 688 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continued low-level seismicity; slight uplift

"Seismicity was at a low level in May. The month's total number of earthquakes was 102 (compared to 126-140 over the last 3 months). Only five earthquakes were locatable, distributed on the NE and W sides of the caldera seismic zone. Levelling measurements on 24 May showed a slight uplift (3.5 mm at the SE end of Matupit Island)."

Geologic Background. The low-lying Rabaul caldera on the tip of the Gazelle Peninsula at the NE end of New Britain forms a broad sheltered harbor utilized by what was the island's largest city prior to a major eruption in 1994. The outer flanks of the 688-m-high asymmetrical pyroclastic shield volcano are formed by thick pyroclastic-flow deposits. The 8 x 14 km caldera is widely breached on the east, where its floor is flooded by Blanche Bay and was formed about 1400 years ago. An earlier caldera-forming eruption about 7100 years ago is now considered to have originated from Tavui caldera, offshore to the north. Three small stratovolcanoes lie outside the northern and NE caldera rims. Post-caldera eruptions built basaltic-to-dacitic pyroclastic cones on the caldera floor near the NE and western caldera walls. Several of these, including Vulcan cone, which was formed during a large eruption in 1878, have produced major explosive activity during historical time. A powerful explosive eruption in 1994 occurred simultaneously from Vulcan and Tavurvur volcanoes and forced the temporary abandonment of Rabaul city.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Rincon de la Vieja

Costa Rica

10.83°N, 85.324°W; summit elev. 1916 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More details on 8 May eruption and deposits

The following, from the Univ Nacional, supplements last month's report from ICE.

A phreatic eruption on 8 May ejected lake sediments and ash, and produced small mudflows. The eruption followed several low-frequency earthquakes during the night of 6-7 May, and a low-frequency earthquake with a 155-second duration at 0811 on 7 May. Reports from residents of Dos Ríos de Upala (8 km NW) and from guards at Parque Nacional Rincón de la Vieja described an accompanying explosion and a 1-km-high light-colored plume with ash that traveled NW.

Seven low-frequency microearthquakes preceded the 8 May phreatic eruption. An earthquake that lasted 120 seconds, possibly associated with a small explosion, occurred 18 minutes prior to the eruption, and low-frequency tremor began 7 minutes before it.

The sound wave of the main explosion arrived at the seismometer (6 km SW) 6 seconds after the start of the eruption signal at 1017, and the instrument was saturated for 25 seconds. The subsequent 150-second signal was interpreted to record strong degassing and the initiation of mudflows. Low-frequency harmonic tremor was recorded for 30 minutes, gradually decreasing below detection limits. The main explosion produced a gray ash cloud, 5 km high, that was carried NW. Ash was deposited to 14 km NW from this (figure 1) and the approximately 10 small (columns

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Map showing deposits from the 8 May 1991 phreatic eruption at Rincón de la Vieja. Site numbers correspond to cross-sections in figures 2 and 3, and table 1. Courtesy of OVSICORI.

Table 1. Field observations of 8 May 1991 mudflow deposits from Rincón de la Vieja. Sites correspond to locations in figure 1. Courtesy of OVSICORI.

Site Distance Deposit width Channel width Max. flow height Deposit description
1 7.2 km 41 m 10 m 4-6 m 1.65 m of erosion.
2 6.6 km 185 m 12 m 2-3 m ~8 m deposited.
3 7.0 km 239 m -- 4-5 m 2-60 cm of fine (2-16 mm) material.
4 16.6 km -- -- 2.15 m Blocks (to 1.5 x 2.0 m) and tree trunks (50 cm diameter); 10-50-cm mantle of fine sediment.

Mudflows traveled down the N flank (along the Quebrada Azufrosa, and Río Pénjamo), destroying two small bridges and cutting off access to the towns of Buenos Aires (~12 km NE) and Gavilán. Several smaller mudflows traveled down tributaries to the Río Azul (also to the N). Erosion occurred predominantly between 1,500 and 500 m elevation. Field observations of the mudflow deposits were made at several sites (figures 2 and 3; table 1). Park guards reported small quantities of sediment transported by the Río Colorado (S flank), but no effects on the ecosystem were observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Cross-section of 8 May 1991 Rincón de la Vieja mudflow deposits near a bridge over the Río Azul. Site location is marked in figure 1. Courtesy of OVSICORI.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Cross-section of 8 May 1991 Rincón de la Vieja mudflow deposits near a bridge over the Río Pénjamo. Site location is marked in figure 1. Courtesy of OVSICORI.

Blocks (to 40 x 50 cm) with impact craters and ejected lake sediments were found near the summit during a 9 May visit. Acidity and sediment-fall had variable impacts on nearby vegetation, ranging to complete defoliation. Fumarolic activity continued, as evidenced by a strong sulfur odor, eye irritation, and breathing difficulties near the crater. Rain collected 3 km S had a pH of 3.85.

Seismicity declined to 9 low-frequency recorded earthquakes/day (9 May), with only sporadic (1-2/day) events on later days.

Geologic Background. Rincón de la Vieja, the largest volcano in NW Costa Rica, is a remote volcanic complex in the Guanacaste Range. The volcano consists of an elongated, arcuate NW-SE-trending ridge constructed within the 15-km-wide early Pleistocene Guachipelín caldera, whose rim is exposed on the south side. Sometimes known as the "Colossus of Guanacaste," it has an estimated volume of 130 km3 and contains at least nine major eruptive centers. Activity has migrated to the SE, where the youngest-looking craters are located. The twin cone of Santa María volcano, the highest peak of the complex, is located at the eastern end of a smaller, 5-km-wide caldera and has a 500-m-wide crater. A Plinian eruption producing the 0.25 km3 Río Blanca tephra about 3,500 years ago was the last major magmatic eruption. All subsequent eruptions, including numerous historical eruptions possibly dating back to the 16th century, have been from the prominent active crater containing a 500-m-wide acid lake located ENE of Von Seebach crater.

Information Contacts: E. Fernández S., Jorge Brenes M., V. Barboza M., and Tomás Marino H., Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa Rica, Univ Nacional.


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent lithic ash emissions; occasional vigorous earthquake swarms

Lithic ash emissions were frequent during May, depositing material to Manizales (30 km WNW) on 1 May. Short pulses of shallow tremor were associated with the emissions. High-frequency seismicity reached very high levels during a swarm on 8 May (figure 45), which included a M 2.1 earthquake, 2.5 km N of Arenas crater at 5 km depth. A similar swarm occurred on 14 May. Low-frequency seismicity was at a moderate level in May, with peaks of vigorous seismicity on 4 days. Deformation measurements showed no significant changes. The SO2 flux was low; the monthly average was 930 t/d, compared to ~2,740 t/d in April.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Daily number of seismic events (bottom) and energy release (top) at Ruiz, May 1991. Solid line, high-frequency events; dashed line, low-frequency events. Courtesy of INGEOMINAS.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: C. Carvajal, INGEOMINAS, Manizales.


Sabancaya (Peru) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Sabancaya

Peru

15.787°S, 71.857°W; summit elev. 5960 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Vigorous Vulcanian activity; mudflows force daily clearing of river channel

Strong Vulcanian explosions were observed during a visit on 13-19 April. The explosions, occurring every 20-30 minutes, lasted ~ 1 minute and produced 3-4-km-high, medium-gray ash clouds. Small avalanches were produced by falling blocks at the base of the eruptive columns. Quiet degassing continued between explosions. Light-gray ashfall was frequent during the visit, depositing 2 mm one night ~9.5 km SE of the summit (at Cajamarcana).

The volcano began erupting in late May 1990, reportedly ejecting ash to 7 km. By late June 1990 (15:7), activity had decreased to periodic explosions with weak ash columns 2-3 km high, but then increased slowly through November. High-frequency seismicity (>122 events recorded over one 2-week period) was usually centered ~ 10 km NE, although two earthquakes occurred under the crater. Several tremor episodes were recorded, starting in October.

The plume was black and heavy with ash during an overflight on 10 November, rising an estimated 5-8 km in distinct, but almost continuous pulses. Ash deposited on Hualca Hualca (4 km N) caused increased melting of the glaciers (estimated 20 cm of snow above the ice and berm) producing numerous mudflows. These moved down the N flank nightly, dumping an estimated 13,000 m3 of debris/day into the Majes River drainage system ~ 5 km N of the volcano. Construction crews cleared the channel daily. Airfall deposits were composed of 80% lithics and 20% glassy fragments and breadcrusted material. At one outcrop, the 1990 ash accumulations were 1 cm thick, overlying at progressively greater depth 30 cm soil, 2 cm ash, 40 cm soil, and another 2 cm ash. Eruptive activity observed on 22 December appeared about the same as it was on 10 November.

Geologic Background. Sabancaya, located in the saddle NE of Ampato and SE of Hualca Hualca volcanoes, is the youngest of these volcanic centers and the only one to have erupted in historical time. The oldest of the three, Nevado Hualca Hualca, is of probable late-Pliocene to early Pleistocene age. The name Sabancaya (meaning "tongue of fire" in the Quechua language) first appeared in records in 1595 CE, suggesting activity prior to that date. Holocene activity has consisted of Plinian eruptions followed by emission of voluminous andesitic and dacitic lava flows, which form an extensive apron around the volcano on all sides but the south. Records of historical eruptions date back to 1750.

Information Contacts: P. Vetsch and R. Haubrichs, SVG, Switzerland; N. Banks, CVO; Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima.


San Jose (Chile-Argentina) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

San Jose

Chile-Argentina

33.789°S, 69.895°W; summit elev. 6070 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New fumarole field on upper S flank

A new fumarole field, 150 m below the rim on the S flank . . . was first observed in late February (figures 1 and 2). On 14 May, geologists from the Univ de Chile noted that the new activity was similar to that of earlier fumaroles associated with a small andesitic dome within the central crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1.Sketch of view looking E at the San José complex, 14 May 1991. Vapor rises from within the crater and from the February 1991 fumarole field. Courtesy of O. González-Ferrán.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Sketch map showing the summit region and craters of the San José complex, May 1991. Courtesy of O. González-Ferrán.

Although no earthquakes were detected at the volcano, an increase in seismicity was recorded by the Univ de Chile's seismic network throughout the roughly N-S fault zone that separates the Valle Central and the Cordillera Andina. Four events were recorded in February, 8 in March, 9 in April, and 14 in May, the largest (M 4.0 and M 3.5) on 8 and 11 April, respectively (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Sketch showing the location of San José and the epicenters of two large earthquakes, April 1991. Courtesy of O. González-Ferrán.

Geologic Background. Volcán San José lies along the Chile-Argentina border at the southern end of a volcano group that includes the Pleistocene volcanoes of Marmolejo and Espíritu Santo. The glaciated 6070-m-high Marmolejo stratovolcano is truncated by a 4-km-wide caldera, breached to the NW, that has been the source of a massive debris avalanche. San José is a 5856-m-high stratovolcano of Pleistocene-Holocene age with a broad 2 km x 0.5 km summit region containing overlapping and nested craters, pyroclastic cones, and blocky lava flows. Volcán la Engorda and Volcán Plantat, located SW of Marmolejo and NW of San Jose, have also been active during the Holocene. An 8-km-long lava flow traveled to the SW from the 1-km-wide summit crater of Espíritu Santo volcano, which overlaps the southern slope of Marmolejo. Mild phreatomagmatic eruptions were recorded from San José in the 19th and 20th centuries.

Information Contacts: O. González-Ferrán, Univ de Chile; P. Acevedo, Univ de la Frontera, Temuco.


Soputan (Indonesia) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Soputan

Indonesia

1.112°N, 124.737°E; summit elev. 1785 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion sounds and incandescence; frequent seismicity

On 22-24 May... loud booming sounds and night glow were reported from the main crater. Up to 100 seismic events were recorded/6-hour period on 28 May.

Geologic Background. The Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano is located SW of Riendengan-Sempu, which some workers have included with Soputan and Manimporok (3.5 km ESE) as a volcanic complex. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

Information Contacts: W. Modjo, VSI.


Stromboli (Italy) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Stromboli

Italy

38.789°N, 15.213°E; summit elev. 924 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


More frequent explosions

The number of seismically recorded explosions increased briefly in late March and persistently from mid-April (figure 13). After mid-April, the number of earthquakes exceeding instrument saturation level decreased from an average of ~20/day since January to

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Average number of seismically recorded explosion events/hour at Stromboli, 15 March-15 May 1991. The mean value for the period is shown. Courtesy of M. Riuscetti.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. Daily number of seismometer-saturating events (lower curve); and average tremor amplitude (upper curve) at Stromboli, 15 March-15 May 1991. Courtesy of M. Riuscetti.

Volcano guides reported infrequent small explosive activity at the 3 craters during visits to the summit on 10, 15, and 16 April, and 1 May. In early May, the first complete gas sampling at Stromboli was made during an inter-explosive phase at fumaroles (410°C) on the NW rim of the active crater complex (table 1).

Table 1. Chemical composition (in volume %) of fumarolic gases from Stromboli, early May 1991. Courtesy of M. Martini.

Gas Volume %
H2O 60.29
CO2 29.68
H2S --
HCl 0.28
HF 0.041
H2 --
N2 6.90
O2 1.29
B 0.0014
Br 0.00017
CO 0.00007
NH4 0.00006
CH4 --

Local residents reported a significant increase in the number of explosions on 19 May, after several weeks of weak activity. During a visit to the summit on the evening of 21 May, frequent strong explosions were observed at craters 1 and 3, with large ejections of incandescent material. Thirty explosions were counted between 2000 on the 21st and 0600 the next day. Many ejecta fell onto the N flank's Sciara del Fuoco. Crater 2 and the small cones continuously emitted gas and vapor.

Geologic Background. Spectacular incandescent nighttime explosions at this volcano have long attracted visitors to the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean." Stromboli, the NE-most of the Aeolian Islands, has lent its name to the frequent mild explosive activity that has characterized its eruptions throughout much of historical time. The small island is the emergent summit of a volcano that grew in two main eruptive cycles, the last of which formed the western portion of the island. The Neostromboli eruptive period took place between about 13,000 and 5,000 years ago. The active summit vents are located at the head of the Sciara del Fuoco, a prominent horseshoe-shaped scarp formed about 5,000 years ago due to a series of slope failures that extend to below sea level. The modern volcano has been constructed within this scarp, which funnels pyroclastic ejecta and lava flows to the NW. Essentially continuous mild Strombolian explosions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, have been recorded for more than a millennium.

Information Contacts: M. Riuscetti, Univ di Udine; M. Martini, Univ di Firenze; H. Gaudru, Société Volcanologique Européenne (SVE), Switzerland.


Ulawun (Papua New Guinea) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Ulawun

Papua New Guinea

5.05°S, 151.33°E; summit elev. 2334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Large gas plume and numerous weak earthquakes

"Activity remained at the low, non-erupting level displayed since January 1990, gently releasing a white vapour plume and generating an average of ~200 very small low-frequency earthquakes/day.

"An aerial inspection and ground deformation survey was carried out 14-16 May. The plume emitted by the crater, although of moderate volume, seemed rich in SO2 and could distinctly be seen stretching horizontally >40 km downwind. No significant changes were noted in summit crater morphology since the last inspection in May 1990, apart from a series of cracks on the terminal cone's upper W flank, suggesting a slight inward sagging of this side of the crater rim.

"EDM and dry tilt measurements suggest that no significant deformation has occurred over the last 12 months."

Geologic Background. The symmetrical basaltic-to-andesitic Ulawun stratovolcano is the highest volcano of the Bismarck arc, and one of Papua New Guinea's most frequently active. The volcano, also known as the Father, rises above the N coast of the island of New Britain across a low saddle NE of Bamus volcano, the South Son. The upper 1,000 m is unvegetated. A prominent E-W escarpment on the south may be the result of large-scale slumping. Satellitic cones occupy the NW and E flanks. A steep-walled valley cuts the NW side, and a flank lava-flow complex lies to the south of this valley. Historical eruptions date back to the beginning of the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions were mildly explosive until 1967, but after 1970 several larger eruptions produced lava flows and basaltic pyroclastic flows, greatly modifying the summit crater.

Information Contacts: D. Lolok and P. de Saint-Ours, RVO.


Unzendake (Japan) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Unzendake

Japan

32.761°N, 130.299°E; summit elev. 1483 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


41 killed by pyroclastic flow from lava dome

On 3 June a large pyroclastic flow formed near the summit of Fugen-dake cone and moved down the E flank, reaching the outskirts of Kita-Kamikoba, 3 km from the 20 May lava dome. Forty people were killed, including volcanologists Harry Glicken, and Maurice and Katia Krafft. The pyroclastic flow and accompanying fires destroyed more than 56 houses and portions of Shimabara were blanketed with wet ash. A larger pyroclastic flow, on 8 June, destroyed an additional 73 houses in Shimabara and Fukae, but no injuries were reported. On 11 June, ejecta from an explosive event, not associated with pyroclastic-flow activity, damaged houses and car windows in Shimabara. Ashfall was reported 250 km to the NE. Dome extrusion and pyroclastic-flow activity at Unzen continued as of 24 June.

Premonitory activity and small ash emission. Increased seismicity was initially centered in Chijiiwa Bay, 13 km W, in November 1989, and gradually migrated E in July-October 1990, when seismicity increased further and the first volcanic tremor was recorded. Following several earthquake swarms, including one on 13-14 November (centered 5 km W of the summit at shallow depth), the volcano erupted on 17 November, weakly emitting ash to heights of 300-400 m from two newly formed vents (Jigoku-ato and Tsukumo-jima) within existing craters roughly 650 m E of the summit (figure 17). Ash emissions, tremor, and swarm activity quickly ceased, but steam emission continued and seismicity remained at high levels. An earthquake swarm occurred on 15 January and tremor resumed on 25 January (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Map showing the distribution of the three facies of the 3 June pyroclastic flow at Unzen. Crosses represent locations of recovered bodies. Data from Kyushu and Kagoshima universities. Body locations from The Japan Times. Courtesy of JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Daily number of earthquakes (top) and tremor episodes (bottom) at Unzen, January-18 June 1991. Arrows represent resumption of explosive activity on 12 February and dome appearance on 20 May 1991. Courtesy of JMA.

Phreato-magmatic activity, February-May. A second eruption on 12 February produced 500-m ash plumes from a new 50-m-long line of small vents (named Byobu-iwa) 170 m WSW of Jigoku-ato crater and 500 m E of the summit. Deposits of ash and lapilli reached 30 cm thick (10 m E of the vent) but no incandescence was seen and no juvenile material was detected in the ash. Frequent small ash emissions continued from Byobu-iwa vent and seismicity remained at high levels.

In early April, ash emissions resumed at Jigoku-ato vent, which widened and began to eject bombs. By mid-April, Jigoku-ato was the site of the most intense activity. The Geographic Survey Institute detected a summit offset of 11 cm to the W on 12 April.

Juvenile volcanic glass was first recognized on 12 May, although emissions remained small. Shallow microseismicity beneath Jigoku-ato rose sharply the next day, and EDM measurements showed rapid inflation of the summit region.

Debris flows, 15 and 19 May. Heavy rains on accumulated ash deposits triggered debris flows along the Mizunashi River on 15 and 19 May that destroyed two bridges and caused the temporary evacuation of about 1,300 people from Shimabara.

Lava extrusion, 20-23 May. On 20 May, high-silica dacite (table 6) lava extrusion began in Jigoku-ato crater. By the following day large fractures had appeared and the dome had separated into four parts. Debris flows along the Mizunashi River continued; after the fourth debris flow, at 0252 on 21 May, about 1,100 people were evacuated. Water level in the river dropped following a debris flow at 0445, and people were allowed to return home at 0555.

Table 6. Chemical composition of eruptive products from Unzen. Sample 1 - block from 24 May 1991 pyroclastic flow. Sample 2 - surface of lava dome 1 June 1991. Sample 3 - pumice block from 8 June 1991 pyroclastic flow. Sample 4 - 1792 lava flow. Total Fe as Fe2O3. Analyses performed by XRF at Kyushu Univ, normalized anhydrous.

Component Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 Sample 4
SiO2 65.92 66.03 66.18 66.1
TiO2 0.66 0.64 0.65 0.65
Al2O3 15.46 15.47 15.46 15.8
Fe2O3* 4.18 4.14 4.07 4.28
MnO 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.09
MgO 2.39 2.37 2.34 2.24
CaO 4.90 4.98 4.86 4.56
Na2O 3.85 3.77 3.80 3.78
K2O 2.39 2.35 2.41 2.39
P2O5 0.16 0.17 0.16 0.13
Total 100.02 100.00 100.01 100.02

The dome continued to grow, reaching about 110 m diameter and 44 m height (a few tens of meters above the crater rim) on 23 May, when material began spalling from its margins down the steep outer slopes. Large blocks, to 5 m in diameter (60-70 m3 volume), were observed falling from the dome, and explosive events produced grayish clouds to 100 m height. The Geological Society of Japan reported that Fugen-dake cone had expanded 89 cm from 10 to 22 May (figure 19), and that the lava dome front was moving E at 70-80 cm/hour.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Results of EDM measurements between points T1 and F2 on the S flank of Fugen-dake cone at Unzen, 10 May-8 June. Shortening of this line reflects expansion of the cone as F2 moves toward T1. Data from the GSJ. Courtesy of JMA.

Pyroclastic flows begin, 24 May. At 0810 on 24 May, a large explosion was heard as a portion of the lava dome collapsed, producing a pyroclastic flow that traveled about 1 km down the E flank to within 2 km of Kita-Kamikoba. The flow discolored trees and transported blocks 10 m in diameter. Smaller collapse/pyroclastic flow events occurred at 1755 and 1920.

About 1,300 people were evacuated on 24 May because of increasing mudflow hazard along the Mizunashi River, as volcanic debris accumulated and heavy rains continued. During the evening, workers dredged material from above a dam (2 km from the summit) constructed after the November 1990 eruption to reduce the mudflow danger. By 0600 the following morning the evacuation recommendation was withdrawn and residents were allowed to return home.

Heavy rain on 25 May made observation difficult, but dust and ash from a pyroclastic flow was seen at around 1145. The lava dome continued to grow at an estimated rate of 80,000 m3/day. Rain continued on 26 May, and ash plumes 600 m high were reported, but little is known about activity at the dome.

At 1130 on 26 May, a pyroclastic flow traveled into the Mizunashi valley, injuring a worker (2.6 km from the crater) who had climbed up from the dredging area for better views of the volcano. The flow traveled 3 km, to within 600 m of Kita-Kamikoba, and deposited ash 5 km E on Shimabara. Bursts of tremor accompanied this flow and the prior pyroclastic flow at 1113, suggesting that the tremor signal could be used to detect and count pyroclastic flows (figure 20).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Daily number of pyroclastic flows determined seismically at Unzen, 20 May-18 June 1991. Number represents counts of tremor lasting >30 seconds with amplitudes larger than an empirical threshold. Courtesy of JMA.

The 1130 pyroclastic flow, and the continued accumulation of debris in the river channel, prompted the evacuation of around 3,500 people from the surrounding valley. Several mudflows were reported during that evening, and rain soaked previously-deposited dust and ash to create more mud. Many people were allowed to return home the next day when the rain ceased.

Observations of the dome (27 May) revealed a v-shaped vent, from which a 60-m-wide tongue of lava was being extruded. Pyroclastic flows spawned from the margins of the lava tongue traveled along E and SE paths that joined at mid-flank. On 28 May, fluid (no longer blocky) lava overflowed the crater's E rim and moved down the outer flank, reaching about 700 m elevation by midnight.

The 26 May evacuation order was extended. Pyroclastic flows continued to form, reaching to within 500 m of Kita-Kamikoba on the 29th, and within 200 m on the 30th. Trees in the valley were burned to charcoal, suggesting that flow temperatures had increased. On 31 May, lava was observed emerging from the vent, and then avalanching 1 km down the steep slope in 30 seconds, producing a roaring sound that was heard 6 km E in Shimabara.

Pyroclastic flow kills 41, 3 June. At about 1610 on 3 June, an audible explosion and 6 minutes of recorded tremor signaled the collapse of a portion of the summit dome and lava flow. The resulting large pyroclastic flow moved down the Mizunashi River at reported speeds of up to 100 km/hour and entered Kita-Kamikoba. The core of the pyroclastic flow traveled about 3.2 km (figure 17) over a vertical drop of 1,000 m. An ash cloud surge apparently detached from the flow and traveled an additional 0.8 km, knocking down trees, burning houses, and leaving deposits up to 30 cm thick. Blasted zones occurred in places along the margins of the flow and surge. The volume of the deposits was estimated to be 7.3 x 105 m3.

All of the casualties were within an evacuated "forbidden" zone and all were caused by the detached surge. The victims consisted of: 15 members of the Japanese press, three volcanologists, four taxi drivers, a few local residents, and members of police and fire brigades. Of the 41 people listed dead, 27 bodies were recovered, four remain missing and are presumed dead, and 10 died in hospitals from burns.

Pyroclastic flows continued over the next several days, hampering rescue and recovery efforts, but were less frequent. Lava effusion occurred at a constant rate of around 105 m3/day, producing a tongue 70-80 m wide and 100 m long by 5 June. Periodic explosions produced gas/ash columns 100 m high. One helicopter was grounded due to ash-related engine problems on 6 June. On 7 June, the evacuated zone was widened to include an additional 1,500 people, bringing the total number of evacuees to more than 7,200, and a fine of $75 was imposed on people entering the evacuated area. Observers reported that despite continued growth of the dome it had not yet recovered half of its pre-3 June size.

Large pyroclastic flow, 8 June. An increase in pyroclastic flow activity occurred in the afternoon of 8 June, with numerous small flows over a 5-hour period leading to a larger flow at 1723. The evacuation zone was again widened, to include parts of Fukae, bringing the total number evacuated to about 8,500. Multiple pyroclastic flows began at 1930. Finally, from 1951 to 2016, a continuous series of pyroclastic flows traveled 5.5 km down the Mizunashi River, through parts of Shimabara and Fukae, to within 50 m of Highway 57 (2 km from the sea). Deposits reached 100 m wide and had an estimated volume of ~1.0 x 106 m3. The flows destroyed 73 houses, but no injuries were reported.

Activity continued, with an explosion (detected by infrared camera) at 2007 and a small pyroclastic flow at 2120. Ashfall from the explosion was deposited 90 km NE (in Hida) and 80 km N (in Fukuoka). Clasts 5 cm in diameter fell to 5 km.

Evacuation zones were expanded on 9 June and again on 10 June, to a total of 9,800 people. Mudflow hazards were considered high given the more than 1 x 106 m3 of debris that completely filled the Mizunashi River channel and covered the surrounding valley.

Large explosive event, 11 June. By 11 June, a 50-m-wide dome partly filled the large horseshoe-shaped depression that formed 8 June on the E side of the summit dome. A large explosive ash emission, not associated with pyroclastic-flow formation, occurred at 2359-0003, accompanied by strong tremor and sharp deflation (10 µrad; figure 21). Houses, car windows, and two helicopters were damaged by tephra clasts (d = 1.0-2.0 g/cm3) >=15 cm in diameter that fell to 3.5 km (figure 22). Ash was deposited to 130 km NE (Oita) and 250 km NE (Matsuyama, Shikoku Is.). Two hours after the explosion, 25 µrad of inflation was recorded over a 10-hour period, suggesting rising magma.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Change of ground tilt 850 m W of Unzen's dome, 6-15 June, 1991. Arrows represent large eruptive events on 8 and 11 June. E up corresponds to inflation of the summit area. Data from the Joint Monitoring Group of National Universities. Courtesy of JMA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Isopleth map of maximum pumice clast sizes from the explosion at Unzen on 11 June at 2359. Data from Kyushu and Kagoshima universities. Courtesy of JMA.

Continued activity. Dome extrusion and pyroclastic-flow formation continued at Unzen as of 24 June. On 14 June, the dome was 100 m wide and 50 m high; it grew another 20 m in height by 16 June. Cracks in the dome emitted gas to 200-300 m height, and periodic explosions produced 1-km-high ash columns. The evacuation area was again expanded on 17 June, bringing the total number of evacuees to more than 10,000.

Actions by Coordinating Committee. The following is from Daisuke Shimozuru, Chairman of the Coordinating Committee for the Prediction of Volcanic Eruptions. "The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) dispatched an observation team in mid-October to intensify seismic observation, assisting JMA's local observatory. Early in November, volcanic tremors were observed. We were very worried about an impending eruption, and asked the Ministry for financial aid for observations by university scientists. On 9 November, the Ministry decided to provide financial aid for observations by 6 universities. The university team set up seismic and deformation nets, in cooperation with Shimabara Volcano Observatory of Kyushu Univ." A chronology of Unzen's activity and statements and warnings issued by the Coordinating Committee is shown in table 7 (see following report).

Geologic Background. The massive Unzendake volcanic complex comprises much of the Shimabara Peninsula east of the city of Nagasaki. An E-W graben, 30-40 km long, extends across the peninsula. Three large stratovolcanoes with complex structures, Kinugasa on the north, Fugen-dake at the east-center, and Kusenbu on the south, form topographic highs on the broad peninsula. Fugendake and Mayuyama volcanoes in the east-central portion of the andesitic-to-dacitic volcanic complex have been active during the Holocene. The Mayuyama lava dome complex, located along the eastern coast west of Shimabara City, formed about 4000 years ago and was the source of a devastating 1792 CE debris avalanche and tsunami. Historical eruptive activity has been restricted to the summit and flanks of Fugendake. The latest activity during 1990-95 formed a lava dome at the summit, accompanied by pyroclastic flows that caused fatalities and damaged populated areas near Shimabara City.

Information Contacts: JMA; D. Shimozuru, Tokyo Univ of Agriculture; H. Kamata, GSJ; Public Works Research Institute, Ministry of Construction; K. Uto, USGS; M. Takahashi, SI; Kyodo News Service; The Japan Times; Asahi Shinbun; Yomiuri Shinbun; AP; UPI; Reuters.


Whakaari/White Island (New Zealand) — May 1991 Citation iconCite this Report

Whakaari/White Island

New Zealand

37.52°S, 177.18°E; summit elev. 294 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash emission from new vent; continued deformation

Ash-laden steam emission was reported starting 23 April and continued as of 27 May. An 18 May visit revealed that activity was centered at a newly formed vent in the NE part of 1978/91 Crater (figure 13), near a zone of hot ground first observed on 21 April. Considerable ash accumulation had already occurred in the surrounding area.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. Sketch map of White Island on 27 May 1991, showing the new May 91 Vent. Dots mark deformation bench marks. Contour interval, 40 m. Courtesy of DSIR.

During 27May fieldwork, the new vent (named May 91) almost continuously (>=1 pulse/second) emitted a column of gas and minor ash 500-600 m high, depositing dry material, plus some moist sub-millimeter aggregates. The vent, against the NE crater wall, was surrounded by a tuff cone 35-40 m in diameter and 8-10 m high, but no ballistic ejecta were visible. Orca and TV1 Craters quietly emitted weak steam.

Up to 95 mm of ash had accumulated since 21 May at a site 125 m SSE of May 91 vent, of which at least 25 mm was from the new vent. Tephra had infilled the small lake in the vicinity of R.F. Vent (near the SE wall of 1978/90 Crater), and small mudflows traveled across the crater floor. Ash contained a high proportion of fresh material, but lacked vesiculated clasts.

Little change was observed at the 40-45-m-deep collapse pit NW of formerly active Donald Duck Crater. Two passages (20-30 m wide) led from the pit; one connected to Donald Duck Crater (to the SE), and the other headed at least 50-60 m N towards Noisy Nellie. The SE passage contained large sulfur stalactites and stalagmites.

Deformation measurements on 27 May showed that subsidence centered at Donald Mound and Noisy Nellie continued, but at lower rates than the last measurements on 13 February. Minor uplift was measured ~200 m S of Donald Mound.

Seismicity (typically small A- and B-type earthquakes) remained at low levels since 21 April, with periods of 2-3 days without recorded events. One uncharacteristically large E-type event, similar to an event preceding the formation of TV1 Crater (BGVN 15:09) was recorded at 0538 on 23 May. Weak low-frequency tremor has been recorded since 10 May.

Geologic Background. The uninhabited Whakaari/White Island is the 2 x 2.4 km emergent summit of a 16 x 18 km submarine volcano in the Bay of Plenty about 50 km offshore of North Island. The island consists of two overlapping andesitic-to-dacitic stratovolcanoes. The SE side of the crater is open at sea level, with the recent activity centered about 1 km from the shore close to the rear crater wall. Volckner Rocks, sea stacks that are remnants of a lava dome, lie 5 km NW. Descriptions of volcanism since 1826 have included intermittent moderate phreatic, phreatomagmatic, and Strombolian eruptions; activity there also forms a prominent part of Maori legends. The formation of many new vents during the 19th and 20th centuries caused rapid changes in crater floor topography. Collapse of the crater wall in 1914 produced a debris avalanche that buried buildings and workers at a sulfur-mining project. Explosive activity in December 2019 took place while tourists were present, resulting in many fatalities. The official government name Whakaari/White Island is a combination of the full Maori name of Te Puia o Whakaari ("The Dramatic Volcano") and White Island (referencing the constant steam plume) given by Captain James Cook in 1769.

Information Contacts: B. Scott and B. Houghton, DSIR Geology & Geophysics, Rotorua; J. Cole, Univ of Canterbury, Christchurch.

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements  Obituaries

Misc Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subject.

Additional Reports  False Reports