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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Intermittent gas-and-steam emissions and thermal anomalies during June-November 2019

Kerinci (Indonesia) Intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes during June-early November 2019

Bezymianny (Russia) Lava dome growth, ongoing thermal anomalies, moderate gas-steam emissions, June-November 2019

Mayon (Philippines) Gas-and-steam plumes and summit incandescence during May-October 2019

Merapi (Indonesia) Low-volume dome growth continues during April-September 2019 with rockfalls and small block-and-ash flows

Manam (Papua New Guinea) Significant eruption on 28 June produced an ash plume up to 15.2 km and pyroclastic flows

Tangkuban Parahu (Indonesia) Phreatic eruption on 27 July followed by intermittent explosions through to 17 September 2019

Sheveluch (Russia) Frequent ash explosions and lava dome growth continue through October 2019

Piton de la Fournaise (France) Three brief eruptive events in July, August, and October 2019

Agung (Indonesia) Quiet returns after explosions on 10 and 13 June 2019

Copahue (Chile-Argentina) New ash emissions begin in early August; intermittent and ongoing through October 2019

Turrialba (Costa Rica) Activity diminishes during March-October 2019, but small ash emissions continue



Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent gas-and-steam emissions and thermal anomalies during June-November 2019

Bagana volcano is found in a remote portion of central Bougainville Island in Papua New Guinea. The most recent eruptive phase that began in early 2000 has produced ash plumes and thermal anomalies (BGVN 44:06, 50:01). Activity has remained low between January-July 2019 with rare thermal anomalies and occasional steam plumes. This reporting period updates information for June-November 2019 and includes thermal anomalies and intermittent gas-and-steam emissions. Thermal data and satellite imagery are the primary sources of information for this report.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed an increased number of thermal anomalies within 5 km from the summit beginning in late July-early August (figure 38). Two Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showed faint, roughly linear thermal anomalies, indicative of lava flows trending EW and NS on 7 July 2019 and 6 August, respectively (figure 39). Weak thermal hotspots were briefly detected in late September-early October after a short hiatus in September. No thermal anomalies were recorded in Sentinel-2 past August due to cloud cover; however, gas-and-steam emissions were visible on 7 July and in September (figures 39, 40, and 41).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. Thermal anomalies near the crater summit at Bagana during February-November 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) increased in frequency and power in early August. A small cluster was detected in early October after a brief pause in activity in early September. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showing small thermal anomalies at Bagana between July-August 2019. Left: A very faint thermal anomaly and a gas-and-steam plume is seen on 7 July 2019. Right: Two small thermal anomalies are faintly seen on 6 August 2019. Both Sentinel-2 satellite images with "Atmospheric penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. A gas-and-steam plume rising from the summit of Bagana on 18 September 2019. Courtesy of Brendan McCormick Kilbride (University of Manchester).

The Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) scientific team partnered with the Rabaul Volcano Observatory and the Bougainville Disaster Office to observe activity at Bagana and collect gas data using drone technology during two weeks of field work in mid-September 2019. For this field work, the major focus was to understand the composition of the volcanic gas emitted at Bagana and measure the concentration of these gases. Since Bagana is remote and difficult to climb, research about its gas emissions has been limited. The recent advancements in drone technology has allowed for new data collection at the summit of Bagana (figure 41). Most of the emissions consisted of water vapor, according to Brendan McCormick Kilbride, one of the volcanologists on this trip. During 14-19 September there was consistently a strong gas-and-steam plume from Bagana (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Degassing plumes seen from drone footage 100 m above the summit of Bagana. Top: Zoomed out view of the summit of Bagana degassing. Bottom: Closer perspective of the gases emitted from Bagana. Courtesy of Kieran Wood (University of Bristol) and the Bristol Flight Laboratory.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Photos of gas-and-steam plumes rising from Bagana between 14-19 September 2019. Courtesy of Brendan McCormick Kilbride (University of Manchester).

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Brendan McCormick Kilbride, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, United Kingdom (URL: https://www.research.manchester.ac.uk/portal/brendan.mccormickkilbride.html, Twitter: https://twitter.com/BrendanVolc); Kieran Wood, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1QU, United Kingdom (URL: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/engineering/people/kieran-t-wood/index.html, Twitter: https://twitter.com/DrKieranWood, video posted at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A7Hx645v0eU); University of Bristol Flight Laboratory, Bristol BS8 1QU, United Kingdom (Twitter: https://twitter.com/UOBFlightLab).


Kerinci (Indonesia) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kerinci

Indonesia

1.697°S, 101.264°E; summit elev. 3800 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes during June-early November 2019

Kerinci, located in Sumatra, Indonesia, is a highly active volcano characterized by explosive eruptions with ash plumes and gas-and-steam emissions. The most recent eruptive episode began in April 2018 and included intermittent explosions with ash plumes. Volcanism continued from June-November 2019 with ongoing intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes. The primary source of information for this report comes from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), and MAGMA Indonesia.

Brown- to gray-colored ash clouds drifting in different directions were reported by PVMBG, the Darwin VAAC, and MAGMA Indonesia between June and early November 2019. Ground observations, satellite imagery, and weather models were used to monitor the plume, which ranged from 4.3 to 4.9 km altitude, or about 500-1,100 m above the summit. On 7 June 2019 at 0604 a gray ash emission rose 800 m above the summit, drifting E, according to a ground observer. An ash plume on 12 July rose to 4 km altitude and drifted SW, as determined by satellite imagery and weather models. An eruption produced a gray ash cloud on 31 July that rose to 4.6 km altitude and drifted NE and E, according to PVMBG and the Darwin VAAC (figure 17). Another ash cloud rose up to 4.3 km altitude on 3 August. On 2 September a possible ash plume rose to a maximum altitude of 4.9 km and drifted WSW, according to the Darwin VAAC advisory.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. A gray ash plume at Kerinci rose roughly 800 m above the summit on 31 July 2019 and drifted NE and E. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Brown ash emissions rose to 4.4 km altitude at 1253 on 6 October, drifting WSW. Similar plumes reached 4.6 km altitude twice on 30 October and moved NE, SE, and E at 0614 and WSW at 1721, based on ground observations. On 1-2 November, ground observers saw brown ash emissions rising up to 4.3 km drifting ESE. Between 3 and 5 November the brown ash plumes rose 100-500 m above the summit, according to PVMBG.

Gas emissions continued to be observed through November, as reported by PVMBG and identified in satellite imagery (figure 18). Seismicity that included volcanic earthquakes also continued between June and early November, when the frequency decreased.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showing a typical white gas-and-steam plume at Kerinci on 9 August 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite image with "Atmospheric penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Gunung Kerinci in central Sumatra forms Indonesia's highest volcano and is one of the most active in Sumatra. It is capped by an unvegetated young summit cone that was constructed NE of an older crater remnant. There is a deep 600-m-wide summit crater often partially filled by a small crater lake that lies on the NE crater floor, opposite the SW-rim summit. The massive 13 x 25 km wide volcano towers 2400-3300 m above surrounding plains and is elongated in a N-S direction. Frequently active, Kerinci has been the source of numerous moderate explosive eruptions since its first recorded eruption in 1838.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Bezymianny (Russia) — December 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bezymianny

Russia

55.972°N, 160.595°E; summit elev. 2882 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava dome growth, ongoing thermal anomalies, moderate gas-steam emissions, June-November 2019

The long-term activity at Bezymianny has been dominated by almost continuous thermal anomalies, moderate gas-steam emissions, dome growth, lava flows, and an occasional ash explosion (BGVN 44:06). The volcano is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT. Throughout the reporting period of June to November 2019, the Aviation Colour Code remained Yellow (second lowest of four levels).

According to KVERT weekly reports, lava dome growth continued in June through mid-July 2019. Thereafter the reports did not mention dome growth, but indicated that moderate gas-and-steam emissions (figure 32) continued through November. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, based on analysis of MODIS data, detected hotspots within 5 km of the summit almost every day. KVERT also reported a thermal anomaly over the volcano almost daily, except when it was obscured by clouds. Infrared satellite imagery often showed thermal anomalies generated by lava flows or dome growth (figure 33).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Photo of Bezymianny showing fumarolic activity on 4 July 2019. Photo by O. Girina (IVS FEB RAS, KVERT); courtesy of KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Typical infrared satellite images of Bezymianny showing thermal anomalies in the summit crater, including a lava flow to the WNW. Top: 21 August 2019 with SWIR filter (bands 12, 8A, 4). Bottom: 17 September 2019 with Atmospheric Penetration filter (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny had been considered extinct. The modern volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral edifice built about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Mayon (Philippines) — November 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Mayon

Philippines

13.257°N, 123.685°E; summit elev. 2462 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Gas-and-steam plumes and summit incandescence during May-October 2019

Mayon, located in the Philippines, is a highly active stratovolcano with recorded historical eruptions dating back to 1616. The most recent eruptive episode began in early January 2018 that consisted of phreatic explosions, steam-and-ash plumes, lava fountaining, and pyroclastic flows (BGVN 43:04). The previous report noted small but distinct thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam plumes, and slight inflation (BGVN 44:05) that continued to occur from May into mid-October 2019. This report includes information based on daily bulletins from the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) and Sentinel-2 satellite imagery.

Between May and October 2019, white gas-and-steam plumes rose to a maximum altitude of 800 m on 17 May. PHIVOLCS reported that faint summit incandescence was frequently observed at night from May-July and Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery showed weaker thermal anomalies in September and October (figure 49); the last anomaly was identified on 12 October. Average SO2 emissions as measured by PHIVOLCS generally varied between 469-774 tons/day; the high value of the period was on 25 July, with 1,171 tons/day. Small SO2 plumes were detected by the TROPOMI satellite instrument a few times during May-September 2019 (figure 50).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite imagery of Mayon between May-October 2019. Small thermal anomalies were recorded in satellite imagery from the summit and some white gas-and-steam plumes are visible. Top left: 30 May 2019. Top right: 9 June 2019. Bottom left: 22 September 2019. Bottom right: 12 October 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite images with "Atmospheric penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A) rendering; courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Small SO2 plumes rising from Mayon during May-September 2019 recorded in DU (Dobson Units). Top left: 28 May 2019. Top right: 26 July 2019. Bottom left: 16 August 2019. Bottom right: 23 September 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Continuous GPS data has shown slight inflation since June 2018, corroborated by precise leveling data taken on 9-17 April, 16-25 July, and 23-30 October 2019. Elevated seismicity and occasional rockfall events were detected by the seismic monitoring network from PHIVOLCS from May to July; recorded activity decreased in August. Activity reported by PHIVOLCS in September-October 2019 consisted of frequent gas-and-steam emissions, two volcanic earthquakes, and no summit incandescence.

Geologic Background. Beautifully symmetrical Mayon, which rises above the Albay Gulf NW of Legazpi City, is the Philippines' most active volcano. The structurally simple edifice has steep upper slopes averaging 35-40 degrees that are capped by a small summit crater. Historical eruptions date back to 1616 and range from Strombolian to basaltic Plinian, with cyclical activity beginning with basaltic eruptions, followed by longer term andesitic lava flows. Eruptions occur predominately from the central conduit and have also produced lava flows that travel far down the flanks. Pyroclastic flows and mudflows have commonly swept down many of the approximately 40 ravines that radiate from the summit and have often devastated populated lowland areas. A violent eruption in 1814 killed more than 1,200 people and devastated several towns.

Information Contacts: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), Department of Science and Technology, University of the Philippines Campus, Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines (URL: http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://SO2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Merapi (Indonesia) — October 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Merapi

Indonesia

7.54°S, 110.446°E; summit elev. 2910 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Low-volume dome growth continues during April-September 2019 with rockfalls and small block-and-ash flows

Merapi is an active volcano north of the city of Yogyakarta (figure 79) that has a recent history of dome growth and collapse, resulting in block-and-ash flows that killed over 400 in 2010, while an estimated 10,000-20,000 lives were saved by evacuations. The edifice contains an active dome at the summit, above the Gendol drainage down the SE flank (figure 80). The current eruption episode began in May 2018 and dome growth was observed from 11 August 2018-onwards. This Bulletin summarizes activity during April through September 2019 and is based on information from Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG, the Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology, a branch of PVMBG), Sutopo of Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), MAGMA Indonesia, along with observations by Øystein Lund Andersen and Brett Carr of the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Merapi volcano is located north of Yogyakarta in Central Java. Photo courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. A view of the Gendol drainage where avalanches and block-and-ash flows are channeled from the active Merapi lava dome. The Gendol drainage is approximately 400 m wide at the summit. Courtesy of Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

At the beginning of April the rate of dome growth was relatively low, with little morphological change since January, but the overall activity of Merapi was considered high. Magma extrusion above the upper Gendol drainage resulted in rockfalls and block-and-ash flows out to 1.5 km from the dome, which were incandescent and visible at night. Five block-and-ash flows were recorded on 24 April, reaching as far as 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage. The volume of the dome was calculated to be 466,000 m3 on 9 April, a slight decrease from the previous week. Weak gas plumes reached a maximum of 500 m above the dome throughout April.

Six block-and-ash flows were generated on 5 May, lasting up to 77 seconds. Throughout May there were no significant changes to the dome morphology but the volume had decreased to 458,000 by 4 May according to drome imagery analysis. Lava extrusion continued above the Gendol drainage, producing rockfalls and small block-and-ash flows out to 1.2 km (figure 81). Gas plumes were observed to reach 400 m above the top of the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. An avalanche from the Merapi summit dome on 17 May 2019. The incandescent blocks traveled down to 850 m away from the dome. Courtesy of Sutopo, BNPB.

There were a total of 72 avalanches and block-and-ash flows from 29 January to 1 June, with an average distance of 1 km and a maximum of 2 km down the Gendol drainage. Photographs taken by Øystein Lund Andersen show the morphological change to the lava dome due to the collapse of rock and extruding lava down the Gendol drainage (figures 82 and 83). Block-and-ash flows were recorded on 17 and 20 June to a distance of 1.2 km, and a webcam image showed an incandescent flow on 26 June (figure 84). Throughout June gas plumes reached a maximum of 250 m above the top of the crater

Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. The development of the Merapi summit dome from 2 June 2018 to 17 June 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. Photos taken of the Merapi summit lava dome in June 2019. Top: This nighttime time-lapse photograph shows incandescence at the south-facing side of the dome on the 16 June. Middle: A closeup of a small rockfall from the dome on 17 June. Bottom: A gas plume accompanying a small rockfall on 17 June. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Blocks from an incandescent rockfall off the Merapi dome reached out to 1 km down the Gendol drainage on 26 June 2019. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.

Analysis of drone images taken on 4 July gave an updated dome volume of 475,000 m3, a slight increase but with little change in the morphology (figure 85). Block-and-ash flows traveled 1.1 km down the Gendol drainage on 1 July, 1 km on the 13th, and 1.1 km on the 14th, some of which were seen at night as incandescent blocks fell from the dome (figure 86). During the week of 19-25 July there were four recorded block-and-ash flows reaching 1.1 km, and flows traveled out to around 1 km on the 24th, 27th, and 31st. The morphology of the dome continued to be relatively stable due to the extruding lava falling into the Gendol drainage. Gas plumes reached 300 m above the top of the crater during July.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. The Merapi dome on 30 July 2019 producing a weak plume. Courtesy of MAGMA Indonesia.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 86. Incandescent rocks from the hot lava dome at the summit of Merapi form rockfalls down the Gendol drainage on 14 July 2019. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.

During the week of 5-11 August the dome volume was calculated to be 461,000 m3, a slight decrease from the week before with little morphological changes due to the continued lava extrusion collapsing into the Gendol drainage. There were five block-and-ash flows reaching a maximum of 1.2 km during 2-8 August. Two flows were observed on the 13th and 14th reaching 950 m, out to 1.9 km on the 20th and 22nd, and to 550 m on the 24th. There were 16 observed flows that reached 500-1,000 m on 25-27 August, with an additional flow out to 2 km at 1807 on the 27th (figure 87). Gas plumes reached a maximum of 350 m through the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 87. An incandescent rockfall from the Merapi dome that reached 2 km down the Gendol drainage on 27 August 2019. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Brett Carr was conducting field work at Merapi during 12-26 September. During this time the lava extrusion was low (below 1 m3 per second). He observed small rockfalls with blocks a couple of meters in size, traveling about 50-200 m down the drainage every hour or so, producing small plumes as they descended and resulting in incandescence on the dome at night. Small dome collapse events produced block-and-ash flows down the drainage once or twice per day (figure 88) and slightly larger flows just over 1 km long a couple of times per week.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 88. A rockfall on the Merapi dome, towards the Gendol drainage at 0551 on 20 September 2019. Courtesy of Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory.

The dome volume was 468,000 m3 by 19 September, a slight increase from the previous calculation but again with little morphological change. Two block-and-ash flows were observed out to 600 m on 9 September and seven occurred on the 9th out to 500-1,100 m. Two occurred on the 14th down to 750-900 m, three occurred on 17, 20, and 21 September to a maximum distance of 1.2 km, and three more out to 1.5 km through the 26th. A VONA (Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation) was issued on the 22nd due to a small explosion producing an ash plume up to approximately 3.8 km altitude (about 800 m above the summit) and minor ashfall to 15 km SW. This was followed by a block-and-ash flow reaching as far as 1.2 km and lasting for 125 seconds (figure 89). Preceding the explosion there was an increase in temperature at several locations on the dome. Weak gas plumes were observed up to 100 m above the crater throughout the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 89. An explosion at Merapi on 22 September 2019 was followed by a block-and-ash flow that reached 1.2 km down the Gendol drainage. Courtesy of BPPTKG.

Geologic Background. Merapi, one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes, lies in one of the world's most densely populated areas and dominates the landscape immediately north of the major city of Yogyakarta. It is the youngest and southernmost of a volcanic chain extending NNW to Ungaran volcano. Growth of Old Merapi during the Pleistocene ended with major edifice collapse perhaps about 2000 years ago, leaving a large arcuate scarp cutting the eroded older Batulawang volcano. Subsequently growth of the steep-sided Young Merapi edifice, its upper part unvegetated due to frequent eruptive activity, began SW of the earlier collapse scarp. Pyroclastic flows and lahars accompanying growth and collapse of the steep-sided active summit lava dome have devastated cultivated lands on the western-to-southern flanks and caused many fatalities during historical time.

Information Contacts: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Center for Research and Development of Geological Disaster Technology (URL: http://merapi.bgl.esdm.go.id/, Twitter: @BPPTKG); Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/, Twitter: https://twitter.com/BNPB_Indonesia); Øystein Lund Andersen? (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, URL: http://www.oysteinlundandersen.com); Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, BNPB (Twitter: @Sutopo_PN, URL: https://twitter.com/Sutopo_PN); Brett Carr, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY, USA (URL: https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/user/bcarr).


Manam (Papua New Guinea) — October 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Manam

Papua New Guinea

4.08°S, 145.037°E; summit elev. 1807 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Significant eruption on 28 June produced an ash plume up to 15.2 km and pyroclastic flows

Manam is a frequently active volcano forming an island approximately 10 km wide, located 13 km north of the main island of Papua New Guinea. At the summit are the Main Crater and South Crater, with four valleys down the NE, SE, SW, and NW flanks (figure 57). Recent activity has occurred at both summit craters and has included gas and ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows. Activity in December 2018 prompted the evacuation of nearby villages and the last reported activity for 2018 was ashfall on 8 December. Activity from January through September 2019 summarized below is based on information from the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC thermal alert system, Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI and NASA Aqua/AIRS SO2 data, MIROVA thermal data, Sentinel-2 satellite images, and observations by visiting scientists. A significant eruption in June resulted in evacuations, airport closure, and damage to local crops and infrastructure.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. A PlanetScope image of Manam showing the two active craters with a plume emanating from the South Crater and the four valleys at the summit on 29 August 2019. Image copyright 2019 Planet Labs, Inc.

Activity during January-May 2019. Several explosive eruptions occurred during January 2019 according to Darwin VAAC reports, including an ash plume that rose to around 15 km and dispersed to the W on the 7th. RVO reported that an increase in seismic activity triggered the warning system shortly before the eruption commenced (figure 58). Small explosions were observed through to the next day with ongoing activity from the Main Crater and a lava flow in the NE valley observed from around 0400. Intermittent explosions ejected scoria after 0600, depositing ejecta up to 2 cm in diameter in two villages on the SE side of the island. Incandescence at both summit craters and hot deposits at the terminus of the NE valley are visible in Sentinel-2 TIR data acquired on the 10th (figure 59).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Real-Time Seismic-Amplitude Measurement graph representing seismicity at Manam over 7-9 January 2019, showing the increase during the 7-8 January event. Courtesy of RVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Sentinel-2 thermal infrared (TIR) imagery shows incandescence in the two Manam summit craters and at the terminus of the NE valley near the shoreline on 10 January 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel-Hub Playground.

Another explosion generated an ash plume to around 15 km on the 11th that dispersed to the SW. An explosive eruption occurred around 4 pm on the 23rd with the Darwin VAAC reporting an ash plume to around 16.5 km altitude, dispersing to the E. Activity continued into the following day, with satellites detecting SO2 plumes on both 23 and 24 January (figure 60). Activity declined by February with one ash plume reported up to 4.9 km altitude on 15 February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. SO2 plumes originating from Manam detected by NASA Aqua/AIRS (top) on 23 January 2019 and by Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI on 24 January (bottom). Images courtesy of Simon Carn, Michigan Technological University.

Ash plumes rose up to 3 km between 1 and 5 March, and dispersed to the SE, ESE, and E. During 5-6 March the plumes moved E, and the events were accompanied by elevated seismicity and significant thermal anomalies detected in satellite data. During 19-22 March explosions produced ash plumes up to 4.6 km altitude, which dispersed to the E and SE. Simon Carn of the Michigan Technological University noted a plume in Aqua/AIRS data at around 15 km altitude at 0400 UTC on 23 January with approximately 13 kt measured, similar to other recent eruptions. Additional ash plumes were detected on 29 March, reaching 2.4-3 km and drifting to the E, NE, and N. Multiple SO2 plumes were detected throughout April (figure 61).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. Examples of elevated SO2 (sulfur dioxide) emissions from Manam during April 2019, on 9 April (top left), 21 April (top right), 22 April (bottom left), 28 April (bottom right). Courtesy of the NASA Space Goddard Flight Center.

During 19-28 May the Deep Carbon Observatory ABOVE (Aerial-based Observations of Volcanic Emissions) scientific team observed activity at Manam and collected gas data using drone technology. They recorded degassing from the South Crater and Main Crater (figure 63 and 64), which was also detected in Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI data (figure 65). Later in the day the plumes rose vertically up to 3-4 km above sea level and appeared stronger due to condensation. Incandescence was observed each night at the South Crater (figure 66). The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume on 10 May, reaching 5.5 km altitude and drifting to the NE. Smaller plumes up to 2.4 km were noted on the 11th.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. Degassing plumes from the South Crater of Manam, seen from Baliau village on the northern coast on 24 May 2019. Courtesy of Emma Liu, University College London.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. A strong gas-and-steam plume from Manam was observed moving tens of kilometers downwind on 19 May 2019, viewed here form the SSW at dusk. Photo courtesy of Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. Sentinel-5P/TROPOMI SO2 data acquired on 22 May 2019 during the field observations of the Deep Carbon Observatory ABOVE team. Image courtesy of Simon Carn, Michigan Technological University.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Incandescence at the South Crater of Manam was visible during 19-21 May 2019 from the Baliau village on the northern coast of the island. Photos courtesy of Tobias Fischer, University of New Mexico (top) and Matthew Wordell (bottom).

Activity during June 2019. Ash plumes rose to 4.3 km and drifted SW on 7-8 June, and up to 3-3.7 km and towards the E and NE on 18 June. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite data show hot material around the Main Crater on 24 June (figure 66). On 27 June RVO reported that RSAM (Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement, a measure of seismic activity through time) increased from 540 to over 1,400 in 30 minutes. "Thundering noise" was noted by locals at around 0100 on the 28th. An ash plume drifting SW was visible in satellite images acquired after 0620, coinciding with reported sightings by nearby residents (figure 67). The Darwin VAAC noted that by 0910 the ash plume had reached 15.2 km altitude and was drifting SW. When seen in satellite imagery at 1700 that day the large ash plume had detached and remained visible extending SW. There were 267 lightning strokes detected within 75 km during the event (figure 68) and pyroclastic flows were generated down the NE and W flanks. At 0745 on 29 June an ash plume reached up to 4.8 km.

Villages including Dugulava, Yassa, Budua, Madauri, Waia, Dangale, and Bokure were impacted by ashfall and approximately 3,775 people had evacuated to care centers. Homes and crops were reportedly damaged due to falling ash and scoria. Flights through Madang airport were also disrupted due to the ash until they resumed on the 30th. The Office of the Resident Coordinator in Papua New Guinea reported that as many as 455 homes and gardens were destroyed. Humanitarian resources were strained due to another significant eruption at nearby Ulawun that began on 26 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite data show hot material around the Main Crater and a plume dispersing SE through light cloud cover on 24 June 2019. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Himawari-8 satellite image showing the ash plume rising above Manam and drifting SW at 0840 on 28 June. Satellite image courtesy of NCIT ScienceCloud.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. There were 267 lightning strokes detected within 75 km of Manam between 0729 on 27 June and 0100 on 29 June 2019. Sixty of these occurred within the final two hours of this observation period, reflecting increased activity. Red dots are cloud to ground lightning strokes and black dots are in-cloud strokes. Courtesy of Chris Vagasky, Vaisala Inc.

Activity during July-September 2019. Activity was reduced through July and September. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume to approximately 6 km altitude on 6 July that drifted W and NW, another plume that day to 3.7 km that drifted N, and a plume on the 21st that rose to 4.3 km and drifted SW and W. Diffuse plumes rose to 2.4-2.7 km and drifted towards the W on 29 September. Thermal anomalies in the South Crater persisted through September.

Fresh deposits from recent events are visible in satellite deposits, notably in the NE after the January activity (figure 69). Satellite TIR data reflected elevated activity with increased energy detected in March and June-July in MODVOLC and MIROVA data (figure 70).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. Sentinel-2 thermal infrared images acquired on 12 October 2018, 20 May 2019, and 12 September 2019 show the eruption deposits that accumulated during this time. A thermal anomaly is visible in the South Crater in the May and September images. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Manam during February through September 2019. Increases in activity were detected in March and June-July. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The 10-km-wide island of Manam, lying 13 km off the northern coast of mainland Papua New Guinea, is one of the country's most active volcanoes. Four large radial valleys extend from the unvegetated summit of the conical 1807-m-high basaltic-andesitic stratovolcano to its lower flanks. These "avalanche valleys" channel lava flows and pyroclastic avalanches that have sometimes reached the coast. Five small satellitic centers are located near the island's shoreline on the northern, southern, and western sides. Two summit craters are present; both are active, although most historical eruptions have originated from the southern crater, concentrating eruptive products during much of the past century into the SE valley. Frequent historical eruptions, typically of mild-to-moderate scale, have been recorded since 1616. Occasional larger eruptions have produced pyroclastic flows and lava flows that reached flat-lying coastal areas and entered the sea, sometimes impacting populated areas.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://SO2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Office of the Resident Coordinator, United Nations, Port Moresby, National Capital District, Papua New Guinea (URL: https://papuanewguinea.un.org/en/about/about-the-resident-coordinator-office, https://reliefweb.int/report/papua-new-guinea/papua-new-guinea-volcanic-activity-office-resident-coordinator-flash-2); Himawari-8 Real-time Web, developed by the NICT Science Cloud project in NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology), Japan, in collaboration with JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency) and CEReS (Center of Environmental Remote Sensing, Chiba University) (URL: https://himawari8.nict.go.jp/); Simon Carn, Geological and Mining Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend Drive, Houghton, MI 49931, USA (URL: http://www.volcarno.com/, Twitter: @simoncarn); Chris Vagasky, Vaisala Inc., Louisville, Colorado, USA (URL: https://www.vaisala.com/en?type=1, Twitter: @COweatherman, URL: https://twitter.com/COweatherman); Emma Liu, University College London Earth Sciences, London WC1E 6BS (URL: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/earth-sciences/people/academic/dr-emma-liu); Matthew Wordell, Boise, ID, USA (URL: https://www.matthhew.com/biocontact); Julian Rüdiger, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Saarstr. 21, 55122 Mainz, Germany (URL: https://www.uni-mainz.de/).


Tangkuban Parahu (Indonesia) — October 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Tangkuban Parahu

Indonesia

6.77°S, 107.6°E; summit elev. 2084 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Phreatic eruption on 27 July followed by intermittent explosions through to 17 September 2019

Tangkuban is located in the West Bandung and Subang Regencies in the West Java Province and has two main summit craters, Ratu and Upas (figure 3). Recent activity has largely consisted of phreatic explosions and gas-and-steam plumes at the Ratu crater. Prior to July 2019, the most recent activity occurred in 2012-2013, ending with a phreatic eruption on 5 October 2013 (BGVN 40:04). Background activity includes geothermal activity in the Ratu crater consisting of gas and steam emission (figure 4). This area is a tourist destination with infrastructure, and often people, overlooking the active crater. This report summarizes activity during 2014 through September 2019 and is based on official agency reports. Monitoring is the responsibility of Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Map of Tangkuban Parahu showing the Sunda Caldera rim and the Ratu, Upas, and Domas craters. Basemap is the August 2019 mosaic, copyright 2019 Planet Labs, Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Background activity at the Ratu crater of Tangkuban Parahu is shown in these images from 1 May 2012. The top image is an overview of the crater and the bottom four images show typical geothermal activity. Copyrighted photos by Øystein Lund Andersen, used with permission.

The first reported activity in 2014 consisted of gas-and-steam plumes during October-December, prompting PVMBG to increase the alert level from I to II on 31 December 2014. These white plumes reached a maximum of 50 m above the Ratu crater (figure 5) and were accompanied by elevated seismicity and deformation. This prompted the implementation of an exclusion zone with a radius of 1.5 km around the crater. The activity decreased and the alert level was lowered back to I on 8 January 2015. There was no further reported activity from January 2015 through mid-2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Changes at the Ratu crater of Tangkuban Parahu during 25 December 2014 to 8 January 2015. Rain water accumulated in the crater in December and intermittent gas-and-steam plumes were observed. Courtesy of PVMBG (8 January 2015 report).

From 27 June 2019 an increase in activity was recorded in seismicity, deformation, gas chemistry, and visual observations. By 24 July the responsible government agencies had communicated that the volcano could erupt at any time. At 1548 on 26 July a phreatic (steam-driven) explosion ejected an ash plume that reached 200 m; a steam-rich plume rose to 600 m above the Ratu crater (figures 6, and 7). People were on the crater rim at the time and videos show a white plume rising from the crater followed by rapid jets of ash and sediment erupting through the first plume. Deposition of eruption material was 5-7 cm thick and concentrated within a 500 m radius from the point between the Rata and Upas craters, and wider deposition occurred within 2 km of the crater (figures 8 and 9). According to seismic data, the eruption lasted around 5 minutes and 30 seconds (figure 10). Videos show several pulses of ash that fell back into the crater, followed by an ash plume moving laterally towards the viewers.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. These screenshots are from a video taken from the Ratu crater rim at Tangkuban Parahu on 26 July 2019. Initially there is a white gas-and-steam plume rising from the crater, then a high-velocity black jet of ash and sediment rises through the plume. This video was widely shared across multiple social media platforms, but the original source could not be identified.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. The ash plume at Tangkuban Parahu on 26 July 2019. Courtesy of BNPB.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 8. Volcanic ash and lapilli was deposited around the Ratu crater of Tangkuban Parahu during a phreatic eruption on 26 July 2019. Note that the deposits have slumped down the window and are thicker than the actual ashfall. Courtesy of BNPB.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 9. Ash was deposited on buildings that line the Ratu crater at Tangkuban Parahu during a phreatic eruption on 26 July 2019. Photo courtesy of Novrian Arbi/via Reuters.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 10. A seismogram showing the onset of the 26 July 2019 eruption of Tangkuban Parahu and the elevated seismicity following the event. Courtesy of PVMBG via Øystein Lund Andersen.

On 27 July, the day after the eruption, Øystein Lund Andersen observed the volcano using a drone camera, operated from outside the restricted zone. Over a period of two hours the crater produced a small steam plume; ashfall and small blocks from the initial eruption are visible in and around the crater (figure 11). The ashfall is also visible in satellite imagery, which shows that deposition was restricted to the immediate vicinity to the SW of the crater (figure 12).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 11. Photos of the Ratu crater of Tangkuban Parahu on 27 July 2019, the day after a phreatic eruption. A small steam plume continued through the day. Courtesy of Øystein Lund Andersen.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 12. PlanetScope satellite images showing the Ratu crater of Tangkuban Parahu before (17 July 2019) and after (28 July 2019) the explosion that took place on 26 July 2019. Natural color PlanetScope Imagery, copyright 2019 Planet Labs, Inc.

Another eruption occurred at 2046 on 1 August 2019 and lasted around 11 minutes, producing a plume up to 180 m above the vent. Additional explosions occurred at 0043 on 2 August, lasting around 3 minutes according to seismic data, but were not observed. Explosions continued to be recorded at 0145, 0357, and 0406 at the time of the PVMBG report when the last explosion was ongoing, and a photo shows an explosion at 0608 (figure 13). The explosions produced plumes that reached between 20 and 200 m above the vent. Due to elevated activity the Alert Level was increased to II on 2 August. Ash emission continued through the 4th. During 5-11 August events ejecting ash continued to produce plumes up to 80 m, and gas-and-steam plumes up to 200 m above the vent. Ashfall was localized around Ratu crater. The following week, 12-18 August, activity continued with ash and gas-and-steam plumes reaching 100-200 m above the vent. During 19-25 August, similar activity sent ash to 50-180 m, and gas-and-steam plumes to 200 m. A larger phreatic explosion occurred at 0930 on 31 August with an ash plume reaching 300 m, and a gas-and-steam plume reaching 600 m above the vent, depositing ash and sediment around the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 13. A small ash plume below a white gas-and-steam plume erupting from the Ratu crater of Tangkuban Parahu on 2 August 2019 at 0608. Courtesy of PVBMG (2 August 2019 report).

In early September activity consisted of gas-and-steam plumes up to 100-180 m above the vent with some ash plumes observed (figure 14). Two larger explosions occurred at 1657 and 1709 on 7 September with ash reaching 180 m, and gas-and-steam up to 200 m above the vent. Ash and sediment deposited around the crater. Due to strong winds to the SSW, the smell of sulfur was reported around Cimahi City in West Bandung, although there was no detected increase in sulfur emissions. A phreatic explosion on 17 September produced an ash plume to 40 m and a steam plume to 200 m above the crater. Weak gas-and-steam emissions reaching 200 m above the vent continued through to the end of September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 14. A phreatic explosion at Tangkuban Parahu in the Ratu crater at 0724 on 4 September 2019, lasting nearly one minute. The darker ash plume reached around 100 m above the vent. Courtesy of PVGHM (4 September 2019 report).

Geologic Background. Gunung Tangkuban Parahu is a broad shield-like stratovolcano overlooking Indonesia's former capital city of Bandung. The volcano was constructed within the 6 x 8 km Pleistocene Sunda caldera, which formed about 190,000 years ago. The volcano's low profile is the subject of legends referring to the mountain of the "upturned boat." The Sunda caldera rim forms a prominent ridge on the western side; elsewhere the rim is largely buried by deposits of the current volcano. The dominantly small phreatic eruptions recorded since the 19th century have originated from several nested craters within an elliptical 1 x 1.5 km summit depression.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Øystein Lund Andersen (Twitter: @OysteinLAnderse, https://twitter.com/OysteinLAnderse, URL: https://www.oysteinlundandersen.com/tangkuban-prahu/tangkuban-prahu-volcano-west-java-one-day-after-the-26th-july-phreatic-eruption/); Reuters (URL: https://www.reuters.com/news/picture/editors-choice-pictures-idUSRTX71F3E).


Sheveluch (Russia) — November 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sheveluch

Russia

56.653°N, 161.36°E; summit elev. 3283 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent ash explosions and lava dome growth continue through October 2019

After a lull in activity at Sheveluch, levels intensified again in mid-December 2018 and remained high through April 2019, with lava dome growth, strong explosions that produced ash plumes, incandescent lava flows, hot avalanches, numerous thermal anomalies, and strong fumarolic activity (BGVN 44:05). This report summarizes activity between May and October 2019. The volcano is monitored by the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT).

According to KVERT, explosive activity continued to generate ash plumes during May-October 2019 (table 13). Strong fumarolic activity, incandescence and growth of the lava dome, and hot avalanches accompanied this process. There were also reports of plumes caused by re-suspended ash rather than new explosions. Plumes frequently extended a few hundred kilometers downwind, with the longest ones remaining visible in imagery as much as 1,000-1,400 km away. One of the larger explosions, on 1 October (figure 52), also generated a pyroclastic flow. Some of the stronger explosions sent the plume to an altitude of 10-11 km, or more than 7 km above the summit. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale) throughout the reporting period, except for several hours on 6 October when it was raised to Red (the highest level).

Table 13. Explosions and ash plumes at Sheveluch during May-October 2019. Dates and times are UTC, not local. Data courtesy of KVERT.

Dates Plume altitude (km) Drift Distance and Direction Remarks
30 Apr-02 May 2019 -- 200 km SE Resuspended ash.
03-10 May 2019 -- 50 km SE, SW Gas-and-steam plumes containing some ash.
13 May 2019 -- 16 km SE Resuspended ash.
11-12 Jun 2019 -- 60 km WNW Explosions and hot avalanches seen in video and satellite images.
24, 27 Jun 2019 4.5 E, W Ash plumes.
05 Aug 2019 2.5 40 km NW Diffuse ash plume.
25 Aug 2019 4.5-5 500 km NW Ash plumes.
29 Aug 2019 10 Various; 550 km N Explosions at 1510 produced ash plumes.
30 Aug 2019 7-7.5 50 km SSE Explosions at 1957 produced ash plumes.
03 Sep 2019 5.5 SE --
02-03, 05 Sep 2019 10 660 km SE Ash plumes seen in satellite images.
05 Sep 2019 -- -- Resuspended ash.
11-12 Sep 2019 -- 250 km ESE Resuspended ash plumes. Satellite and webcam data recorded ash emissions and a gas-and-steam plume with some ash drifting 50 km ESE on 12 Sep.
12-15, 17, 19 Sep 2019 -- 200 km SW, SE, NE Ash plumes.
20-21, 23, 26 Sep 2019 7 580 km ESE Explosions produced ash plumes.
29 Sep, 01-02 Oct 2019 9 1,400 km SE, E Explosions produced ash plumes. Notable pyroclastic flow traveled SE on 1 Oct.
04 Oct 2019 -- 170 km E Resuspended ash.
06 Oct 2019 10 430 km NE; 1,080 km ENE Ash plumes. Aviation Color Code raised to Red for several hours.
08 Oct 2019 -- 170 km E Resuspended ash.
06, 09 Oct 2019 6.5-11 1,100 km E --
11-13, 15 Oct 2019 6.5-7 620 km E, SE Explosions produced ash plumes.
16-17 Oct 2019 -- 125 km E Resuspended ash.
19-20 Oct 2019 -- 110 km SE Resuspended ash.
21 Oct 2019 10-11 1,300 km SE Explosions produced ash plumes.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. An explosion of Sheveluch on 1 October 2019. A pyroclastic flow was also reported by KVERT this day. Courtesy of Yu. Demyanchuk, IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Numerous thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were observed every month. Consistent with this, the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system recorded thermal anomalies almost daily. According to KVERT, a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during the entire reporting period, although cloudy weather sometimes obscured observations.

Geologic Background. The high, isolated massif of Sheveluch volcano (also spelled Shiveluch) rises above the lowlands NNE of the Kliuchevskaya volcano group. The 1300 km3 volcano is one of Kamchatka's largest and most active volcanic structures. The summit of roughly 65,000-year-old Stary Shiveluch is truncated by a broad 9-km-wide late-Pleistocene caldera breached to the south. Many lava domes dot its outer flanks. The Molodoy Shiveluch lava dome complex was constructed during the Holocene within the large horseshoe-shaped caldera; Holocene lava dome extrusion also took place on the flanks of Stary Shiveluch. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred during the Holocene, making it the most vigorous andesitic volcano of the Kuril-Kamchatka arc. Widespread tephra layers from these eruptions have provided valuable time markers for dating volcanic events in Kamchatka. Frequent collapses of dome complexes, most recently in 1964, have produced debris avalanches whose deposits cover much of the floor of the breached caldera.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Piton de la Fournaise (France) — November 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Piton de la Fournaise

France

21.244°S, 55.708°E; summit elev. 2632 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Three brief eruptive events in July, August, and October 2019

Short pulses of intermittent eruptive activity have been common at Piton de la Fournaise, the large basaltic shield volcano on La Réunion Island in the western Indian Ocean, for several thousand years. Over the last 20 years effusive basaltic eruptions have occurred on average twice per year. The activity is characterized by lava fountains and lava flows, and occasional explosive eruptions that shower blocks over the summit area and produce ash plumes. Almost all of the recent activity has occurred within the Enclos Fouqué caldera around the flanks of the central cone which has the Dolomieu Crater at its summit, although past eruptions in 1977, 1986, and 1998 have occurred at vents outside the caldera. Two eruptive episodes were reported during January-June 2019; from 18 February to 10 March, and from 11 to 13 June (BGVN 44:07). Three episodes during July-October 2019 are covered in this report, with information provided primarily by the Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF) as well as satellite instruments.

Three brief eruptive episodes took place during July-October 2019. In each case, slow ground inflation in the weeks leading up to the eruption was followed by sudden inflation at the time of the fissure opening and lava flow event. This was followed by a resumption of inflation days or weeks later. The first event took place during 29-30 July and consisted of three fissures opening on the N flank of the Dolomieu cone. It lasted for less than 24 hours, and the maximum flow length was about 730 m. The second event began on 11 August with two fissures opening on the S flank of the Dolomieu cone. The flows traveled downhill almost 3 km; activity ended on 15 August. Two new fissures opened during 25-27 October on the SSE flank of the cone; one was active only briefly while the second created a 3.6-km-long flow that stopped a few hundred meters before the major highway. The sudden surges of thermal energy from the eruptions are clearly visible in the MIROVA thermal data (figure 182). Each of the eruptive episodes was also accompanied by SO2 emissions that were detected by satellite instruments (figure 183).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 182. Three eruptive events took place at Piton de la Fournaise during July-October 2019 and appear as spikes in thermal activity during 29-30 July, 11-15 August, and 25-27 October. Additional events in late February-early March and mid-June are also visible in this MIROVA graph of thermal energy from 12 December 2018 through October 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 183. Sulfur dioxide emissions were measured from Piton de la Fournaise during each of the eruptive events that occurred in July (top left), August (top right and bottom left), and October (bottom right) 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Activity during July 2019. The last eruption, a series of flows from several fissures on the SSE flank of Dolomieu Crater near the crater rim (at the center of the Enclos Fouqué caldera), lasted from 11 to 13 June 2019 (figure 184). Ground deformation after the eruption indicated renewed inflation of the edifice which had been ongoing since May. OVPF reported an increase in seismicity beginning on 21 June which continued throughout July; the earthquakes were located near the NW rim of the Dolomieu Crater and on its NW flank. Four centimeters of elongation were recorded between two GNSS stations within the Enclos during late June and July prior to the next eruption. The next short-lived eruption took place during 29-30 July, near the location of the seismicity on the NW flank of the Dolomieu cone about 600 m E of the Formica Leo cone. The onset of the eruption was accompanied by rapid ground deformation of about 12-13 cm, recorded at a station that is located west of the Dolomieu Crater (figure 185).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 184. Location maps of lava flows formed during the 11-13 June 2019 (left) and 29-30 July 2019 (right) eruptions at Piton de la Fournaise. Information derived from satellite data via the OI2 platform and aerial photos. Lava flows from June are shown as red polygons and eruptive fissures are shown as white lines. For the July event, the flows are shown in white. Courtesy of OVPF, OI2 and Université Clermont Auvergne (Monthly bulletins of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, June and July 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 185. Horizontal surface displacements indicating inflation of Piton de la Fournaise of about four centimeters were gradual between 14 June and 28 July 2019 (left). Just prior to and at the onset of the eruption on 29 July, a much greater displacement of about 12 cm occurred, associated with the subsurface ascent of magma (right). Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, July 2019).

The late July eruption began around 1200 local time on 29 July 2019 with the opening of three fissures over a distance of about 450 m on the N flank of Dolomieu cone, close to the tourist trail to the summit (figure 186). Lava fountains 20-30 m high were reported. Thermal measurements indicated flow temperatures of about 1,100°C at the base of the lava fountains; samples were collected for analysis (figure 187). Average discharge rates of 11.6 m3s were estimated for the eruption which ended less than 24 hours later, around 0430 on 30 July. The maximum flow length was about 730 m.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 186. Three fissures opened at Piton de la Fournaise on 29 July 2019 and flows traveled 730 m downslope before stopping the next day. The fissures were located on the N flank of Dolomieu cone. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP, Imaz PressRéunion, and Réunion La 1ère (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, July 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 187. Samples were collected for analysis by OVPF from the 29 July 2019 flow at Piton de la Fournaise. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, July 2019).

Eruption of 11-15 August 2019. During 1-10 August there were 33 shallow volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes located under the SE flank of Dolomieu cone; a new eruption began over this area on 11 August (figure 188). Two centimeters of inflation were recorded between the 29-30 July eruption and the 11-15 August event; this was followed by a rapid burst of inflation (tens of centimeters) at the onset of the eruption. Inflation resumed shortly after the eruption ended. The eruption began around 1620 local time on 11 August. Two fissures opened, one at 1,700 m elevation, and one at 1,500 m elevation on the SE flank, about 1,400 m apart (figure 189). Due to the steep slopes in the area, the lava flow quickly reached the "Grande Pentes" area before slowing down at the flatter "Piton Tremblet" area. The farthest traveled flow was cooling at an elevation of about 560 m, about 2 km from the National Road (RN2) on 14 August. The maximum effusion rate was measured at 9 m3/s. The eruption stopped on 15 August 2019 at 2200 local time after more than 6 hours of "piston gas" activity, and a brief pause in flow activity earlier in the day. About 3 million m3of lava were emitted, according to OVPF-IPGP. The flows from the 1,700 m and 1500 m altitude fissures reached maximum lengths of 2.9 and 2.7 km, respectively.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 188. Locations of eruptive fissures that opened on 11 August 2019 on the SE flank of Dolomieu cone at Piton de la Fournaise, and the approximate locations of the associated flows. Courtesy of IVPF-IPGP / OPGC-LMV (Bulletin d'activité du mercredi 14 août 2019 à 15h30, Heure locale).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 189. Lava flows from the Piton de la Fournaise eruption of 11-15 August 2019 emerged from two fissures on the SE flank of Dolomieu cone. The flows were both active on 13 August (left) at around 0930 local time. Visual and thermal images of the lava flows on 14 August at around 2100 local time (center and right) showed them continuing down the steep slope of the cone and spreading out over the shallower area below. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP, LMV-OPGC (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, August 2019).

Activity during September-October 2019. Very little activity was reported during September 2019. Seismicity remained low with only 32 earthquakes reported during the month, and inflation, which had continued after the 11-15 August eruption, stopped at the beginning of September. Inflation resumed on 11 October. Two seismic swarms were recorded during October 2019. The first, on 21 October (207 events), lasted for about 40 minutes, and did not result in an eruption. The second began on 25 October and consisted of 827 events. It was followed by an eruption during 25-27 October located on the SSE flank of the Dolomieu cone. Deformation followed a similar pattern as it had during and prior to the eruptive events of July and August. Inflation of a few centimeters between 11 and 24 October was followed by rapid inflation of about 10 cm at the onset of the new eruption. Inflation resumed again after this eruption as well.

Two fissures opened during the 25-27 October eruption, one at 1,060 m elevation and one at 990 m. The first fissure was no longer active when viewed during an overflight 2.5 hours after it had opened. The flows moved rapidly until reaching the lower slope areas of the Grand Brule about 1.5-2 km downstream of the "Piton Tremblet" area. On 26 October only one vent was active with fountains 10-20 m high (figure 190). The lava discharge rates during the eruption averaged about 14 m3/s. The eruption ended at 1630 local time on 27 October after one hour of "gas piston" activity (figure 191). A total of about 1.8 million m3 of lava was emitted. The flows from the 990 m elevation site reached a maximum length of 3.6 km, and the lava flow front stopped about 230 m before reaching the RN2 National road (figure 192).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 190. On 25 October 2019 the front of the active flow at Piton de la Fournaise had reached the level of the Piton Tremblet by 1700 local time (left). Image by PGHM (Bulletin d'activité du 25 octobre 2019 à 18h00, Heure locale). The following day, the active vent had lava fountains 10-20 m high (right) (Bulletin d'activité du samedi 26 octobre 2019 à 11h00, Heure locale). Courtesy of OVPF/IPGP.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 191. The eruptive site of the 25-27 October 2019 eruption at Piton de la Fournaise had one flow still active on 27 October with 10-20 m high lava fountains (left). The flow front stopped that day a few hundred meters before the National Road (right). Courtesy of OVPF/IPGP (Bulletin d'activité du dimanche 27 octobre 2019 à 12h00, Heure locale).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 192. The location of the 25-27 October 2019 lava flow at Piton de la Fournaise started at the very base of the SSE flank of Dolomieu cone and traveled 3.6 km E towards the Highway and the coast. Basemap from Google Earth, fissures (red) and flows (in white) derived from aerial photos. Courtesy of OVPF-IPGP (Monthly bulletin of the Piton de la Fournaise Volcanological Observatory, October 2019).

Geologic Background. The massive Piton de la Fournaise basaltic shield volcano on the French island of Réunion in the western Indian Ocean is one of the world's most active volcanoes. Much of its more than 530,000-year history overlapped with eruptions of the deeply dissected Piton des Neiges shield volcano to the NW. Three calderas formed at about 250,000, 65,000, and less than 5000 years ago by progressive eastward slumping of the volcano. Numerous pyroclastic cones dot the floor of the calderas and their outer flanks. Most historical eruptions have originated from the summit and flanks of Dolomieu, a 400-m-high lava shield that has grown within the youngest caldera, which is 8 km wide and breached to below sea level on the eastern side. More than 150 eruptions, most of which have produced fluid basaltic lava flows, have occurred since the 17th century. Only six eruptions, in 1708, 1774, 1776, 1800, 1977, and 1986, have originated from fissures on the outer flanks of the caldera. The Piton de la Fournaise Volcano Observatory, one of several operated by the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, monitors this very active volcano.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (OVPF-IPGP), 14 route nationale 3, 27 ème km, 97418 La Plaine des Cafres, La Réunion, France (URL: http://www.ipgp.fr/fr); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Agung (Indonesia) — November 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Agung

Indonesia

8.343°S, 115.508°E; summit elev. 2997 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Quiet returns after explosions on 10 and 13 June 2019

After a large, deadly explosive and effusive eruption during 1963-64, Indonesia's Mount Agung on Bali remained quiet until a new eruption began in November 2017 (BGVN 43:01). Activity continued throughout 2018 with explosions that produced ash plumes rising multiple kilometers above the summit, and the slow effusion of the lava within the summit crater. Increasingly frequent and intense explosions with ash emissions and incandescent ejecta characterized activity during February through May 2019 (BGVN 44:06). Two more explosions in June 2019 produced significant ash plumes; no further explosive activity occurred through October 2019. Information about Agung comes from Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG), also known as the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and multiple sources of satellite data. This report covers the end of the eruption in June and observations through October 2019.

After a large explosion on 31 May 2019, a smaller event occurred on 10 June. Another large explosion with an ash plume that rose to 9.1 km altitude was recorded on 13 June (local time). It drifted hundreds of kilometers before dissipating. No further explosive activity was reported through October 2019, only diffuse white steam plumes rising at most a few hundred meters above the summit. The Alert Level remained at III (of four levels) throughout the period. The record of thermal activity showed an increase during the explosive events of late May and June, but then decreased significantly (figure 57). There was no obvious thermal signature in satellite images that explained the small increase in thermal energy recorded by the MIROVA data at the end of August 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. The thermal energy at Agung increased significantly during the explosive events of late May and early June 2019, and then decreased substantially as seen in this MIROVA graph from 23 January through October 2019. There was no obvious satellite thermal signature to explain the brief increase in thermal energy in late August. Courtesy of MIROVA.

On 31 May 2019 a large explosion produced an ash plume that rose more than 2 km above the summit (BGVN 44:06, figure 56). The Darwin VAAC reported that it split into two plumes, one drifted E at 8.2 km and the other ESE at 6.1 km altitude, dissipating after about 20 hours early on 1 June. A small eruption with an ash plume that rose to 3.9 km altitude was reported the next day by the Darwin VAAC. It was detected in the webcam and pilot reports confirmed that it drifted E for a few hours before dissipating. PVMBG reported gray emissions to 300 m above the peak on 1 June and 100 m above the summit on 2 June. By 6 June the emissions were white, rising only 50 m above the summit. For several subsequent days, the summit was covered in fog with no observations of emissions.

On 10 June 2019 an explosion lasting 90 seconds was reported at 1212 local time; PVMBG noted a gray ash plume 1,000 m above the summit (figure 58). The Darwin VAAC confirmed the emission in satellite imagery and by pilot report; it was moving SW at 4.3 km altitude and then drifted S before dissipating by the end of the day. Early on 13 June local time (12 June UTC) a new explosion that was clearly visible in the webcam produced a large ash plume that drifted W and SW (figure 59). The explosion was recorded on the seismogram for almost four minutes and sent incandescent ejecta in all directions up to 700 m from the summit. The first satellite imagery of the plume reported by the Darwin VAAC suggested the altitude to be 9.1 km. A secondary plume was drifting W from the summit at 5.5 km altitude a few hours later. By six hours after the eruption, the 9.1 km altitude plume was about 90 km SSW of the Denpassar airport and the 5.5 km altitude plume was about 110 km W of the airport. By the time the higher altitude plume dissipated after about 14 hours, it had reached 300 km S of the airport. For the remainder of June, only diffuse white steam plumes were reported, rising generally 30-50 m above the summit, with brief pulses to 150-200 m during 27-29 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. An ash plume rose 1,000 m above the summit of Agung on 10 June 2019. Top image courtesy of Rita Bauer (Volcano Verse), bottom image courtesy of PVMBG (Information on G. Agung Eruption, 10 June 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. A large eruption at Agung at 0138 local time on 13 June 2019 sent an ash plume to 9.1 km altitude and incandescent ejecta 700 m in all directions. Courtesy of Jaime S. Sincioco, screenshot from volcano YT webcam.

Although no further surface activity was reported at Agung during July through October 2019, PVMBG kept the Alert Level at III throughout the period. Only steam plumes were reported from the summit usually rising 50 m before dissipating. Steam emissions rose to 150 m a few times each month. Plumes were reported at 300 m above the summit on 6 July and 15 August. No thermal anomalies were visible in Sentinel 2 satellite images during the period.

Geologic Background. Symmetrical Agung stratovolcano, Bali's highest and most sacred mountain, towers over the eastern end of the island. The volcano, whose name means "Paramount," rises above the SE caldera rim of neighboring Batur volcano, and the northern and southern flanks extend to the coast. The summit area extends 1.5 km E-W, with the high point on the W and a steep-walled 800-m-wide crater on the E. The Pawon cone is located low on the SE flank. Only a few eruptions dating back to the early 19th century have been recorded in historical time. The 1963-64 eruption, one of the largest in the 20th century, produced voluminous ashfall along with devastating pyroclastic flows and lahars that caused extensive damage and many fatalities.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Rita Bauer, Volcano Verse (Twitter @wischweg, URL: https://twitter.com/wischweg/status/1137956367258570752); Jamie S. Sincioco, Philippines (Twitter @jaimessincioco, URL: https://twitter.com/jaimessincioco/status/1139109685796020224).


Copahue (Chile-Argentina) — November 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Copahue

Chile-Argentina

37.856°S, 71.183°W; summit elev. 2953 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


New ash emissions begin in early August; intermittent and ongoing through October 2019

Most of the large edifice of Copahue lies high in the central Chilean Andes, but the active, acidic-lake filled El Agrio crater lies on the Argentinian side of the border at the W edge of the Pliocene Caviahue caldera. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century. The most recent eruptive episode with ash plumes lasted from early June 2017 to early December 2018. After 8 months of quiet, renewed phreatic explosions and ash emissions began in August 2019 and were ongoing through October 2019. This report summarizes activity from January through October 2019 and is based on reports issued by Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), satellite data, and photographs from nearby residents.

Intermittent steam plumes were reported from the El Agrio crater at the summit during January-July 2019, but no ash emissions were seen. An increase in seismicity and changes in the crater lake level during March led SERNAGEOMIN to increase the Alert Level from Green to Yellow at the beginning of April. Fluctuating tremor signals in the first week of August coincided with satellite imagery that showed the appearance of dark material, possibly ash, on the snow around the summit crater. The first thermal anomaly appeared on 3 September and the first clear ash explosions were recorded on 11 September. Eruptive activity was intermittent through the end of the month; a series of larger explosions beginning on 30 September caused SERNAGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level from Yellow to Orange. A period of more intense explosive activity lasted through the first week of October. The larger explosions then ceased, but during the rest of October there were continuing observations of seismicity, ash emissions, and incandescent ejecta, along with multiple thermal anomalies in the summit area.

Observations during January-April 2019. Copahue remained at Alert Level Yellow with a 1-km exclusion radius during January 2019 after ash emission in December 2018. Ongoing degassing was reported with white plumes from El Agrio crater rising to 355 m (figure 25). The Alert Level was lowered to Green at the end of the month, and the exclusion radius was reduced to 500 m, although intermittent low-level seismicity in the region continued. SERNAGEOMIN reported a M 3.2 earthquake about 10 km NE of the summit, 2 km deep, on 29 January 2019. The acidic lake inside El Agrio crater was quiet at the end of the month (figure 26).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Degassing of steam from Copahue on 10 and 17 (inset) January 2019. Courtesy of OPTIC Neuquén (10 January) and SERNAGEOMIN (17 January).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. El Agrio crater at Copahue on 31 January 2019. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.

Steam plumes occasionally rose to 180 m above the crater during February 2019. A swarm of 117 volcano-tectonic (VT) seismic events on 22-23 February 2019 was located about 14 km NE of the volcano, with the largest events around a M 3.5. Steam plumes rose to about 280 m above the crater during March. SERNAGEOMIN noted an increase in seismicity during the month, and a decrease in the lake level within El Agrio crater. This led them to increase the Alert Level to Yellow (second on a four-level scale) at the beginning of April. Emissions remained minimal during April (figure 27); an 80 m high steam plume was reported on 4 April. The lake level continued to fall, based on satellite imagery, and a M 3.1 earthquake was reported on 29 April located about 10 km NE of the summit about 10 km deep.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. Clear skies revealed no activity from the summit of Copahue on 7 or April 2019. The volcano was quiet throughout the month, although the Alert Level remained at Yellow. Image taken near Caviahue, 10 km E in Argentina. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.

Observations during May-July 2019. Sporadic episodes of low-altitude steam plume degassing were noted during May 2019, but otherwise very little surface activity was reported (figure 28). On 13 May, a steam plume reached 160 m above the crater rim, and on 28 May, the tallest plume rose 200 m above the crater. Hybrid-type earthquakes were recorded early in the month, followed by a slow increase in the amplitude of the tremor signal. Seismicity increased slightly during the second half of the month with activity concentrated closer to the summit crater. A weak SO2 plume was recorded by satellite instruments on 23 May. The level of the lake began increasing during the second half of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. No surface activity was visible at Copahue on 5 May 2019, but seismicity increased slowly during the month. Image taken near Caviahue. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.

SERNAGEOMIN reported tremor signals with fluctuating amplitude throughout June 2019. Repeated episodes of low-altitude white degassing occurred around the El Agrio crater. On 7 June, a 300 m plume was observed above the crater; the level of the crater lake was variable. On 17 June a 400-m-tall white plume was observed above the crater. Seismicity, although low, increased during the second half of the month. Multiple episodes of low-altitude white degassing occurred around the active crater all during July 2019 (figure 29). On 9 July a plume rose about 450 m above the crater. On 16 July a white plume rose 250 m above the crater. SENAGEOMIN noted a rise in the rate of seismicity during the first half of the month; the tremor signal continued with fluctuating amplitude. Satellite instruments detected small SO2 plumes on 4 and 9 July (figure 30).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. A steam plume rose a few hundred meters above the summit of Copahue on 23 July 2019. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. The TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite detected small SO2 plumes at Copahue on 4 and 9 July 2019. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Activity during August-October 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery from 2, 4, 7, and 9 August suggested the ejection of particulate material (figure 31), with dark streaks in the snow extending a few hundred meters E and SE from the crater. Images from the community of Caviahue on 3 and 4 August show distinct discoloration of the snow around the E side of the summit crater (figures 32 and 33). Small but discernible SO2 plumes were detected by satellite instruments on 2, 3, 16, 19, 30, and 31 August. Fluctuating tremor signals continued during August with several episodes of low-altitude white degassing from the El Agrio crater; a white plume on 5 August rose 380 m above the crater. The lake level continued to drop and the Alert Level remained at Yellow.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Sentinel 2 satellite imagery of Copahue from late July and early August 2019 show fresh dark material deposited over the fresh winter snow, suggesting recent ejecta from the El Agrio crater. Top left: The summit was covered with fresh snow on 25 July 2019. Top right: A dark streak extends E then N from the El Agrio crater on 2 August. Bottom left: A streak of dark material trends SE from the crater over the snow on 4 August. Bottom Right: On 7 August a different streak extends E from the crater while fresh snow has covered the earlier streak. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. At sunset on 3 August 2019, darker material was visible on the snow on the E side of the summit of Copahue; a dense steam plume rose from El Agrio crater. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Particulates covered the fresh snow near the summit of Copahue on 4 August 2019, as seen from the community of Caviahue, about 10 km E. A steam plume rose from El Agrio crater. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.

Distinct SO2 plumes were again captured by satellite instruments on 1, 3, and 5-7 September 2019 (figure 34). The first thermal signature in nine months also appeared in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery on 3 September (figure 35). Midday on 9 September, seismometers recorded an increase in the amplitude of a continuous tremor. High clouds prevented clear views of the crater and no ash emissions were observed. Beginning on 11 September, low-energy long-period (LP) events were associated with infrasound signals and low-energy explosions that produced small ash plumes. The largest explosion produced a plume 250 m above the crater. Incandescence and high-temperature ejecta were observed around the emission point. The ash drifted ESE about 3 km. Ten explosions were reported between 11 and 12 September, associated with low-intensity acoustic signals and ash emissions. Plumes reached 430 m above the crater rim on 12 September. Ash deposits on the snow were visible in in Sentinel-2 images on 11 and 13 September, extending about 6 km E from El Agrio crater (figure 35). Images from the ground on 12 September indicated fresh ash on the E flank (figure 36).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Small but distinct SO2 plumes from Copahue were measured by the TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel 5P satellite on 1 and 3 September 2019, and additionally on 5-7 September. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Center.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Sentinel-2 satellite images indicated thermal activity and ash emissions at Copahue on 3, 11, and 13 September 2019. Left: The first thermal anomaly in nine months appeared on 3 September. Middle: An ash streak trended E across the snow from El Agrio crater on 11 September. On 13 September, the streak was a wider cone that extended ESE for about 6 km. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Ash deposits coated snow on the E flank of Copahue on 12 September 2019, while a steam plume drifted SE from the crater, as seen from the community of Caviahue about 10 km E in Argentina. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.

Although fresh snow had covered any ash deposits by 16 September 2019 (figure 37), small thermal anomalies appeared in Sentinel-2 imagery on 16 and 21 September. SO2 plumes were measured by satellite instruments on 21 and 25 September. Photos from Caviahue on 25 September showed ash on the E flank and a steam-and-ash plume drifting NE (figure 38). Ashfall on the snow was visible in satellite imagery on 26 September, and covered a larger area on 28 September; there was also a substantial thermal anomaly that day (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Fresh snow had covered over recent ash emissions at Copahue by 16 September 2019; thermal anomalies were detected in satellite data from the summit crater the same day. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. On a clear 25 September 2019 fresh ash covered snow on the E flank of Copahue, and an ash and steam plume was drifting NE from the El Agrio crater. The mountains are reflected in Lago Caviahue located about 12 km E in Argentina. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Sentinel-2 imagery of Copahue on 28 September showed ashfall in a large area around the summit and a small ash plume (left); a substantial thermal anomaly was also visible within the El Agrio crater (right). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During the late afternoon of 30 September, three high-energy LP earthquakes were reported located 5.8 km NE of the El Agrio crater. They were accompanied by abundant lower energy earthquakes in the same area. The VT earthquakes were equivalent to a M 3.5. Inhabitants of Caviahue (12 km E) reported feeling several of the events; atmospheric conditions prevented observation of the summit. This sudden increase in seismicity prompted SERNGEOMIN to raise the Alert Level to Orange and increase the radius of the area of potential impact to 5 km. Seismicity (VT, LP and tremor earthquakes) continued at a high rate into 1 October. Argentina's geologic hazards and mining agency, Servicio Geologico Minero Argentino (SEGEMAR) also issued a notice of the increased warning level on 30 September (figure 40).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. A dense steam plume rises from the active crater at Copahue in this image looking due E towards Caviahue and Lago Caviahue, 12 km E. The rim of the Caviahue caldera is in the distance. Argentina's SEGEMAR posted this photograph (undated) with their notice of the increase in warning level on 30 September 2019. Courtesy of SEGEMAR.

Cameras near the volcano detected ash plumes associated with explosions around the crater at 0945 on 1 October 2019 which continued throughout the first week of the month. Satellite imagery showed streaks of dark ash over snow trending SE and E and from the summit on 1 and 8 October (figure 41). Five separate explosions were recorded during 1-2 October. Persistent degassing was accompanied by episodes of ash emissions and incandescence at night. Seismicity continued during 2-3 October, but poor weather mostly obscured visual evidence of activity; a few pulses of white and gray emissions were observed. Seismic events were located 5-7 km NE at a depths of 0.7-1.7 km, and continued for several days. Clearer skies on 4 October revealed steam plumes and pulses of ash rising from El Agrio crater. Incandescence was visible at night. A ground-based image showed ash covering the E flank and an ash plume drifting NE down the flank (figure 42). The Buenos Aires VAAC reported weak ash emissions on 4 October moving NE at 3.4 km altitude. The webcam showed continuous ash emission from the summit during 4-5 October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Copahue showed dark streaks trending SE and E from the summit in early October. On 1 October 2019 (left) there was a narrow streak of ash to the SE and a steam plume drifting the same direction. On 8 Octobe0r (right), a wide cone of ashfall covered the E flank, and a plume of gray ash drifted NE over the edge of the deposit. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Gray ash covered areas of Copahue's E flank on 4 October 2019 and an ash plume drifted NE down the flank. Image from Caviahue, about 10 km E. Courtesy of Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue.

White steam plumes with pulses of ash and incandescence at night were observed on 5 and 6 October. Seismic activity decreased on 6 October. The following day, SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level to Yellow and reduced the restricted zone to 1,000 m around the summit crater. While seismicity had decreased, ash emissions continued from low-level pulsating explosions which produced ash plumes that drifted E (figure 43). They observed that the total area to that date affected by ashfall was about 24.5 km2, extending up to 5 km W and 6 km E from the summit. They also noted that a pyroclastic cone about 130 m across had appeared inside the crater. Ash emissions and explosions with incandescent ejecta continued during the second week of October (figure 44). A change in wind direction created a several-kilometer-long streak of ash trending SW from the summit by 13 October; a strong thermal anomaly that day indicated continued activity (figure 45). SO2 plumes were recorded by satellite instruments on 1, 3, 4, and 13 October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Ash and steam drifted E from the summit of Copahue on 7 October 2019, the day that SERNAGEOMIN lowered the Alert Level from Orange to Yellow. Courtesy of SEGEMAR.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Incandescent ejecta was visible at the summit of Copahue overnight on 11 October 2019 in the image from a local webcam. Courtesy of Culture Volcan.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. A new dark streak of ash on snow trended SW from the El Agrio crater at Cophahue on 13 October 2019. The strong thermal anomaly the same day indicated the level of eruptive activity was still high. Natural color image based on bands 4,3, and 2; Atmospheric penetration rendering based on bands 12, 11, and 8a. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Seismicity continued for the rest of October, but no explosions were recorded. Sulfur dioxide emissions were recorded by satellite instruments on 18, 22, 23, and 30 October (figure 46). When weather permitted, constant degassing with episodes of ash emissions from the crater were visible during the day and incandescence appeared at night. Satellite imagery on 18, 23, and 28 October showed substantial ash plumes drifting in different directions from the summit. A large area around the summit crater was covered with dark ash on 18 and 23 October. Fresh snowfall had covered most of the area by 28 October, and the narrow dark streak trending SE underneath the ongoing ash plume was the only surface covered with material (figure 47). Distinct thermal anomalies appeared in satellite images on 16, 18, 23, and 31 October. A number of thermal alerts were recorded by the MIROVA system as well during the second half of the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. The TROPOMI instrument on the Sentinel-5P satellite recorded SO2 emissions from Copahue on 18, 22, 23, and 30 October 2019. Satellite imagery on also showed ash plumes on 18 and 23 October. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. Distinct ash plumes and dark ashfall over snow on 18, 23, and 28 October 2019 at Copahue indicated ongoing eruptive activity (top row) through the end of the month. The large area of ash-covered snow visible on 18 and 23 October was covered with fresh snowfall by 28 October when the dense ash plume drifting SE left only a narrow dark trail of ashfall in the fresh snow underneath (right). Strong thermal anomalies were apparent on 18 and 23 October but obscured by dense ash on 28 October (bottom row). Natural color image based on bands 4, 3, and 2; atmospheric penetration rendering based on bands 12, 11, and 8a. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The highest plume noted by SERNAGEOMIN during the second half of the month rose 1,200 m above the crater on 22 October 2019 (figure 48). The Buenos Aires VAAC reported ash emissions from the summit visible in webcams almost every day in October. On 16 October, an ash plume was seen in satellite imagery moving SE at 3.4 km altitude under mostly clear skies; the webcam showed continuous ash emission. A faint plume was barely seen moving S in satellite imagery at 3.4 km altitude on 18 October; the webcam revealed continuous emission of gases and possible dilute volcanic ash. The VAAC reported ash emissions daily from 18-25 October. Drift directions varied from SE, moving to NE on 21-23 October, and back to E and SE the following days. The altitudes ranged from 3.0 to 4.3 km. On 20 October, the plume extended about 80 km SE. The ash appeared as pulses moving NE on 22 and 23 October at 4.3 km altitude. Emissions reappeared in satellite imagery on 28 and 30-31 October, drifting SE and NE at 3.4-3.7 km altitude; incandescence was visible overnight on 30-31 October from the webcam.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. A plume of ash and steam from Copahue rose 1,200 m above the summit on 22 October 2019 and drifted NE. It was clearly visible from 25 km SW of the volcano in the El Barco Indigenous community of Alto Biobío, Chile, along with ash-covered snow on the SW flank. Courtesy of EveLyN.

Geologic Background. Volcán Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Río Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); OPTIC Neuquén, Oficina Provincial de Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación- Gobierno de la Provincia del Neuquén, Neuquén, Argentina (URL: https://www.neuqueninforma.gob.ar/tag/optic/, Twitter: @OPTIC_Nqn, https://twitter.com/OPTIC_Nqn); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Valentina Sepulveda, Hotel Caviahue, Caviahue, Argentina (URL: https://twitter.com/valecaviahue, Twitter:@valecaviahue); Cultur Volcan, Journal d'un volcanophile, (URL: https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.com, Twitter: @CulturVolcan); EveLyn, Twitter: @EveCaCid (URL: https://twitter.com/EveCaCid/status/1186663015271321601).


Turrialba (Costa Rica) — November 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Turrialba

Costa Rica

10.025°N, 83.767°W; summit elev. 3340 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Activity diminishes during March-October 2019, but small ash emissions continue

This report summarizes activity at Turrialba during March-October 2019. Typical activity similar to that reported in late 2018 and early 2019 (BGVN 44:04) included periodic weak ash explosions and numerous emissions containing some ash. However, during this period activity appeared to diminish with time. Data were provided by weekly reports by the Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA).

According to OVSICORI-UNA, only highly diluted ash emissions were recorded from 22 April to 27 May (note that no reports were available online from the last week of March until 22 April). Weak ash explosions were again noted on 28 July, 4 August, and possibly on 20 October. OVSICORI-UNA reported more explosions or emissions containing ash on 25 and 28 October (table 9).

Table 9. Summary of reported activity at Turrialba, March-October 2019. Cloudy weather sometimes obscured observations. Maximum plume height is above the crater rim. Information courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.

Date Time Max plume height Plume drift Remarks
01 Mar 2019 0444 200 m NE --
02-04 Mar 2019 -- 200-300 m -- Continuous emissions with minor amounts of ash.
09-12 Mar 2019 -- 1,000 m -- Gas plumes containing minor amounts of ash.
16-17 Mar 2019 -- -- -- Frequent and discontinuous emissions, but no visual confirmation due to poor visibility.
20-22 Mar 2019 -- 300 m W, SW Continuous emissions of steam with periodic pulses of diffuse ash; sulfur odor noted in Tierra Blanca de Cartago on 22 March.
23-26 Mar 2019 -- -- -- Steam plumes with low concentration of magmatic gases.
24 Mar 2019 0503 500 m -- Series of four pulses with ash.
31 Mar 2019 0735 -- -- Explosion followed by passive emissions with low concentration of magmatic gases. Seismicity dominated by low-frequency events.
08 Apr 2019 -- -- -- Minor ash emissions.
24 Apr 2019 -- -- -- Diffuse ash emission.
26 Apr 2019 -- -- N Emission with low ash content.
27 Apr 2019 0722 below 100 m -- Weak, brief explosion with ash plume.
04 May 2019 0524 -- -- Emission of very diluted ash.
12-19 May 2019 -- -- -- Passive, short-duration emissions with small amounts of ash occurred sporadically.
19-20 May 2019 -- -- -- Prolonged and intermittent periods of emissions with minor amounts of ash.
28 Jul 2019 1441 -- -- Weak explosion and ash emission after 30 minutes of heavy rain. Inclement weather prevented visual confirmation. Ashfall in La Picada (N) and El Retiro farms.
03-04 Aug 2019 -- -- -- Two small explosions, with some ash in the second.
11 Aug 2019 -- -- -- Weak emission during night, identified by its seismic signal. No ash emission observed.
05 Aug-19 Oct 2019 -- -- -- No ash detected.
20 Oct 2019 2100 -- -- Explosion identified with seismicity; weather conditions prevented visual observation. No ashfall reported.
25 Oct 2019 0400, 0700 -- -- Weak explosion at 0400, with ash. Ash at 0700 not associated with seismic signal, so could be a small intra-crater collapse.
28 Oct 2019 1500 -- -- Weak emission containing ash.

A report from Red Sismologica Nacional (RSN) about the 28 October ash explosion noted that it occurred at 1501 local time and lasted about 5 minutes. There were no reports of ashfall, but the crater webcam captured the small plume rising from the active vent. Incandescence in the active crater continued to be seen on the monitoring cameras.

Geologic Background. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive edifice covers an area of 500 km2. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/); Red Sismologica Nacional (RSN) a collaboration between a) the Sección de Sismología, Vulcanología y Exploración Geofísica de la Escuela Centroamericana de Geología de la Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), and b) the Área de Amenazas y Auscultación Sismológica y Volcánica del Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), Costa Rica (URL: https://rsn.ucr.ac.cr/).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 42, Number 06 (June 2017)

Managing Editor: Edward Venzke

Bezymianny (Russia)

Lava dome extrusion December 2016-April 2017; large ash explosion on 9 March 2017

Chirinkotan (Russia)

Intermittent ash plumes and thermal anomalies June 2013-April 2017, site visit by Russian scientists, August 2015

Dukono (Indonesia)

Frequent explosive eruptions and ash plumes through March 2017

Erebus (Antarctica)

Phonolitic lava lakes remain active during 2011-2016

Fuego (Guatemala)

Ten eruptive episodes with lava flows, ash plumes, and pyroclastic flows during January-June 2016

Nyamuragira (DR Congo)

Large SO2 plumes and intermittent lava lake during 2013-2017

Reventador (Ecuador)

Lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and ash plumes monthly during June 2014-December 2015

Ruiz, Nevado del (Colombia)

Intermittent ash emissions July 2012-December 2015; increased thermal activity October-December 2015

Turrialba (Costa Rica)

Persistent explosions and ash emissions during 2015 and 2016

Unnamed (Tonga)

Plumes of discolored water seen in satellite imagery during 23-28 January 2017



Bezymianny (Russia) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Bezymianny

Russia

55.972°N, 160.595°E; summit elev. 2882 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava dome extrusion December 2016-April 2017; large ash explosion on 9 March 2017

The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) characterized Bezymianny as having weak activity from mid-June 2014 through the end of 2015, including weak or moderate gas-and-steam emissions (figures 17 and 18) and, when not obscured by clouds, weak thermal anomalies (BGVN 41:01). Observations here through May 2017 come from KVERT reports and Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) advisories.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. View of the summit showing fumarolic activity at Bezymianny on 16 September 2014. Photo by Yu. Demyanchuk; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Moderate gas-and-steam activity at Bezymianny on 15 April 2015. Photo by Yu. Demyanchuk; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Activity during 2016. KVERT reported that weak volcanic activity continued into January 2016, with moderate gas-and-steam activity through 12 December 2016. During this time, satellite data by KVERT showed a weak thermal anomaly over the volcano on most days, although on some days KVERT described the volcano as "quiet." Often the volcano was obscured by clouds.

The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 30 July an ash plume rose to an altitude of 3 km and drifted E, an observation based on information from the Yelizovo Airport (UHPP). Weak fumarolic activity continued in late August (figure 19).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. A small, weak, fumarolic plume could be seen rising from Bezymianny on 24 August 2016. Photo by O. Girina; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Based on KB GS RAS (Kamchatka Branch of Geophysical Services, Russian Academy of Sciences) data, KVERT noted that seismicity began to increase on 18 November. The thermal anomaly temperature detected in satellite images also increased on 5 December, and then significantly increased on 13 December, probably caused by lava-dome extrusion. This activity prompted KVERT to raise the Aviation Color Code from Yellow, where it had been since 17 July 2014, to Orange (second highest level).

According to KVERT, a gas-and-steam plume containing a small amount of ash drifted about 118 km W on 15 December. The Tokyo VAAC noted that ash plumes rose as high as 6.1 km that same day. KVERT reported strong gas-and-steam emissions during 16-31 December (figure 20); a gas-and-steam plume drifted about 60 km SW on 18 December. A daily thermal anomaly was detected over the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. A strong gas-and-steam plume was seen rising from Bezymianny on 19 December 2016. Photo by V. Buryi; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

Activity during January-May 2017. According to KVERT, lava-dome extrusion likely continued into January 2017. Strong gas-and-steam emissions continued through 19 January 2017 and a thermal anomaly was detected over the volcano during most days. On 12 January, KVERT noted that activity had gradually decreased after an intensification during 5-24 December 2016, and thus the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow. Thereafter, KVERT characterized the volcano as having moderate gas-steam activity. On 23 February, KVERT reported that the effusive eruption continued and that lava was flowing on the S flank of the lava dome.

On 9 March at about 1330, an explosive eruption occurred (figure 21). Based on webcam observations, at 1454 an ash plume rose to altitudes of 6-7 km and drifted 20 km NE. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Orange. About 30 minutes later, at 1523, an ash plume rose to altitudes of 7-8 km and drifted 60 km NW. KVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Red, the highest level. Satellite data showed a 14-km-wide ash plume drifting 112 km NW at an altitude of 7 km. Later that day a 274-km-long ash plume identified in satellite images drifted NW at altitudes of 4-4.5 km; the majority of the leading part of the plume contained a significant amount of ash. Lava flowed down the NW part of the lava dome. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange. Ash plumes drifted as far as 500 km NW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. The start of an explosive eruption from Bezymianny was captured in this image taken from a webcam video on 9 March 2017. Video from KB GS RAS; courtesy of IVS FEB RAS, KVERT.

KVERT reported that lava continued to advance down the NW flank of the lava dome during 10 March-21 April, and gas-and-steam plumes rose from the crater. A thermal anomaly was visible most days in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow on 25 May. According to a KVERT report on 26 May, the volcano became quiet after the 9 March episode, although strong gas-and-steam emissions and daily thermal anomalies continued.

Thermal anomalies. Thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were almost daily events during January through 2 November 2016, except none were reported in March through 19 May 2016. On many days, multiple pixels were reported (13 pixels on 1 September). The number of events diminished in December (only six days), and except for a brief period during 9-12 March 2017, none were reported after 20 December through at least 26 May 2017.

The Mirova (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, reported several hotspots each month during May-August 2016, with a significant increase in September through early November (figure 22). Numerous hotspots were again reported in December, but only a few in January and February, except for a narrow cluster during the middle of February. In contrast to the MODIS/MODVOLC data, numerous hotspots were reported in March, April, and May 2017. The vast majority of hotspots during the past 12 months were within 5 km of the volcano and were of low power.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Thermal anomalies at Bezymianny recorded by the MIROVA system (log radiative power) for the year ending 5 May 2017. Note stronger frequent activity in the second half of December 2016 and the stronger anomalies associated with the March 2017 activity. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny had been considered extinct. The modern volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral edifice built about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service, Russian Academy of Sciences (KB GS RAS) (URL: http://www.emsd.ru/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Chirinkotan (Russia) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Chirinkotan

Russia

48.98°N, 153.48°E; summit elev. 724 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash plumes and thermal anomalies June 2013-April 2017, site visit by Russian scientists, August 2015

The remote island of Chirinkotan is in the Northern Kuril Islands at the southern end of the Sea of Okhotsk, about 320 km SW of the tip of Kamchatka, Russia. It is an outlier about 40 km NW of the main Kuril Islands Arc. There have been very few historical observations of activity at Chirinkotan, although there is at least one confirmed 19th century observation of lava flows. A short-lived event that resulted in a small, low-level ash plume-and-gas plume was seen in satellite imagery on 20 July 2004 (Neal et al., 2005). Volcanic activity resumed in mid-2013, with intermittent ash plumes, thermal anomalies, and block lava flows reported through April 2017. The volcano is monitored by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) of the Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics (Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science), and aviation alerts are issued by the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

A new eruptive phase began with a likely ash emission on 11 June 2013. Intermittent thermal anomalies and gas-and-steam emissions were reported for the next 12 months, sometimes drifting up to 100 km, usually SE. Renewed thermal anomalies and gas emissions were recorded during clear weather beginning on 21 November 2014. Two ash plumes observed in late July 2015 were the likely sources of fresh ashfall and block lava flows sampled during a visit by Russian geoscientists on 9 August 2015. A gas-and-steam plume on 17 November 2015 was the last activity observed, except for low-level thermal anomalies, until a substantial ash plume was captured in satellite data at 8.8 km altitude over a year later on 29 November 2016. Additional ash plumes were observed in satellite data once in late January, and twice each in March and April 2017.

Activity during May 2013-June 2014. After no reports of activity since July 2004, SVERT observed gas-and-steam emissions in satellite imagery beginning in late May 2013. They raised the Alert Level from Green to Yellow (on the four level Green-Yellow-Orange-Red scale) sometime between 27 May and 10 June. The first likely ash emission was reported on 11 June, followed by a thermal anomaly detected on 13 June. Thermal anomalies continued to be detected by SVERT during June and July 2013. The first MODVOLC thermal alert was reported on 22 July; they were reported monthly after that through 11 December 2013, with several days of multiple-pixel alerts. SVERT also noted thermal anomalies and gas-and-steam emissions during August through December, including plumes drifting 30-60 km SE during 17-19 October, 55-100 km SE during 5-6 November, and more than 50 km SE on 25 November.

From the beginning of January 2014 through early June, persistent thermal anomalies were observed in clear imagery nearly every week by SVERT, along with intermittent steam-and-gas emissions. Several times during March, plumes were observed drifting 80-170 km SE. MODVOLC thermal alerts were reported on 8 February, 4 days in March (four pixels on 8 March), and twice on 27 May. SVERT reported that beginning on 24 May, gas emissions containing ash were detected in satellite images. A decrease in thermal anomalies observed by SVERT led them to lower the Alert Level to Green on 5 June 2014.

Activity during November 2014-July 2015. SVERT raised the Alert Level back to Yellow in late November 2014, citing new thermal anomalies beginning on 21 November followed by intermittent steam-and-gas emissions. A plume was observed drifting 40 km SE on 27 November. A new MODVOLC thermal alert appeared on 4 December. SVERT reported thermal anomalies and diffuse gas-and-steam plumes during December 2014 and January-February 2015. Emissions were detected 3 km above Chirinkotan drifting SE on 5 January 2015. MODVOLC reported two thermal alert pixels on 7 January and one on 10 January.

SVERT briefly lowered the Alert Level to Green between 4 and 20 March when no activity was detected. Thermal anomalies were reported again beginning on 19 March; they were noted weekly along with intermittent gas-and-steam emissions through mid-May when the Alert Level was lowered back to Green again on 19 May.

MODVOLC reported a three-pixel thermal alert on 20 July 2015 (local time). The Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption on 21 July (local time) with an ash plume rising to 3.7 km altitude drifting SE. The plume was observed in satellite imagery for about 2 hours before dissipating. SVERT reported a thermal anomaly and steam-and-gas emissions on 22 July, and the Alert Level was raised to Yellow. Another ash plume was reported by the Tokyo VAAC on 26 July rising to an altitude of 4.6 km and drifting NW for several hours before dissipating.

Expedition during August 2015. Scientists from the Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics (IMGiG) of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences visited Chirinkotan on 9 August 2015. While there, they observed steaming from a recent blocky lava flow near the coast (figure 3), hiked to the summit, and collected data about volcanic and biological activity on the island. A group of researchers climbed to the edge of the summit crater at 600 m elevation, where clouds prevented clear views of the crater (figure 4), however the strong odor of sulfur and noise from fumarolic activity was noted. The scientists sampled the fresh pyroclastic rocks. When the visibility improved, the depth of the crater was observed to be about 150 m; an extrusive dome in the center had a vent on the top emitting gas.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Steam rising from recent lava flow at Chirinkotan that reached the coastline, 9 August 2015. Courtesy of IMGiG (Diary of the Kurils 2015 Expedition, 7-9 August 2015, http://imgg.ru/ru/news/111 ).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 4. Fieldwork at the summit crater rim of Chirinkotan, 9 August 2015. Courtesy of IMGiG. (Diary of the Kurils 2015 Expedition, 7-9 August 2015, http://imgg.ru/ru/news/111 ).

The upper flank of the volcano was strewn with ash and bombs (from 2-3 cm to several meters in diameter). Scientists observed recently buried and charred living vegetation, and nesting birds freshly killed by volcanic ash and bombs, indicating a very recent event (figure 5). The botanists in the research group noted that all of the vegetation on the upper and middle flanks had been killed 2-3 years ago in a major event, likely during the start of the 2013 eruptive cycle. Ash deposits ranged in thickness from a few centimeters near the coast to 8-15 cm near the summit. During a survey of a pyroclastic flow on the SW coast, scientists noted that it was still hot on the surface (40-60°?) and consisted of block lava, bombs, and volcanic ash (figure 6).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 5. Evidence of recent explosive activity at Chirinkotan. Top: recently burned vegetation from a volcanic bomb on the flank. Bottom: living vegetation buried in recent volcanic ash, 9 August 2015. Courtesy of IMGiG (Diary of the Kurils 2015 Expedition, 7-9 August 2015, http://imgg.ru/ru/news/111 ).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Still-hot debris from a block lava flow on Chirinkotan, 9 August 2015. Courtesy of IMGiG (Diary of the Kurils 2015 Expedition, 7-9 August 2015, http://imgg.ru/ru/news/111 ).

Activity during November 2015-April 2017. As a result of the direct observations of the recent eruption on the island, SVERT raised the Alert Level to Orange on 11 August 2015. There were no further reports available from SVERT until 17 November when gas-and-steam emissions were detected, and the Aviation Color Code was reported as Yellow. SVERT reported on 7 December 2015 that the ACC had been lowered to Green. Although SVERT did not report renewed activity from Chirinkotan until it issued a VONA on 29 November 2016 and raised the Alert Level to Yellow, the MIROVA thermal anomaly detection system indicated intermittent low-level anomalies between late May and early October 2016 (figure 7), indicating a heat source on the island.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. MIROVA data of Log Radiative Power at Chirinkotan for the year ending on 31 January 2017 showing a weak but persistent thermal anomaly between late May and early October 2016. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The Tokyo VAAC issued a report of a volcanic ash plume from an eruption on 29 November (local time) 2016. The plume rose to 8.8 km altitude and drifted N. It was observed in satellite imagery for about 9 hours before dissipating. SVERT briefly raised the ACC to Yellow between 29 November and 2 December. They noted that the ash plume was observed drifting 39 km N. A new report of ash emissions came from the Tokyo VAAC on 26 January 2017, with an ash plume at 3.7 km drifting SE observed in the Himawari-8 satellite imagery. SVERT raised the alert level to Yellow on 27 January (UTM) 2017 and also noted ash emissions on 29 January drifting SE to a maximum distance of 105 km. They lowered the Alert Level to Green on 1 February 2017.

A new ash plume was observed by the Tokyo VAAC on 1 March (local time) 2017 at an altitude of 5.5 km. When SVERT raised the Aviation Color Code to Yellow on 2 March, they noted that the plume had drifted 165 km E. They lowered the ACC back to Green on 6 March. The Tokyo VAAC reported a new ash plume at 6.1 km extending SE early on 21 March 2017. SVERT reported the emission at 15 km E of the volcano when they raised the ACC to Yellow a short while later. They noted on 24 March, when they lowered the ACC to Green, that the maximum extent of the ash cloud had been about 50 km SE.

On 31 March 2017, the Tokyo VAAC issued an advisory for an ash plume at 6.7 km altitude drifting E, and SVERT raised the Alert Level to Yellow the next day. They reported the ash plume drifting 165 km NE before dissipating. Another plume on 7 April was observed by the Tokyo VAAC at 3.7 km altitude drifting SE. SVERT reported the plume at 5 km altitude drifting NE. SVERT lowered the ACC to Green on 24 April 2017.

Reference: Neal C A, McGimsey R G, Dixon J, Melnikov D, 2005. 2004 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory. U S Geol Surv, Open-File Rpt, 2005-1308: 1-67.

Geologic Background. The small, mostly unvegetated 3-km-wide island of Chirinkotan occupies the far end of an E-W volcanic chain that extends nearly 50 km W of the central part of the main Kuril Islands arc. It is the emergent summit of a volcano that rises 3000 m from the floor of the Kuril Basin. A small 1-km-wide caldera about 300-400 m deep is open to the SW. Lava flows from a cone within the breached crater reached the shore of the island. Historical eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century. Lava flows were observed by the English fur trader Captain Snow in the 1880s.

Information Contacts: Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Nauki st., 1B, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia, 693022 (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/en/, http://www.imgg.ru/ru/svert/reports); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, (FEB RAS IMGiG), 693 022 Russia, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, ul. Science 1B (URL: http://imgg.ru/ru); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Dukono (Indonesia) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Dukono

Indonesia

1.693°N, 127.894°E; summit elev. 1229 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent explosive eruptions and ash plumes through March 2017

Eruptive activity at Dukono has continued since 1933. As previously reported, ash explosions were frequently observed, and thermal anomalies were intermittent, from September 2011 through July 2014 (BGVN 39:06). Similar activity has continued through March 2017. Monitoring is conducted by the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM) from an observation post 11 km away. The Alert Level has remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), with residents and tourists advised to not approach the crater within a radius of 2 km.

PVMBG reported that in March-April 2015 seismicity remained high and consisted of explosion signals, volcanic earthquakes, and tremor, accompanied by roaring heard at the observation post. A powerful explosion on 23 May 2015 was followed by minor ashfall in areas to the E. During 1-5 July 2015 white-and-gray plumes rose as high as 600 m; minor ashfall was reported in northern areas on 1 July. Ashfall was reported in areas from the Galela District to Tobelo town (NNW) in August 2015 and at the observation post in September. Seismicity fluctuated at high levels, with elevated periods during 15-22 August, 28 August-5 September, and 15-25 October 2015.

As summarized by PVMBG, the period from 1 January to 19 December 2016 exhibited white-and-gray plumes rising as high as 1.2 km above the rim of the Malupang Warirang crater, accompanied by roaring heard at the observation post. The eruption plume height generally fluctuated though, was higher during periods in May and from late November into December; ashfall increased during the periods of higher plume heights, and was noted in villages within 11 km N, NE, and SW. Seismicity remained high.

Nearly daily aviation advisories from the Darwin VAAC (Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre) since July 2014 confirmed the PVMBG reports. As identified in satellite imagery, white and gray ash plumes were seen rising to altitudes of 1.5-4 km from the Malupang Warirang crater, and drifting in various directions for tens to hundreds of kilometers. Data compiled from VAAC reports and summarized by month for April 2016-March 2017 (table 15) reveal plume altitudes between 1.5 and 3.7 km with visible drift distances up to 300 km away.

Table 15. Monthly summary of reported ash plumes from Dukono for April 2016-March 2017. The direction of drift for the ash plume was highly variable. Data from Darwin VAAC and PVMBG.

Month Plume Altitude (km) Plume Drift (km)
Apr 2016 2.1-3 55-250
May 2016 2.1-2.7 65-185
Jun 2016 1.9-2.4 55-130
Jul 2016 1.8-2.4 110-225
Aug 2016 1.5-3.3 130-280
Sep 2016 1.8-3 160-250
Oct 2016 2.1-2.4 215-225
Nov 2016 2.1-3.7 --
Dec 2016 1.7-3 55-305
Jan 2017 1.8-2.7 120-300
Feb 2017 1.8-2.4 120
Mar 2017 1.5-2.7 150

Intermittent thermal anomalies, typically single pixels, were recorded by MODVOLC (table 16) in the months of April and June 2014, January-March 2015, December 2015, and November 2016. MODIS thermal data recorded by the MIROVA system during the year of April 2016-March 2016 (figure 6) showed intermittent low-power anomalies in May and August 2016, and then in every month from October 2016 through March 2017. It should be noted that the MODIS satellite thermal sensors cannot penetrate cloud cover, which is frequent over Dukono much of the year.

Table 16. Thermal anomalies at Dukono based on MODIS data processed by MODVOLC, August 2014-March 2017. Courtesy of Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Date (UTC) Time (UTC) Pixels Satellite
28 Apr 2014 1410 1 Terra
01 Jun 2014 1655 1 Aqua
13 Jun 2014 1715 1 Aqua
14 Jan 2015 1725 1 Aqua
18 Jan 2015 1700 1 Aqua
20 Jan 2015 1645 2 Aqua
21 Jan 2015 1730 2 Aqua
22 Jan 2015 1340 1 Terra
23 Jan 2015 0200 1 Terra
23 Jan 2015 2317 4 Aqua
25 Jan 2015 1705 1 Aqua
01 Feb 2015 1415 1 Terra
01 Feb 2015 1710 1 Aqua
30 Mar 2015 1705 1 Aqua
31 Dec 2015 1345 1 Terra
04 Nov 2016 1700 1 Aqua
Figure (see Caption) Figure 6. Thermal anomalies (Log Radiative Power) detected by MODIS and recorded by the MIROVA system for year ending 5 April 2017. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Vistors to the crater in March 2016 photographed ash rising form an incandescent vent (figure 7). Patrick Marcel reported that "the vents at the bottom of the crater emitted a sustained, extremely noisy jet of gas, steam and ash, and ejected incandescent bombs to up to 500 m height. Some of them landed outside the crater rim." The "You&MeTraveling2" blog posted a trip journal that described a late-August 2016 visit to Dukono, including photos and a video looking down into the crater that showed activity similar to that seen by Marcel in March 2016.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 7. View into Dukono's crater on 12 March 2016. Photo by Patrick Marcel (color adjusted from original); courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

Geologic Background. Reports from this remote volcano in northernmost Halmahera are rare, but Dukono has been one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. More-or-less continuous explosive eruptions, sometimes accompanied by lava flows, occurred from 1933 until at least the mid-1990s, when routine observations were curtailed. During a major eruption in 1550, a lava flow filled in the strait between Halmahera and the north-flank cone of Gunung Mamuya. This complex volcano presents a broad, low profile with multiple summit peaks and overlapping craters. Malupang Wariang, 1 km SW of the summit crater complex, contains a 700 x 570 m crater that has also been active during historical time.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); You&MeTraveling2 (URL: http://youandmetraveling2.com/).


Erebus (Antarctica) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Erebus

Antarctica

77.53°S, 167.17°E; summit elev. 3794 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Phonolitic lava lakes remain active during 2011-2016

The existence of an anorthoclase phonolite lava lake in the summit crater of Mount Erebus was first reported in 1972, and it has been thought to be continuously active since that time. Antarctica's best known volcano is located on Ross Island, 90 km E of the continent, offshore of the Scott Coast. McMurdo station, run by the United States Antarctic Program, is about 40 km S on the tip of Ross Island (figure 16). During the history of observations, lava lake(s) have generally persisted, although changes in size and shape over time reflect variations in volcanic activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. On 31 December 2013, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired visible near-infrared images of the western end of Ross Island in austral mid-summer. McMurdo Station is about 40 km S of the summit of Mount Erebus. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

This report briefly summarizes research activity at Mount Erebus, and volcanic activity observed since 1972. Photographs from expeditions between 2010 and 2016 show more recent activity at the volcano. Observations from MODVOLC data collected from 2000 through 2016 are also discussed.

Summary of research activity. For most years since the 1970's, scientists have visited Erebus during the austral summer (November-February) and gathered samples, taken SO2 and other geochemical measurements, collected GPS data, and made observations and overflights to evaluate the condition of the volcano.

Seismometers were initially installed by a joint project of United States, New Zealand, and Japanese scientists in 1980-1981. Between 1980 and 2016 as many as 10 seismic stations were recording activity at Erebus; they were monitored by the Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO) run by the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexico Tech). During the early 2000s MEVO also used infrasonic recordings to capture data on the frequency of eruptions. Researchers from New Mexico Tech, the University of Cambridge, and University College London made yearly expeditions there between 2003 and 2016.

The Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory closed in 2016. A final report was submitted to the National Science Foundation (NSF) on the past research and ideas for future research (Mattioli and LaFemina, 2016), and includes a comprehensive list of scientific publications about Erebus. One area of ongoing volcanology research relates to studying the behavior of the lava lake with a variety of on-site monitoring equipment (figure 17).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Radar altimeter installed at the crater rim of Erebus in December 2016. There are two dishes, to both transmit and receive data. Several other devices are seen in the background, all trained on the lava lake on the floor of the crater. Courtesy of the University of Cambridge Department of Geography.

Summary of activity, 1972-2009. During the 1970's, the lava lake was observed to be about 130 m long and oval shaped, producing occasional Strombolian explosions. Bombs up to 10 m in in diameter were ejected near the vent, and ones up to 30 cm in diameter were thrown out over the main crater. Oscillations of the lake level of up to 2 m were observed.

During a period of increased activity between September 1984 and January 1985, several large explosions were recorded by the seismic network, and there were reports of mushroom-shaped clouds rising as much as 2 km above the summit. During September 1984, numerous large explosions sent ejecta as high as 600 m above the summit, and incandescence was visible from 70 km away. Ash also covered the NW flank down to 3,400 m elevation. Observations in October 1984 indicated that much of the lava lake had solidified, and that the surface was covered with ejecta from the recent explosions. Seismicity remained above average through January 1985. During this period of increased activity, bombs averaging 2 m in diameter (but some as large as 10 m in diameter) were ejected up to 1.2 km from within the inner crater. The eruptions were witnessed from 60 km away and explosions could be heard up to 2 km from the volcano (SEAN 11:03). A small lava lake about 15 m in diameter reappeared late in 1985.

Two primary lakes of phonolitic lava, and a third transient lake, were present inside the crater during the late 1980s (see figure 9, SEAN 13:02), and infrequent Strombolian eruptions with small bombs were captured by a remote video camera mounted on the crater rim. Small ash eruptions were observed from an active vent near the lava lakes in January 1991. On 19 October 1993, two moderate phreatic eruptions created a new crater ~80 m in diameter on the main crater floor and ejected debris over the northern crater rim. These were the first known phreatic eruptions at Erebus, and probably resulted from steam build-up associated with melting snow in the crater (BGVN 20:11).

Vent and lava lake eruptions were recorded by MEVO during the late 1990s and early 2000s. The largest peaks in terms of numbers of eruptions were during 1995, 1997, 1998, 2000, and a broad peak beginning in late 2005 that continued into late 2006 (BGVN 31:12).

Activity during 2010-2016. The two primary lava lakes remained active at Erebus. The one in the NE sector of the inner crater has been persistent almost continuously since first reported in 1972. The second lake is more in the center of the main crater and is intermittently active. During a visit in 2010, only the NE sector lake was active (BGVN 36:09). During clear weather, a steady steam plume is often observed (figure 18).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. Mount Erebus with a steam plume rising from the summit crater, viewed from the Lower Erebus Hut (LEH), 6 December 2010. Courtesy of Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory.

Visits during 2011-2016 have confirmed the ongoing Strombolian activity and convection at the lava lakes nearly every year. During 2011 the glowing lava lake emitted steam and magmatic gases from the bottom of a vent at the main crater (figure 19). An eruption on 2 January 2012 at the lava lake was captured by the remote video cameras managed by MEVO (figure 20). Several bombs were ejected on 18 December 2013 and landed close to monitoring equipment run by MEVO. Researchers were able to open a hot bomb and see the molten interior (figure 21).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. The lava lake at Erebus, photographed in December 2011. Image by Clive Oppenheimer/Volcanofiles; courtesy of Erik Klemetti.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. An eruption from the lava lake at Erebus, captured on the MEVO video cameras on 2 January 2012. Courtesy of MEVO and Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Several bombs erupted from Erebus on 18 December 2013 and landed close to monitoring equipment run by MEVO. Researchers were able to open a hot bomb and see the molten interior. Images courtesy of Aaron Curtis, MEVO, 18 December 2013 (posted on Facebook).

When UNAVCO (a non-profit university-governed consortium) flew over Erebus in December 2015, steam and magmatic gas plumes indicated that both lava lakes were active (figure 22). The two incandescent crater vents at were observed in greater detail during January 2016 by researchers associated with the University of Cambridge (figure 23).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. The crater of Erebus, with active steam plumes from two lava lakes on 7 December 2015, photographed during an overflight by UNAVCO (a non-profit university-governed consortium). Photo by Annie Zaino, UNAVCO (posted on Facebook).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Two lava lakes at Erebus were observed on 14 January 2016 by researchers associated with the University of Cambridge. Lower image is a close-up of the right vent in the upper image. Courtesy of Kayla Iacovino and Tehnuka Ilanko (posted on Facebook).

MODVOLC data, 2000-2016. With the remoteness of Erebus, satellite imagery serves as one of the few year-round tools currently available to assess longer-term activity. The University of Hawaii's MODVOLC thermal alert system has been processing MODIS infrared satellite data since 2000. Mount Erebus has had a strong and nearly continuous MODVOLC signature throughout 2000-2016 (table 3), confirming its ongoing eruptive activity.

Table 3. Number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels recorded per month from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016 by the University of Hawaii's thermal alert system for Erebus. Table compiled by GVP from data provided by MODVOLC. Spurious data from 25 October 2014 was omitted.

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec SUM
2000 0 6 16 3 10 7 8 12 7 4 1 0 74
2001 2 16 90 70 78 24 70 71 57 30 1 5 514
2002 1 19 53 71 96 133 148 122 188 62 28 28 949
2003 19 41 103 125 168 231 195 213 121 62 30 19 1327
2004 40 48 143 90 131 279 133 288 113 67 39 131 1502
2005 125 98 217 158 159 212 256 191 209 91 30 21 1767
2006 12 27 78 89 131 85 145 30 39 36 11 32 715
2007 18 42 142 268 243 178 184 199 118 98 10 33 1533
2008 91 116 199 267 286 180 269 458 149 148 95 141 2399
2009 86 114 386 162 436 270 341 208 253 116 76 66 2514
2010 53 58 207 132 185 154 89 100 142 62 10 2 1194
2011 3 23 81 112 36 1 1 0 4 25 0 0 286
2012 0 24 52 56 31 93 27 1 1 0 0 0 285
2013 0 1 11 11 11 20 56 85 28 19 0 1 243
2014 2 1 0 9 49 62 78 10 28 3 0 1 243
2015 1 17 14 4 15 2 7 12 2 3 0 0 77
2016 0 4 13 34 46 33 19 1 3 0 0 0 153
SUM 453 655 1805 1661 2111 1964 2026 2001 1462 826 331 480

The MODVOLC thermal alert data show that thermal activity at Erebus has waxed and waned several times during the 2000-2016 interval (figure 24). Activity was very low during 2000, but increased steadily through mid-2005 to more than 20 times as many annual thermal alert pixels since 2000. Activity dropped off substantially from late 2005 and remained low through early 2007, when another increase began that peaked at an even higher level (2514 pixels during 2009) in mid-2009. Another drop in activity occurred during 2010, and since 2011 there have been fewer than 300 pixels per year, with numbers below 200 for 2015 and 2016.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. The number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels per year, colored by month, reported for Erebus from 2000 through 2016. Activity was very low during 2000, but increased steadily through mid-2005. Activity dropped off substantially from late 2005 through early 2007, when another increase began that peaked at an even higher level in mid-2009. Another drop in activity occurred during 2010, and since 2011, there have been fewer than 300 pixels per year. Data courtesy of MODVOLC.

Another trend in the MODVOLC data is also apparent when the number of pixels are plotted by month, as opposed to year, for this time period (figure 25). From November through February, during the austral summer, the number of pixels per month never exceeds 150 (see table 3, highest value is 125). From March through October, during the Austral winter, the number of pixels recorded per month can be much higher (the highest value is 458). The average number of 'summer' pixels per month (November-February, 2000-2016) is 30. The average number of 'winter' pixels per month for the same period (March-October) is 108, more than three times greater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. The number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels per month for the period 2000-2016, colored by year. The total average number of pixels per month from 1 March through 31 October (1732) is three times the average total number of pixels per month from 1 November through 28 February (480). Data courtesy of MODVOLC.

References: Mattioli, G.S., and LaFemina, P.C., 2016, Final Report submitted to the National Science Foundation, Community Workshop: "Scientific Drivers and Future of Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO)" (URL: https://www.unavco.org/community/meetings-events/2016/mevo/2016-MEVO-Final-Report.pdf)

Geologic Background. Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. It is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of the dominantly phonolitic volcano has been modified by one or two generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3,200 m elevation marks the rim of the youngest caldera, which formed during the late-Pleistocene and within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater; other lava lakes are sometimes present. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity with minor explosions, punctuated by occasional larger Strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim, has been documented since 1972, but has probably been occurring for much of the volcano's recent history.

Information Contacts: Mt. Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801, USA; Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); The University of Cambridge Department of Geography (URL: http://www.geog.cam.ac.uk/research/projects/lavalakes/); Erik Klemetti, Eruptions Blog, Wired (URL: https://www.wired.com/author/erikvolc/); Tom Pfeiffer, Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); UNAVCO, 6350 Nautilus Drive, Boulder, CO 80301-5394 (URL: http://www.unavco.org/); Kayla Iacovino and Tehnuka Ilanko, The Volcanofiles (URL: http://www.volcanofiles.com/).


Fuego (Guatemala) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Fuego

Guatemala

14.473°N, 90.88°W; summit elev. 3763 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ten eruptive episodes with lava flows, ash plumes, and pyroclastic flows during January-June 2016

Volcán de Fuego has been erupting continuously since 2002. Historical observations of eruptions date back to 1531, and radiocarbon dates are confirmed back to 1580 BCE. These eruptions have resulted in major ashfalls, pyroclastic flows, lava flows, and damaging lahars. Fuego was continuously active from June 2014-December 2015. Ash plumes rose to 6 km altitude, ashfall was reported in communities as far as 90 km away, pyroclastic flows descended multiple drainages at least four times, Strombolian activity rose to 800 m above the summit, lava flows descended a few kilometers down five different drainages numerous times, and three different lahars damaged roadways (BGVN 42:05). This report continues with a summary of similar activity during January-June 2016. In addition to regular reports from INSIVUMEH, the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) provides aviation alerts. Locations of towns and drainages are listed in table 12 (BGVN 42:05).

Daily weak and moderate explosions generating ash plumes to about 800 m above the summit (4.6 km altitude) that dissipated within about 10 km were typical activity for Fuego during January-June 2016. In addition, ten eruptive episodes were recorded during this time. Each episode lasted 24-72 hours, with all but one including incandescent material rising 200-400 m above the summit feeding lava flows down the larger drainages for several kilometers. Most also included pyroclastic flows down the larger drainages. One of the episodes consisted of only large pyroclastic eruptions (with an accompanying ash plume) that issued directly from the summit crater and down the ravines; all included ash plumes rising over 5 km in altitude. Several lahars were reported during late April-June.

Activity during 30 December 2015. INSIVUMEH reported a significant increase in activity on 30 December 2015. A series of pyroclastic flows descended the Las Lajas and El Jute drainages on the SE flank, and a dense ash plume rose to 5 km altitude and drifted 20 km W. Ashfall was reported in multiple communities on the flanks, including Panimache I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), and Santa Sofía (12 km SW).

Activity during January 2016. Two eruptive episodes with explosions that generated ash plumes, pyroclastic flows, Strombolian activity, lava flows, and ashfall were documented by INSIVUMEH during January 2016. The first eruption began with an increase in seismicity early in the morning of 3 January. Moderate to strong explosions were accompanied by an ash plume that rose to 4.8 km altitude (about 1 km above the summit) and drifted W and SW. Two lava flows emerged from the summit crater and traveled down the Las Lajas and Trinidad ravines. Moderate to strong explosions continued during 3 January. By the afternoon, dense plumes of ash were reported at 6 km altitude drifting SW and SE more than 40 km. Ashfall was reported in the villages of Panimaché I and II, Morelia, Santa Sofia, El Porvenir, La Rochela, Osuna, El Zapote and Rodeo. Also later in the day, incandescence was observed 400 m above the crater; it fed three lava flows in the Santa Teresa, Trinidad, and Las Lajas canyons that reached 2.5 km in length. Eruptive activity diminished after about 37 hours with weak bursts of ash rising to 4.6-4.7 km altitude on 5 January that drifted S, SW, and SE.

A smaller explosive event during 15-17 January produced block avalanches and created ash plumes that rose 450-750 m above the crater and drifted up to 12 km N and NE; four to five explosions per hour were detected. The second eruptive episode began with increased activity on 19 January; incandescent material was ejected 400-500 m above the summit, generating new lava flows to the same three canyons as the earlier eruption (Santa Teresa, Trinidad and Las Lajas) (figure 36). Ash emissions rose to 4.9 km altitude and drifted NE. Pyroclastic flows also descended the Las Lajas and El Jute canyons (figure 37).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Lava flows towards Las Lajas Canyon on 19 January 2016 as viewed from the SE flank. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH-OVFGO (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, January 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. A pyroclastic flow descends towards the Las Lajas and El Jute ravines on the SE flank of Fuego on 19 January 2016 in this thermal image captured by INSIVUMEH. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, January 2016).

The second episode continued throughout 20 January 2016 when the largest ash plume rose to 6.7 km altitude and drifted NE more than 90 km according to the Washington VAAC. Ashfall was reported in San Miguel, Las Dueñas, Alotenango, Acatenango, and Antigua. Ash plumes from the pyroclastic flows also generated ashfall on the S and SW flanks (figure 38). By the morning of 21 January, the lava flows had ceased advancing at about 3 km length, although a hot spot was still clearly visible in satellite imagery. Weak explosions generated ash plumes that rose only a few hundred meters above the summit and drifted NNE. During January, the Observatorio del Volcan de Fuego installed a second webcam on the SE side of Fuego at the Finca La Reunión, a resort about 8 km from the summit. The first webcam is located about 10 km SW of the summit at the Observatorio del Volcan de Fuego in the community of Panimache.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 38. A pyroclastic flow on 20 January 2016 travels down the SE flank of Fuego, creating an ash cloud in the ravine. Additional ash emissions drifted in multiple directions. A recent lava flow is also visible in the ravine. View is from the La Reunión webcam, 8 km SE of the summit. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, January 2016).

Activity during February-March 2016. Explosions increased in number and energy on 5 February 2016, classified by INSIVUMEH as the 3rd episode of the year. Six moderate to strong explosions per hour were reported, sending ash emissions to 4.5 km altitude, drifting W, NW, and N more than 12 km, and avalanche blocks down the flanks to the base. The third eruptive episode of the year began with moderate explosions on 9 February 2016; it generated ash plumes which rose to 4.7 km altitude and dispersed up to 35 km NNW. Ashfall was reported in Chimaltenango, Zaragoza, Ciudad Vieja, San Pedro las Huertas, San Miguel Las Dueñas, San Juan Alotenango, Antigua Guatemala and the Capital City as far as 35 km N and NE. The explosions were accompanied by incandescent material rising to 300 m above the summit and feeding lava flows that traveled towards the Trinidad, Las Lajas, and Santa Teresa canyons, reaching lengths of 800 to 3,000 meters (figure 39).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 39. Incandescence rises 300 m above the crater at Fuego, generating lava flows down the Trinidad, Las Lajas and Santa Teresa canyons on 9 February 2016. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Febrero 2016).

The following day (10 February 2016), pyroclastic flows descended the El Jute and Las Lajas ravines (figure 40) while ash plumes rose to 5.2 km altitude and incandescent material was ejected 400 m above the crater. Although activity decreased throughout the day, explosions continued to generate ash plumes to 4.9 km altitude that dispersed ash up to 45 km N and NE. Minor ash emissions were reported by the Washington VAAC on 17 February at 4.6-4.9 km altitude drifting SE about 40 km, and on 24 February at 4.6 km drifting about 25 km SW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 40. Pyroclastic flows descend the Las Lajas and El Jute ravines at Fuego on 10 February 2016 as viewed from the webcam at Finca la Reunión, 8 km SE. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Febrero 2016).

On 29 February 2016, moderate to strong explosions at a rate of 6-10 per hour were heard more than 14 km away. They were accompanied by an ash plume that rose to 4.8 km and drifted 12 km E, and a lava flow that traveled 500 m towards Las Lajas ravine. This 4th eruptive episode (according to INSIVUMEH) lasted more than 72 hours (figure 41). On 2 March, several ash plumes rose to different altitudes and dispersed in different directions. The largest ash plume, was observed by the Washington VAAC at 7.3 km altitude; it was visible 400 km N before it dissipated into weather clouds. Lower altitude plumes rose to 4.6 km and drifted 75 km SW before dissipating. Ash fell in the communities of Morelia, Santa Sofia, La Rochela, Panimaché I and II, Sangre de Cristo, La Soledad and Yepocapa. The incandescent activity fed two lava flows; the first in the direction of Las Lajas reached 3 km, the second flowed towards El Jute ravine and reached 2 km in length. Pyroclastic flows also travelled down these two canyons and block avalanches descended the Honda Canyon. Explosive activity diminished during 3-6 March; ash emissions rose to 550 m above the summit and drifted 8-10 km W, SE, and SE.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 41. RSAM values spiked at Fuego during 29 February-3 March 2016 during eruptive episode 4. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Marzo 2016).

During 10 March 2016, moderate to strong Vulcanian explosions generated an ash plume that rose to 4.4 km altitude and drifted E. The Washington VAAC observed ash emissions in multispectral satellite imagery on 15 March at 4.3 km altitude extending about 80 km SW from the summit as well as hot spots and pyroclastic flows visible in the INSIVUMEH webcam. An increase in activity on 21 March generated weak and moderate explosions that produced ash plumes that rose to 4.3-4.7 km and drifted W. This activity was recorded as an increase in RSAM tremor amplitude and duration at the FG3 seismic station, but was not considered an eruptive episode by INSIVUMEH (figure 42).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Increases in RSAM tremor amplitude and duration at Fuego were recorded during 21 and 22 March, and eruptive episode 5 was recorded during 26 and 27 March 2016. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Marzo 2016).

Eruptive episode 5 began on 26 March 2016 and lasted more than 24 hours (figure 42). Strombolian eruptions rose up to 500 m above the crater (figure 43), feeding three lava flows that traveled 2 km down Las Lajas, 1.3 km down the Santa Theresa, and 1 km down the Trinidad ravines. Ash plumes rose to 6.1 km altitude and drifted up to 150 km W (figure 44); ash fell on the villages of Morelia, Santa Sofia, San Predro Yepocapa, Panimaché I and II. By the end of 27 March, eruptive activity had diminished to background conditions, which included weak and moderate explosions generating ash plumes to about 800 m above the summit (4.6 km altitude) that dissipated within about 10 km WSW. On 29 March ashfall was reported Sangre de Cristo and Panimaché I and II.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Strombolian activity rises 300 m above the crater at Fuego on 26 March 2016. Photo by Gustavo Chigna, courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Marzo 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. An ash plume at Fuego rose to over 6 km altitude on 26 March 2016 and drifted 150 km W before dissipating. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Marzo 2016).

Activity during April-May 2016. The Washington VAAC reported diffuse volcanic ash emissions in satellite and webcam imagery on 2 April 2016. The ash plume drifted W at 4.3 km altitude, and extended 75 km from the summit before dissipating. Increased eruptive activity during 6-7 April 2016 resulted in moderate and strong explosions which produced ash plumes rising to 4.6-4.8 km altitude that drifted W and SW 15 km. The explosions were audible more than 20 km from the volcano; roofs and windows vibrated within 12 km. INSIVUMEH received reports of ashfall from the villages of Morelia, Sangre de Cristo, and Panimche I and II.

An explosion on 8 April created an ash plume that rose to 5.8 km and drifted SSW about 35 km. Successive bursts of ash on 9 April rose to 4.9 km altitude and drifted W. Emissions on 11 April were reported at 4.3 km altitude about 15 km SW from the summit; the next day they rose to 4.9 km and drifted SW to a distance of 45 km. INSIVUMEH reported variable activity beginning on 11 April with high levels of explosive activity on 12 April marking the beginning of the sixth eruptive episode of the year, which lasted for three days. An incandescent fountain persisted 100-300 m above the crater and fed two lava flows during the event; one traveled 2 km down the Las Lajas ravine, and the other reached 1 km in length in the Santa Teresa ravine. Avalanches were constant along the flanks during this episode. Continuous ash emissions were observed as well; plumes generally rose no higher than 5.8 km (2 km above the summit). Ashfall was reported in La Rochela, Ceylon, Morelia, Hagia Sophia, Sangre de Cristo, Panimaché I and II. On 13 April the ash plume extended 185 km SW from the summit. A brilliant hotspot was observed in satellite imagery on 14 April after which no further VAAC reports were issued until early May. On 29 April, after more than a week of rain, a lahar descended the Las Lajas drainage but no damage was reported.

Activity at Fuego increased significantly during May 2016, and included three eruptive episodes that generated ash plumes, pyroclastic and lava flows, and increased rainfall that resulted in lahars. Ash plumes rose above 5.5 km altitude (more than 2 km above the summit) and dispersed to the S, SW, and SE. Seismic activity increased on 5 May in the form of internal vibrations caused by lava which flowed more than 1.2 km down the Las Lajas ravine, and moderate to strong explosions that produced ash plumes which rose to 4.8 km altitude and drifted S for 12 km. The Washington VAAC reported diffuse ash extending 65 km SE from the summit.

The 7th eruptive episode of the year began on 6 May 2016 with incandescent material rising 300 m above the summit crater, causing two lava flows. One traveled down Las Lajas ravine more than 3 km; the second descended the Trinidad ravine for 1.5 km. Block avalanches were constant around the crater rim. The episode lasted for more than 32 hours (figure 45); the moderate to strong explosions ejected ash to altitudes above 5.5 km that drifted S and SW. Ashfall was reported in Escuintla and its surroundings. There were no pyroclastic flows during this episode. The Washington VAAC reported emissions extending 65 km SE of the summit at 5 km altitude on 6 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. RSAM values during 2 May-6 June 2016 helped INSIVUMEH to define eruptive episodes for 2016 at Fuego, along with observed activity. Eruptive episode 7, consisting of Strombolian activity, lava flows, and ash plumes, occurred during 6-7 May 2016. Episode 8 comprised ash plumes and several large pyroclastic flows that descended the S flank during 18 and 19 May, but no seismic explosive activity. Increases in explosive activity on 21 May marked the beginning of episode 9, which lasted through 23 May 2016 and included incandescent fountains, lava flows, and ash plumes. Courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Mayo 2016).

The next eruptive episode (8) did not involve seismic explosive activity (figure 45). Instead, several large pyroclastic flows overflowed the crater rim on 18 and 19 May 2016 and descended the flanks towards Las Lajas and Honda ravines (figure 46) resulting in ashfall reported to the S, SW, and W, in villages more than 30 km away. A large ash plume reached more than 5.5 km altitude and drifted 15 km SSW on 19 May (figure 47). Ashfall was reported in the villages of El Rodeo, La Rochela, Osuna, Panimaché, Morelia, Sangre de Cristo and Yepocapa. By late in the day, the Washington VAAC noted that the plume was centered about 90 km SW at 5.8 km altitude.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. A pyroclastic flow descends Las Lajas ravine on the S flank of Fuego on 18 May 2016 in these images taken from Finca La Reunión. Lower photo by Basilo Sul, both images courtesy of INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Mayo 2016).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. An ash plume drifts SW from Fuego on 19 May 2016 after a series of pyroclastic flows and ash emissions sent ash plumes to over 5 km altitude. The Operational Land Imager instrument on Landsat 8 captured this image. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

The ninth eruptive episode of 2016 generated incandescent fountains 200-300 m above the summit; they fed a 2-km-long lava flow down the Las Lajas ravine (figure 48). Seismic activity began to increase on 21 May and lasted through 23 May (see figure 45). Moderate and strong explosions created an ash plume that rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted SW and W. The Observatory reported ashfall in Morelia, El Porvenir, Santa Sofia, Los Yucales, Panimaché I and II. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 5.5 km altitude, drifting 75 km S beyond the coast on 23 May 2016. A lahar descended the Las Lajas ravine on 20 May and was recorded by the seismic station FG3, but no damage was reported.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Landsat band 7 (top) and band 10 (bottom) images of the still-cooling lava flow in Las Lajas ravine at Fuego on 26 May 2016. Courtesy of Rudiger Escobar, Michigan Technological University and INSIVUMEH (Informe Mensual De La Actividad Del Volcán Fuego, Mayo 2016).

Activity during June 2016. A significant rainfall combined with the plentiful ash from recent pyroclastic flows, resulted in lahars descending Las Lajas and El Jute ravines on 5 June 2016. They transported blocks, branches, and tree trunks, and a strong sulfur smell was reported by nearby residents. Another lahar was reported on 18 June that was 15 m wide and had a 1.5-m-high front. An increase in seismic activity during the afternoon of 24 June signaled the beginning of eruptive episode 10. This was followed by about 30 hours of moderate to strong explosive activity that could be heard and felt as far as 12 km away. A dense ash plume on 25 June rose to 5.5 km altitude and drifted S, SW, and W more than 40 km. Ashfall was reported in San Pedro Yepocapa, Sangre de Cristo, Morelia, Santa Sofia, Panimaché I and II. The Washington VAAC observed the ash plume in multispectral imagery on 25 June extending 120 km WSW from the summit. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center captured a small but distinct SO2 plume from Fuego on 25 June as well (figure 49). Incandescent material rose 300 m above the summit crater during this episode and fed three lava flows; the first descended Las Lajas ravine 2.5 km, the second traveled 2.3 km down El Jute ravine, and the third flowed down Taniluyá ravine for 600 meters. Seismic activity from episode 10 decreased on 26 June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. A small but distinct SO2 anomaly was measured from Fuego on 25 June 2016. INSIVUMEH reported the 10th eruptive episode of the year during that time with a dense ash plume and lava flows emerging from the summit crater. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

Geologic Background. Volcán Fuego, one of Central America's most active volcanoes, is also one of three large stratovolcanoes overlooking Guatemala's former capital, Antigua. The scarp of an older edifice, Meseta, lies between Fuego and Acatenango to the north. Construction of Meseta dates back to about 230,000 years and continued until the late Pleistocene or early Holocene. Collapse of Meseta may have produced the massive Escuintla debris-avalanche deposit, which extends about 50 km onto the Pacific coastal plain. Growth of the modern Fuego volcano followed, continuing the southward migration of volcanism that began at the mostly andesitic Acatenango. Eruptions at Fuego have become more mafic with time, and most historical activity has produced basaltic rocks. Frequent vigorous historical eruptions have been recorded since the onset of the Spanish era in 1524, and have produced major ashfalls, along with occasional pyroclastic flows and lava flows.

Information Contacts: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hydrologia (INSIVUMEH), Unit of Volcanology, Geologic Department of Investigation and Services, 7a Av. 14-57, Zona 13, Guatemala City, Guatemala (URL: http://www.insivumeh.gob.gt/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/).


Nyamuragira (DR Congo) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyamuragira

DR Congo

1.408°S, 29.2°E; summit elev. 3058 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Large SO2 plumes and intermittent lava lake during 2013-2017

The Virunga Volcanic Province (VVP) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is part of the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). Nyamuragira (or Nyamulagira), a high-potassium basaltic shield volcano on the W edge of VVP, includes a lava field that covers over 1,100 km2 and contains more than 100 flank cones in addition to a large central crater (see figure 54, BGVN 40:01). A large lava lake that had been active for many years emptied from the central crater in 1938. Numerous flank eruptions have been observed since that time, the last during November 2011-March 2012 on the NE flank. This report covers the substantial SO2 emissions from both Nyamuragira and nearby Nyiragongo (15 km SE) between November 2011 and April 2016, and the onset of eruptive activity, including a new lava lake, at the summit crater beginning in May 2014. Activity is described through April 2017.

On-the-ground information about Nyamuragira is intermittent due to the unstable political climate in the region, but some information is available from the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), MONUSCO (the United Nations Organization working in the area), geoscientists who study Nyamuragira, and travelers who visit the site. The most consistent data comes from satellite – thermal data from the MODIS instrument processed by the MODVOLC and MIROVA systems, SO2 data from the AURA instrument on NASA's OMI satellite, and NASA Earth Observatory images from a variety of satellites.

A substantial flank eruption took place from November 2011 through March 2012. This was followed by a period of degassing with SO2-rich plumes, but no observed thermal activity, from April 2012 through April 2014. Increased seismicity and minor thermal activity was observed at the central crater during April 2014; lava fountains first seen in early July 2014 continued through September. A lava lake in the crater was confirmed on 6 November 2014, and it produced a consistent and strengthening thermal anomaly through the first week of April 2016, when it stopped abruptly. Thermal activity suggesting reappearance of the lava lake began again in early November 2016, and strengthened in both frequency and magnitude into early January 2017, continuing with a strong signal through April 2017.

Activity during November 2011-March 2012. Nyamuragira erupted from cones and fissures on the NE flank between early November 2011 and mid-March 2012 (BGVN 39:03). The vent area, 12 km ENE of the central crater, was an E-W fissure 500-1,000 m long. Lava fountains up to 300 m high produced flows that advanced nearly 12 km N in the first 10 days. Three scoria cones formed adjacent to the fissure during the eruption, and a small lava lake appeared in the center of the largest cone. During January 2012, lava flowed from the vent area and from numerous small breakouts within 2 km of the cones (figures 58, 59). Dario Tedesco reported that the eruptions ceased in March 2012 after a series of explosion earthquakes recorded by the OVG had ended; the last MODVOLC thermal alert in the area of the eruption was captured on 14 March 2012, and none were reported again until 2014.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Lava fountain and active lava flow emerging from the breach of the erupting flank cone of Nyamuragira volcano on 8 January 2012. Courtesy of Volcano Discovery.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Lava fountains around 150 m high erupt on 8 January 2012 from the active flank vent during the 2011-2012 eruption of Nyamuragira. Photo by Lorraine Field, courtesy of Volcano Discovery.

Activity during April 2012-May 2014. Periodic field surveys at Nyamuragira have been carried out since 2009 by helicopter, thanks to the support of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (MONUSCO). Since 2013, observations of the crater have also been done once or twice a month by helicopter. The team has included researchers from the OVG, Dario Tedesco, and other international scientists. This area is a high-risk sector due to the presence of armed groups, and it is impossible, due to the lack of security, to make detailed field surveys (Coppola et al., 2016).

Dario Tedesco reported SO2-rich fumaroles in Nyamuragira's central crater beginning in early March 2012, shortly before the NE-flank fissure eruptions ended (BGVN 40:01). A progressive collapse of the 400-m-wide, 50-80 m deep pit crater located in the NE part of the caldera began as soon as the eruptions ended. They noted that during the second half of April, large SO2 plumes continuously emerged from the pit crater.

NASA's Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring program captured major SO2 plumes from the area for an extended period between November 2011 and February 2014. The plumes represent combined emissions from both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo, which are too close together to distinguish the source in the satellite data. Campion (2014), however, noted that SO2 emissions from the VVG increased several fold after the end of the 2011-2012 Nyamuragira eruption; they interpreted that 60-90 % of these emissions should be attributed to Nyamuragira.

Significant areas of SO2 plumes with DU > 2 (shown as red pixels on the Aura/OMI images, figure 60) were captured by the OMI instrument at the beginning of the November 2011 eruption and continued through February 2012. Beginning in April 2012 elevated values occurred more than 20 days per month through December 2012. Values were more variable in both frequency and magnitude during 2013 with a notable surge of activity during 6-19 June 2013 that resulted in daily SO2 plumes. Details of monthly SO2 values are given in the last section of this report (see table 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 60. Large SO2 plumes from Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo between November 2011 and December 2013. Four of the dates correspond to the Maximum DU days for that month (see table 3), and two represent other days of the month with substantial plumes. Courtesy of NASA/GSFC.

Activity during June 2014-April 2017. Incandescence at the summit and increased seismicity was reported again in April 2014, along with increasing SO2 values. A strong MODVOLC thermal alert signal appeared on 22 June 2014, and a satellite image from 30 June showed clear hotspots at both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo (figure 61).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 61. Hot spots from both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo on 30 June 2014. This false-color image combines shortwave-infrared, near-infrared, and green light as red, green, and blue, respectively. Since shortwave- and near- infrared light penetrates hazy skies better than visible light, more surface detail is visible in this image than would be in natural-color. Because very hot surfaces glow in shortwave-infrared, the lava within both summit craters appear bright red. The dark lava flows spreading from Nyamuragira were erupted within the past 50 years, some as recently as 2012. Vegetation is bright green. The image was collected by Landsat 8. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

An extended series of MIROVA thermal anomaly data beginning in May 2014 clearly shows the episodic periods of active heat flow at Nyamuragira from late May 2014 through April 2017 (figure 62). During the first episode, from late May to early September 2014, lava fountains were observed in early July, and reported to be active through September (BGVN 40.01). Campion (2014) and Smets and others (2014) debated whether the lava lake first appeared in April or not until November. On 6 November 2014 a small lava lake was confirmed at the base of the summit pit when sighted during an OVG helicopter survey. Both MODVOLC and MIROVA thermal anomalies appeared again in early November and persisted through the end of the year.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 62. MIROVA thermal anomaly data from Nyamuragira from May 2014 through April 2017. Vertical black bar on each chart show the ending date of the previous chart. Chart "A" was previously published (BGVN 40:01, figure 57); other charts were captured via Volcano Discovery, Erik Klemetti, and Culture Volcan. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Thermal anomalies were persistent throughout 2015, with a noted increase in both frequency and magnitude during July (figure 62 C). A NASA Earth Observatory image from 9 February 2015 clearly shows active plumes venting from both Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo (figure 63). MONUSCO-supported summit crater visits by researchers on 2 April 2015, and photographer Oliver Grunwald on 10 July 2015, confirmed the presence of an active lava lake during both visits (figure 64, and video link in Information Contacts).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 63. On 9 February 2015, clear skies afforded an unobstructed view from space of plumes venting from both Nyamuragira (north) and Nyiragongo (south) volcanoes in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The lower image shows a close-up view of Nyamuragira, which is topped with a small caldera with walls about 100 m high. In 1938, a lava lake within the caldera drained during a large, long-lasting fissure eruption that sent lava flows all the way to Lake Kivu. Satellite observations and helicopter overflights in 2014 confirmed that the caldera again contained a small but vigorous lava lake. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 64. An active lava lake at Nyamuragira crater on 2 April 2015. Courtesy of MONUSCO/Abel Kavanagh (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/monusco/17118082715/).

The MIROVA and MODVOLC thermal anomaly data suggest that the lava lake at Nyamuragira was active until 4 April 2016 when the signals abruptly ended (figure 62 D). This also corresponds closely in time to when the major SO2 emissions captured by NASA also ceased. Observations by Dario Tedesco at the summit on 6 April 2016, during a UNICEF and MONUSCO-sponsored helicopter overflight, showed only an incandescent vent releasing hot gases, and no active lava lake. A small lava lake was again visible in the pit crater on 27 April 2016 when observed by Sebastien Valade of the University of Florence on another MONUSCO-sponsored flight (figure 65).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 65. Nyamuragira's pit crater with a small lava lake observed on 27 April 2016; volcanologist Sebastien Valade takes thermal measurements from the rim. Photo by Abel Kayanagh/MONUSCO. Courtesy of MONUSCO via Culture Volcan.

Thermal anomaly data from MIROVA suggest a pulse of activity during late April through early June 2016 (figure 62 D). This was followed by a period from early June through early November 2016 with no record of activity at Nyamuragira. The MIROVA signal reappeared in early November, followed by intermittent MODVOLC thermal alerts beginning on 27 November. A new pulse of thermal activity, with values similar to those observed during July 2015-April 2016, reappeared in early January 2017 (figure 62 E) and continued through April 2017. On an OVG-sponsored visit to the summit crater on 11 March 2017, independent journalist Charly Kasereka photographed the summit crater with incandescent lava covering the crater floor (figure 66).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Effusive activity at the bottom of the summit crater of Nyamuragira on 11 March 2017. Additional image available at https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/2017/04/quelques-nouvelles-des-volcans.html shows minor spattering of molten lava near the vent on the crater floor. Photo by Charly Kasereka; courtesy of Cultur Volcan.

Sulfur dioxide and thermal anomaly data. Abundant sulfur dioxide emissions at Nyamuragira during November 2011-April 2017 show large variations in both magnitude and frequency during the period (table 3). A plot of the SO2 data (figure 67) reveals a sharp increase in both the number of days per month with DU greater than 2 and the actual maximum DU value during the active flank eruption between November 2011 and February 2012. After lower values during March 2012, they rise steadily and remain significantly elevated for all of 2013. Values drop briefly in early 2014 and then rise again during April 2014, remaining elevated through February 2016 before dropping off significantly.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Sulfur dioxide data for Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo, October 2011 through April 2017. Blue bars represent the number of days each month where DU > 2 was captured in the Aura/OMI data (left axis). The orange points represent the highest DU value for the months where SO2 emissions had DU values > 2 for at least one day. See table 3 for details of Dobson Units (DU), and text for discussion of values. The two volcanos are less than 20 km apart, and thus the individual sources of SO2 cannot be distinguished in the satellite data.

A similar plot of the number of monthly MODVOLC thermal alert pixels for Nyamuragira from November 2011 through April 2017 (figure 68) shows that there were no thermal alerts for the period from April 2012-February 2014 when SO2 emissions were large and frequent. In contrast, there were frequent thermal alerts from June 2014-April 2016 when SO2 emissions were also high.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels per month at Nyamuragira from October 2011 through April 2017. Data courtesy of MODVOLC.

Table 3. Days per month that SO2 values over the Nyamuragira and Nyiragongo area exceeded 2 Dobson Units (DU), October 2011-April 2017, and maximum DU values for each month. Data represent minimum values due to OMI row anomaly missing data (gray stripes), and missing days. SO2 is measured over the entire earth using NASA's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on the AURA spacecraft. The gas is measured in Dobson Units (DU), the number of molecules in a square centimeter of the atmosphere. If you were to compress all of the sulfur dioxide in a column of the atmosphere into a flat layer at standard temperature and pressure (0 C and 1013.25 hPa), one Dobson Unit would be 0.01 millimeters thick and would contain 0.0285 grams of SO2 per square meter.

MONTH No. days DU > 2 MAX DU (>2) Date of Max DU Comments
Oct 2011 0 -- -- --
Nov 2011 23 80.23 9 --
Dec 2011 27 26.70 30 --
Jan 2012 16 7.71 8 Only 21 days of data
Feb 2012 10 5.32 18 --
Mar 2012 2 2.22 31 --
April 2012 9 5.31 27 Daily >2 values begin ~ 20 April
May 2012 20 27.06 8 Surge, 5-10 May
Jun 2012 24 67.10 7 Large plumes all month
Jul 2012 25 15.91 9 --
Aug 2012 17 14.27 28 --
Sep 2012 24 12.78 11 Several days DU>10
Oct 2012 24 16.86 31 Constant large plumes
Nov 2012 27 21.09 1 Many high DU values
Dec 2012 26 16.69 16 --
Jan 2013 11 6.80 10 --
Feb 2013 7 14.34 2 --
Mar 2013 14 6.15 22 --
Apr 2013 15 8.93 16 --
May 2013 16 11.45 25 --
Jun 2013 22 29.68 10 Big surge 6-14
Jul 2013 18 11.82 12 --
Aug 2013 14 6.11 29 --
Sep 2013 20 9.46 25 --
Oct 2013 16 4.45 28 --
Nov 2013 12 6.76 10 --
Dec 2013 18 17.79 14 --
Jan 2014 3 4.13 27 --
Feb 2014 2 5.18 10 --
Mar 2014 3 4.86 11 --
Apr 2014 10 6.49 10 --
May 2014 0 -- -- --
Jun 2014 14 18.24 29 Surge begins 24 June
Jul 2014 23 27.40 24 Large plumes most of the month
Aug 2014 23 23.65 25 --
Sep 2014 12 158.92 10 Big surge begins late Aug – 13 Sep, then stops abruptly. Largest plumes of interval
Oct 2014 0 -- -- --
Nov 2014 11 17.86 29 6-11, 23, 27-30
Dec 2014 26 22.82 22 1-27
Jan 2015 8 6.96 18 --
Feb 2015 15 23.73 19 --
Mar 2015 19 8.56 28 --
Apr 2015 23 17.80 29 --
May 2015 25 10.78 10 --
un 2015 25 17.74 25 --
Jul 2015 18 11.95 18 --
Aug 2015 17 9.32 19 --
Sep 2015 18 9.51 4 --
Oct 2015 18 9.61 31 --
Nov 2015 17 7.06 16 --
Dec 2015 14 8.42 13 --
Jan 2016 6 5.40 19 --
Feb 2016 6 3.34 11 --
Mar 2016 1 4.15 9 --
Apr 2016 0 -- -- --
May 2016 2 3.06 19 --
Jun 2016 0 -- -- Only 18 days data
Jul 2016 0 -- -- --
Aug 2016 0 -- -- --
Sep 2016 0 -- -- --
Oct 2016 0 -- -- --
Nov 2016 2 3.50 27 --
Dec 2016 0 -- -- --
Jan 2017 0 -- -- --
Feb 2017 No Data No Data -- --
Mar 2017 0 1.5 -- --
Apr 2017 0 1.5 -- --

References: Campion, R., 2014, New lava lake at Nyamuragira volcano revealed by combined ASTER and OMI SO2 measurements, 7 November 2014, Geophysical Research Letters (URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014GL061808/full).

Coppola, D., Campion, R., Laiolo, M., Cuoco, E., Balagizi, C., Ripepe, M., Cigolini, C., Tedesco, D., 2016, Birth of a lava lake:Nyamulagira volcano 2011-2015. Bull Volcanol (2016) 78: 20. doi:10.1007/s00445-016-1014-7.

Smets, B., d'Oreye, N., Kervyn, F., 2014, Toward Another Lava Lake in the Virunga Volcanic Field?, 21 October 2014, EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union (URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/2014EO420001/pdf)

Smets, B., d'Oreye, N., Kervyn, F., Kervyn, M., Albino, F., Arellano, S., Bagalwa, M., Balagizi, C., Carn, S.A., Darrah, T.H., Fernández, J., Galle, B., González, P.J., Head, E., Karume, K., Kavotha, D., Lukaya, F., Mashagiro, N., Mavonga, G., Norman, P., Osodundu, E., Pallero, J.L.G., Prieto, J.F., Samsonov, S., Syauswa, M., Tedesco, D., Tiampo, K., Wauthier, C., Yalire, M.M., 2014. Detailed multidisciplinary monitoring reveals pre- and co-eruptive signals at Nyamulagira volcano (North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo). Bull Volcanol 76 (787): 35 pp.

Smets, B., Kervyn, M., Kervyn, F., d'Oreye, N., 2015. Spatio-temporal dynamics of eruptions in a youthful extensional setting: Insights from Nyamulagira volcano (D.R. Congo), in the western branch of the East African Rift. Earth-Science Review 150, 305-328. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.08.008

Geologic Background. Africa's most active volcano, Nyamuragira, is a massive high-potassium basaltic shield about 25 km N of Lake Kivu. Also known as Nyamulagira, it has generated extensive lava flows that cover 1500 km2 of the western branch of the East African Rift. The broad low-angle shield volcano contrasts dramatically with the adjacent steep-sided Nyiragongo to the SW. The summit is truncated by a small 2 x 2.3 km caldera that has walls up to about 100 m high. Historical eruptions have occurred within the summit caldera, as well as from the numerous fissures and cinder cones on the flanks. A lava lake in the summit crater, active since at least 1921, drained in 1938, at the time of a major flank eruption. Historical lava flows extend down the flanks more than 30 km from the summit, reaching as far as Lake Kivu.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Departement de Geophysique, Centre de Recherche en Sciences Naturelles, Lwiro, D.S. Bukavu, DR Congo; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Tom Pfeiffer, Volcano Discovery (URL: http://www.volcanodiscovery.com/); Erik Klemetti, Eruptions Blog, Wired (URL: https://www.wired.com/author/erikvolc/); Cultur Volcan, Journal d'un volcanophile (URL: https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.com/); MONUSCO, United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (URL: https://monusco.unmissions.org/en/); Oliver Grunewald, Video filmed on 10 July 2015 (URL: https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/2015/07/le-lac-de-lave-du-volcan-nyamuragira.html).


Reventador (Ecuador) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Reventador

Ecuador

0.077°S, 77.656°W; summit elev. 3562 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava flows, pyroclastic flows, and ash plumes monthly during June 2014-December 2015

The andesitic Volcán El Reventador lies well east of the main volcanic axis of the Cordillera Real in Ecuador and has historical observations of eruptions of numerous lava flows and explosive events going back to the 16th century. The largest historical eruption took place in November 2002 and generated a 17-km-high eruption cloud, pyroclastic flows that traveled 8 km, and several lava flows. This report briefly summarizes activity between 2002 and June 2014, and covers details of activity from July 2014 through December 2015. The volcano is monitored by the Instituto Geofisico-Escuela Politecnicia Nacional (IG) of Ecuador, and the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Summary of 2002-2014 activity. Intermittent activity including pyroclastic flows, ash plumes, lava flows and explosive events took place between 2003 and 2008. Since July 2008 there have been persistent gas-and-ash plumes, dome growth, and both pyroclastic and lava flows. Lahars are also very common in this high-rainfall area, and cause damage to infrastructure on a regular basis. A lava dome was first observed growing in September 2009 within the crater that formed during the 2002 eruption. By July 2011, it had reached the height of the highest part of the crater rim; by January 2013 it filled the crater and formed a new summit, 100 m above the E rim. This led to lava blocks travelling down the flanks, in addition to the lava flows and pyroclastic flows traveling down the flanks of the cone inside the crater during 2012-2014. A summary of thermal anomalies compiled from MIROVA data (figure 46) demonstrates the ongoing but intermittent nature of heat flow between 2002 and 2014.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Thermal activity detected by the MIROVA system at Reventador, January 2002-January 2014. Courtesy of IG (Informe Especial del Volcan Reventador No. 3, 7 July 2014).

Summary of June 2014-December 2015 activity. Activity was very consistent throughout the period of June 2014 through December 2015. The thermal webcam captured images of lava flows, pyroclastic flows and ejected incandescent blocks nearly every month. MODVOLC thermal alerts were reported every month except March 2015. Satellite imagery of hot spots were common as well. The Washington VAAC reported observations of ash plumes every month, although they generally rose only to altitudes below 5.6 km (2 km above the summit). IG reported seismicity as varying between moderate and high during the period.

Activity during June-December 2014. Activity during June 2014 was characterized by numerous explosions and small pyroclastic flows that descended the flanks of the cone. The Washington VAAC issued two series of reports on 11-12 and 19-20 June. A pilot reported an ash plume on 11 June rising 2.8 km above summit at 6.4 km altitude and drifting W, and the next day ash was observed 1.8 km above the summit. Weather generally obscured satellite views. On 19 June, multiple small emissions of volcanic ash were seen in the observatory webcam along with incandescent material on the flanks. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on 5, 21, and 30 June.

IG reported a new lava flow on 2 July 2014 descending 400 m on the SSW flank. A pyroclastic flow was also reported on 2 July (figure 45, BGVN 39:07) extending 1,500 m down the S flank. IG noted ash emissions on 2, 4, 9-12, 18, 22-24, and 27 July rising 800 m to 2 km above the summit. MODVOLC reported multi-pixel thermal alerts on 2, 16, and 27 July, and single pixel alerts on 10 and 25 July. In addition to the ash plumes reported by IG, the Washington VAAC reported on-going ash emissions and detected hotspots at the crater on 31 July.

The Washington VAAC issued a report of hot spots visible in satellite imagery on 1 August 2014 and a pilot report of an ash plume at 6.1 km altitude (2.5 km above the summit) on 25 August. The only MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on 31 August. IG reported lower level plumes (300-800 m above the summit) with minor ash on 6 other days during the month.

Activity increased during September 2014. The Washington VAAC issued reports during 2-4, 18, and 23 September. On 2 September, ash plumes were observed extending about 45 km W of the summit at 5.5 km altitude. Another faint plume of volcanic ash was observed within 20 km of the summit the next day. An ongoing hotspot with possible small ash emissions was noted on 4 September. IG reported an explosion on the morning of 5 September that generated a plume and ejected blocks from the crater that fell ~500 m below the summit on the W flank. A thermal camera detected an explosion on the following day that also included ballistics. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on eight days during September. Steam plumes with minor ash rose to around 1 km above the summit and dispersed generally W several times during the month.

A single MODVOLC thermal alert was reported on 6 October 2014. The Washington VAAC reported short 2-3 minute bursts of minor volcanic ash on 19 October which was seen drifting WNW and dispersing within 16 km of the summit below 5.8 km altitude. An additional single pixel thermal alert was issued on 25 October, and a three-pixel alert appeared on 29 October.

IG reported steam-and-ash plumes rising up to 1 km above the summit a few times during the month, which were visible on the rare clear-weather days (figure 47). Only two days in November, 5 and 21, had MODVOLC thermal alerts. The Washington VAAC, however, issued reports during 11-12, 18-19, and 27 November of possible low-level ash-bearing plumes. The IG webcam LAVA on the SE flank captured images of pyroclastic flows on 20 and 25 November (figure 48).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. The active cone at Reventador on 9 November 2014 with a low-level steam plume. Image taken from the IG Webcam LAVA on the SE flank. Courtesy of IG via La Culture Volcan.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. Pyroclastic flows at Reventador, 20 (left) and 25 (right) November 2014 taken from the IG LAVA webcam on the SE flank. Courtesy of IG via Culture Volcan.

On 5 December 2014 a webcam recorded a steam-and-gas emission associated with an incandescent lava flow on the E flank. MODVOLC thermal alert pixels appeared on four days in December 2014 (3, 7, 14, and 23), and VAAC reports of ash plumes were issued on 5, 13-14, 21-22, and 30 December. The largest plume, on 14 December, rose to 6.1 km (2.5 km above the summit) and drifted NE. IG reported moderate seismicity and low-level steam plumes with minor ash content on several occasions.

Activity during 2015. Moderate seismic activity continued during January 2015 with low-level steam-and-ash plumes from explosions rising a few hundred meters above the summit, according to IG. A larger explosion reported by IG on 16 January generated an ash plume that rose 2 km and drifted SE. The Washington VAAC reported activity from 14-18 January, and again on 26 January. Their reports were of small puffs of ash within a kilometer of the summit drifting for a few hours before dissipating. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on 15 and 29 January.

Steam plumes containing minor amounts of ash were recorded a few times during February 2015 during periods of moderate seismicity. The Washington VAAC issued several reports, during 7-9, 13-17, 19-21, 24, and 26-28 February, noting occasional plumes with ash rising to less than one km above the summit, and hot-spots seen in satellite imagery on 13-14, 17, 19, and 27 February. An aircraft reported volcanic ash on 19 February at 6.1 km altitude. A new lava flow first observed on the SW flank on 11 February had advanced 1 km by 19 February. This is consistent with the four-pixel MODVOLC thermal alert issued on 18 February. Single pixel alerts were issued on 7, 19, and 23 February as well.

No MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued during March 2015, but the Washington VAAC continued to note low-level small bursts of ash emissions several times a week within 15 km of the summit, as reported by IG. The webcam captured a hotspot at the summit on 11 March. A thermal camera image of a lava flow taken on 13 March showed the visible part of it to be over 500 m long (figure 49), and IG noted in their 13 March report that is was actually about 1.5 km long that day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 49. Annotated thermal camera image at Reventador of an 11 March 2015 lava flow. Camera is located SE of the volcano. Courtesy of IG (Informe especial del Volcan Reventador No. 1, 13 March 2015).

Activity during April 2015 included moderate seismicity and incandescence at the crater reported by IG. A lava flow on the SW flank was visible with the infrared camera during the first week; this agrees with the 5-pixel MODVOLC thermal alert recorded on 5 April and the bright hotspot observed in both satellite imagery and the webcam during 3-5 April. Hot spots were observed via satellite and webcam several additional times during the month. Additional thermal alerts also appeared on 10 and 21 April. Steam-and-ash plumes rising to 1 km above the summit were intermittent throughout the month, mostly observed from the webcam.

Multi-pixel MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared during 2-3, 20, and 30 May, indicating continued sources of heat from lava flows. In a special report issued on 19 May, IG noted a new lava flow during the previous week that descended the S flank, forming a fan with three lobes on the SE and SW flanks. The length was greater than 1,000 m from the summit on 19 May, although the flows remained on the flanks of the summit cone within the caldera (figure 50). IG noted an increase in emission tremor on 17 May which may have been related to the extrusion of the lava, but weather conditions prevented visual confirmation. During 17-30 May, intermittent low-level gas-and-ash plumes within 15 km of the summit were reported on most days.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 50. Annotated thermal image of the summit cone of Reventador on 19 May 2015 showing a 3-lobed lava flow descending the S flank of the cone for more than 1 km. Courtesy of IG (Informe especial del Volcan Reventador No. 2, 19 May 2015).

MODVOLC thermal alerts diminished during June 2015, occurring only on 8 and 15 June. Nonetheless, thermal images showed lava flows down the SW and S flanks of the cone several times, and hot spots were observed in satellite images and on the webcam when the weather permitted. Steam-and-ash plumes were generally reported to rise to 1 km or less above the summit and drift usually NW or SW within 15 km of the volcano. A pilot reported volcanic ash on 30 June at 6.7 km, but no ash was seen in satellite imagery under cloudy conditions. IG issued a special report on 24 June noting increased seismicity in the form of increased tremor signal and explosions on 23 June. The thermal camera located in the area of El Copete, 5 km S of the crater, showed an increase in surface activity characterized by several lava flows on the SW, S, and SE flanks exceeding one km in length (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Thermal image of Reventador taken on 23 June at 1950 by the webcam near El Copete. Courtesy of IG (Informe especial del Volcan Reventador No. 3, 24 June 2015).

Seismic activity was reported as high during July 2015 by IG, and included explosions, tremor, long-period earthquakes, harmonic tremor, and emission signals. During the first week, incandescent material was visible more than 1 km down the SE flank in thermal images. On 17 July, light gray deposits possibly from a pyroclastic flow were observed; on 21 July explosions again ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. Steam and ash emissions were intermittent and generally remained below 5.1 km altitude. MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared on 1, 3, 15, and 17 July.

High levels of seismic activity continued during August 2015. The Washington VAAC reported possible ash plumes on 14 days during the month, and MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued on six dates, including four-pixel alerts on 4 and 27 August suggestive of lava flows and/or incandescent material on the flanks of the cone. A discrete volcanic ash emission on 6 August was reported by the Washington VAAC at 7 km altitude (3.4 km above the summit) with a plume extending about 25 km NW of the summit. Other plumes that were reported by pilots (on 25 August at 8.8 km altitude moving NW, and on 26 August at 6.7 km moving W) were not observed in cloudy satellite imagery.

Ash-and-gas emissions were reported by the Washington VAAC during 14 days in September 2015, generally drifting N and W at altitudes less than 2 km above the crater (5.6 km altitude); high levels of seismicity also continued, according to IG. The Guayaquil MWO reported volcanic ash at 6.1 km on 19 September. Puffs of ash seen in the webcam were reported at 7.3 km altitude on 25 September and thought to have quickly dissipated. MODVOLC thermal alerts appeared on seven days during the month; five of them were two- or three-pixel alerts. An SO2 plume drifting WNW from Reventador was captured by NASA's OMI instrument on 22 September (figure 52).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. An SO2 plume drifting W from Reventador on 22 September 2015. Reventador is represented by the triangle south of the NW-SE trending Ecuador/Columbia border in the bottom center of the image near longitude 78 W just south of the equator. A small plume in the top half of the image is likely SO2 from Nevado del Ruiz. Courtesy of NASA/GSFC.

A series of VAAC reports of low-level minor ash emissions were issued during 1-5 October 2015. After two weeks of no activity, multi-pixel MODVOLC thermal alerts and VAAC reports increased during 20-30 October. The peak MODVOLC activity included 4-6 daily pixels during 26-28 October, and the VAAC reports noted a bright hotspot on the satellite images beginning on 20 October and present for most of the rest of the month. Continuous emissions were observed in the webcam during 22-26 October, generally below 4.6 km, moving NW, and extending up to 40 km from the summit. Continuous emissions appeared again on 30 October at 5.1 km moving W.

During the last two weeks of November 2015, steam, gas, and ash emissions rose to less than 2 km above the summit and incandescent blocks rolled 500 m down the flanks of the cone. MODVOLC thermal alerts were reported for five days between 15 and 29 November. Similar activity was reported during December, although the Washington VAAC only issued reports on four different days, and MODVOLC thermal alerts were recorded only on 6 and 24 December. VAAC reports noted hotspots in satellite imagery on 7 December. The VAAC reports on 11 and 16 December indicated ash plumes at 5.5 km moving W and SW.

Geologic Background. Reventador is the most frequently active of a chain of Ecuadorian volcanoes in the Cordillera Real, well east of the principal volcanic axis. The forested, dominantly andesitic Volcán El Reventador stratovolcano rises to 3562 m above the jungles of the western Amazon basin. A 4-km-wide caldera widely breached to the east was formed by edifice collapse and is partially filled by a young, unvegetated stratovolcano that rises about 1300 m above the caldera floor to a height comparable to the caldera rim. It has been the source of numerous lava flows as well as explosive eruptions that were visible from Quito in historical time. Frequent lahars in this region of heavy rainfall have constructed a debris plain on the eastern floor of the caldera. The largest historical eruption took place in 2002, producing a 17-km-high eruption column, pyroclastic flows that traveled up to 8 km, and lava flows from summit and flank vents.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Culture Volcan, Journal d'un volcanophile (URL: https://laculturevolcan.blogspot.fr/).


Nevado del Ruiz (Colombia) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevado del Ruiz

Colombia

4.892°N, 75.324°W; summit elev. 5279 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Intermittent ash emissions July 2012-December 2015; increased thermal activity October-December 2015

A February 2012 ash explosion of Columbia's Nevado del Ruiz volcano was the first confirmed ash emission in over 20 years. The broad, glacier-capped volcano has an eruption history documented back 8,600 years, and historical observations since 1570. Notably, a large explosion at night in heavy rain on 13 November 1985 generated large lahars that washed down 11 flank valleys, inundating most severely the town of Armero where over 20,000 residents were killed. It remains the second deadliest volcanic eruption of the 20th century after Mt. Pelee in 1902 killed 28,000.

This report summarizes and concludes the February 2012-April 2014 eruption (BGVN 37:08, 39:07), and then describes details of new activity beginning in November 2014, through December 2015. The volcano is monitored by the Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) and aviation reports are provided by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Summary of activity, November 1985-June 2012. After the large explosions and deadly lahars of November 1985, activity at Ruiz continued with intermittent ash emissions and significant seismic activity through July 1991. Seismicity, deformation, and SO2 emissions have been closely monitored since the 1985 eruption. Between 1991 and February 2012 intermittent high-frequency seismic events (earthquake swarms) were recorded, but no ash emissions were observed. In September 2010, seismicity notably increased in frequency and diversity of event type until early 2012 when fresh ashfall was observed. INGEOMINAS (Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería, precursor to SGC) also noted an inflationary trend in the geodetic data from October 2010 through 2011.

A March 2012 overflight by INGEOMINAS noted minor amounts of ash-covered snow on the E flank, which they surmised came from an explosion on 22 February (BGVN 37:08). During March, long-period seismicity underwent a 20-fold increase. SO2 emissions also dramatically increased between March and June 2012. Several ash emissions from the summit were observed during April-June 2012 (BGVN 37:08). An ash plume that rose to 11 km altitude on 29 May caused ashfall in over 20 communities to the NW and closures at three nearby airports. Widespread ashfall during June covered solar panels on field equipment. An EO-1 satellite image from 6 June 2012 shows a plume and significant ashfall around the summit (figure 71).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Satellite image of Nevado del Ruiz taken on 6 June 2012 showing an active ash plume from the Arenas crater and ash deposits NW of the summit. It was acquired by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) satellite. Courtesy NASA Earth Observatory.

Summary of activity, July 2012-December 2015. Explosions and seismic tremor with ash emissions continued during July and August 2012. Ashfall was reported within 30 km on numerous occasions. From September 2012 through early July 2013 minor amounts of ashfall were reported a few times each month, mostly in the immediate vicinity of the volcano. After a larger explosion on 11 July 2013, sparse and intermittent ash emissions were reported between August 2013 and April 2014. Between May and October 2014 there were no reports of ash emissions or thermal anomalies.

A significant increase in seismicity occurred during the second week of November 2014, and ash was seen at the summit during an overflight on 19 November. Ash fell in communities within 30 km several times each month through December 2015. Seismic evidence suggesting possible lava dome extrusion first appeared in August 2015, and stronger signals were recorded on 22 October. Thermal anomalies around the summit crater increased in frequency and magnitude during the last three months of 2015.

Activity during July 2012-October 2014. A large ash plume on 30 June 2012 prompted evacuation warnings to several communities within 30 km and closed three nearby airports for the second time within 30 days. On 2 July the Washington VAAC reported a 7.5-km-wide ash plume at 6.1 km altitude drifting 75 km W (BGVN 37:08). Additional VAAC reports were issued on 8, 9, and 10 July for SO2 emissions containing minor volcanic ash. SGC noted that explosions and ash emissions continued throughout the month in spite of a decrease in seismicity. Ashfall was reported near the volcano, and in municipalities in the departments of Caldas (W) and Risaralda (SW), steadily throughout the month.

Tremors associated with continuing gas and ash emissions occurred throughout August 2012; ash plumes were observed rising 200-800 m above the summit crater. During 3-6 August, gas and ash emissions were seen from Manizales (30 km NW) and Chinchiná (30 km WNW). On 12 August, a gas-and-ash plume observed with a webcam rose 1 km above the crater and drifted W, and ashfall was reported in Brisas (50 km SW). A layer of ash was deposited at the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales (OVSM) on 13 August; they also reported ash emissions associated with seismic signals the next evening. Webcams showed gas-and-ash plumes rising 400 m and drifting W and NW during 15-16 August.

Minor amounts of ashfall were reported by SGC in areas around the volcano each month during September 2012 through 11 July 2013 (table 4), when a larger ash emission occurred. A noted increase in seismicity beginning on 13 April 2013 was also reported by SGC. The ash emission on 11 July was captured by the webcam in the Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados (PNNN) (figure 72), and fine ash fell in Manizales. The Washington VAAC reported the ash plume at 6.1 km altitude. Multispectral imagery showed the plume extending 55 km NW. After 12 July 2013 there were no further reports from the Washington VAAC until December 2014.

Table 4. Ash emission events at Ruiz during September 2012-July 2013. Data compiled from various sources as shown.

Date Event Details Source
06 Sep 2012 Small explosion Small ash emission. SGC Weekly Report, 3-9 Sep 2012
10 Oct 2012 Ash plume 7.3 km altitude, drifting 35 km NW. Washington VAAC
15-16 Nov 2012 Possible ash emission Weather clouds prevented observation, faint thermal anomaly detected. Washington VAAC
10 Dec 2012 Tremor Early morning, gas and ash emissions. SGC Weekly Report, 3-9 Dec (published 11 Dec) 2012
09 Jan 2013 Tremor Ash and gas emission, ashfall reported in the Valle de las Tumbas, W of the summit crater. SGC Weekly Report, 7-13 Jan 2013
16 Jan 2013 Faint ash plume Drifting NE 50 km; hot spot. Washington VAAC
11 Feb 2013 Gas and ash plume Webcam images and visual observation from Observatorio Manizales, 1,600 m above the crater. SGC Monthly Technical Report, February 2013
07-10 Mar 2013 Continuous tremor Gas and ash emissions reported by officials from the Parque Nacional Natural los Nevados (PNNN). SGC Weekly Report, 4-10 Mar 2013.
11-17 Mar 2013 Continuous tremor Gas and ash emissions. SGC Weekly Report, 11-17 Mar 2013
10-30 Apr 2013 Constant tremor Small gas and ash emissions beginning 10 April. SGC Monthly Technical Report, Apr 2013
14 Apr 2013 Gas and ash plume Webcam image of gas and ash plume rose 630 m and drifted NW. INGEOMINAS daily report, 14 Apr 2013
15-21 Apr 2013 Ashfall confirmed Ashfall confirmed near Villahermosa (Tolima), 30 km NE. SGC Weekly Report, 15-21 Apr 2013
22 and 27 May 2013 Ash and gas emissions Confirmed by seismic signals as well as the webcams. SGC Monthly Report, May 2013
Jun 2013 Low-energy tremors Associated with gas and ash emissions, pulses of low energy. SGC Monthly Technical Report, June 2013
11 Jul 2013 Small ash emission Confirmed by OVSM webcams, and officials at PNNN. Ashfall reported in Valle de las Tumbas and Manizales. SGC Monthly Technical Report, July 2013; SGC Weekly Report 8-14 July 2013; Washington VAAC
Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Ash emission at Ruiz on 11 July 2013 at 1143. The column of gases and gray ash stands out among the white clouds. Photo by Julián Peña, courtesy of SGC (Informe-Technico, July 2013).

Evidence for ash emissions between August 2013 and April 2014 is sparse and intermittent. The SGC Monthly reports during this time mention pulses of low-energy tremor associated with emissions of gases, steam, and small amounts of ash every month except November, when they reported only steam and gas, but no specific dates are given. SGC's Technical Information Monthly reports mention occasional grayish coloration, suggesting ash in the gas-and-steam plumes during August-October 2013. Tremors associated with small amounts of ash and grayish coloration in the plumes are again noted from January through April 2014 without describing specific events.

The weekly activity reports issued by SGC make no mention of ash from August through November 2013. They note in weekly reports for 2-8 and 9-15 December that gray emissions possibly associated with ash in plumes of mostly water vapor and gases were observed. During the week of 16-23 December they recorded low-energy tremors associated with the output of small amounts of ash, which were reported in trace quantities in Manizales. In their 31 December 2013-6 January 2014 and 10-16 February 2014 weekly reports they noted the occurrence of tremors associated with ash and gas. There is no mention of ash in their March or April 2014 weekly reports. There is also no mention of ash emission in SGC monthly reports during May-October 2014. The MIROVA thermal anomaly data do show minor thermal anomalies in latest August and more persistent anomalies at the beginning of October 2014 (figure 73) prior to the reports of ash emissions during November.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. MIROVA signal of MODIS data for the year ending on 15 May 2015. Persistent thermal anomalies are present between late October 2014 and mid-April 2015. Courtesy of the MIROVA project supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department via SGC (Informe de Actividad, April 2015).

Activity during November 2014-December 2015. A significant change in seismicity occurred beginning in the second week of November 2014. There was an increase in the number of long-period (LP) earthquakes, pulses of volcanic tremor, and several periods of continuous tremor (lasting for hours or even days) associated with fluid movement, and with emissions of gas and ash (table 5). Several of these periods were preceded by an LP event. The first significant pulse of volcanic tremor began on the evening of 18 November following an LP event and lasted more than 12 hours.

Table 5. Periods of continuous tremor associated with ash emissions at Ruiz during November 2014. Some of the tremor episodes were preceded by long-period (LP) events. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, November 2014).

Date Time (local) Duration LP event (local time)
18 Nov 2014 1918 More than 12 hours 1918
20 Nov 2014 0224 More than 20 hours 0223
21 Nov 2014 0108 More than 4 hours --
28 Nov 2014 1310 More than 4 hours 1305
28 Nov 2014 1941 More than 8 hours --
29 Nov 2014 1307 More than 48 hours 1305

The Unidad Nacional de Gestion de Riesgo de Desastres (UNGRD, National Disaster Risk Management Unit) coordinated an overflight during 19-21 November 2014 and observed fresh ash deposits on the S flank. Ash emissions were also verified in satellite imagery (figure 74) and by reports from nearby communities. The ash dispersed generally SE and SW during 18-21 November. Ash was again observed on the N side of the Arenas crater on 29 November in the early morning after a lengthy period of continuous tremor was recorded the previous day (see table 5).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. Image of Ruiz on 24 November 2014 taken by the OLI-TIRS sensor on the Landsat 8 Satellite at 1018 local time. Ash deposits are dispersed SE and SW of the summit crater, and the steam plume is drifting W. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, November 2014).

During the second half of December 2014, SGC reported significant concentrations of ash in the emissions that were associated with continuous tremor episodes. On 15 December seismic signals indicating ash emissions were detected, and then confirmed by a local webcam and nearby residents. The Washington VAAC also noted an ash emission based on a pilot observation extending 16 km S at 7.6 km altitude. The next day they reported a narrow plume of minor volcanic ash extending 22 km SW of the summit at 6.1 km altitude. On 18 and 19 December the Washington VAAC reported ash plumes to altitudes of 7.9 and 9.1 km, respectively, that drifted SSW and dissipated within a few hours. A faint thermal anomaly was also detected. A satellite image taken on 26 December 2014 clearly shows ash deposits in nearly all directions from the Arenas crater (figure 75). Ashfall was reported during this time in the Caldas (W) and Risaralda (SW) departments.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. An ASTER image from the OLI-TIRS Sensor on the Landsat 8 satellite taken on 26 December 2014 of Ruiz (N is to the top) showing fresh ash deposits covering the summit glacier in nearly all directions. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, December 2014).

According to the news source Prensa Latina, increased ash emissions at Ruiz prompted closure of the La Nubia airport (22 km NW) on 7 January 2015. On 14 January, the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery extending 16 km SW of the summit at 6.7 km altitude. SGC reported seven episodes of continuous tremor on 4, 7, 14, 24, 26, 28, and 29 January, almost all of which were associated with ash emissions (figures 76). Ashfall was reported several times after these episodes in the Eje Cafetero area to the W of Ruiz.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 76. Ash emissions on six different dates during January 2015 at Ruiz. Photographs taken by the webcam located in the Azufrado sector (NW). Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, January 2015).

Occasional minor ash emissions were reported during February 2015 during periods of continuous tremor, but most of the emissions were steam and gas. On 9 February, ashfall was reported in El Libano (29 km E), El Oso (10 km SE), and Murillo (17 km E). Although seismic tremors were diminished during March from the previous month, emissions associated with these tremors contained gases and minor amounts of ash from 8 March through the end of the month. Ashfall was reported after a tremor in the evening on 8 March by personnel from the Parque Nacional Natural Los Nevados (PNNN), the Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Manizales (OVSM), and from the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaria (27 km NW).

An increase in several types of seismicity was observed by SGC during April 2015. Volcanic tremor, associated with gas and ash emissions, were confirmed through photographs taken by the webcams (figure 77), and by officials at PNNN and SGC. Ashfall was reported on 20 April in the municipalities of Manizales and Villamaría. The Washington VAAC reported a small puff of gas and minor amounts of ash visible in satellite imagery on 22 April at 7.3 km altitude drifting W about 40 km before dissipating. The MIROVA signal from the MODIS thermal anomaly data shows persistent thermal activity from late October 2014 through mid-April 2015 (figure 73).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 77. Plumes of ash-and-gas from Ruiz during April 2015. Confirmed ash emissions were observed on 9, 22, 27, and 29 April. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, April 2015).

Ash emissions were photographed by the webcams located in the Azufrado and Cerro Guali regions on at least eleven dates during May 2015. The Washington VAAC reported possible emissions on 19 and 26 May, but extensive weather clouds prevented satellite observations. Most of the frequent episodes of volcanic tremor during June were also associated with ash emissions which were photographed at least six times during the month. The Observatory at Manizales reported ash moving WNW on 6 June at about 800 m above the summit; weather clouds obscured satellite observations by the Washington VAAC.

A significant increase in ashfall was reported during July 2015 (figure 78), including in the regions of Caldas, Tolima, and Risaralda, as well as by officials in the Park (PNNN). The Observatory at Manizales (OVSM) reported an ash plume on 6 July at about 7.3 km altitude, but it was not observed in satellite data due to weather. The Washington VAAC noted ash emissions visible in satellite data and the webcam on 13 July, with a plume at 7 km altitude drifting NW a few tens of kilometers before dissipating. OVSM reported plumes at about 6 km moving S and W during 18-20 July. Seismic signals indicating emissions were reported on 23 July and observed in the webcam, according to the Washington VAAC. SGC noted seismic tremors and a plume on the morning of 26 July that rose to 3 km above the summit (8.2 km altitude) (figure 79); near summit-level emissions were also observed via the webcam on 26 and 27 July. Seismic data indicated continued occasional bursts of ash drifting W to WSW during the next few days. Ashfall was reported downwind in the municipalities of Chinchina (33 km NW), Palestina (35 km NW), Santa Rosa de Cabal (33 km W), Dosquebradas (40 km WSW), and Pereira (40 km WSW). A bright thermal anomaly was reported in satellite imagery on 31 July, but no ash was observed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 78. Gas, steam, and ash plumes from the Arenas crater at Ruiz during July 2015. Photographs captured by the cameras located in the area of Azufrado, Cerro Gualí, and in the OVSM. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, July 2015).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 79. Seismic and visual images of tremors that produced ash emissions at Ruiz between 0800 and 1559 on 26 July 2015. The digital seismogram and spectrogram are from station BIS (2 km W of Arenas Crater) and show a characteristic spasmodic tremor (1, 2, and 3) that was associated with ash emissions recorded on the Piranha-Azufrado webcamera in the lower images. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, July 2015).

SGC reported greater instability at Ruiz compared with previous months during August 2015. Seismicity related to fracturing and fluid flow both increased during the month. Energy levels for spasmodic tremor related to gas and ash emissions were also generally higher. The Washington VAAC reported ash visible in satellite imagery on 6 August at 7.3 km altitude moving NW as far as 20 km for about 10 hours before dissipating. They noted another possible plume with minor ash on 12 August at 6.7 km drifting 55 km NW from the summit. Ashfall was reported on 23 August from officials of PNNN and residents of Pereira. A brief emission containing minor ash on 28 August, observed in a webcam, was reported by the Washington VAAC as extending about 35 km W. Ongoing emissions rising a few hundred meters above the summit with occasional small bursts of ash continued for the next two days.

The tremor event on 31 August 2015 was the largest since 18 November 2014; ashfall affected numerous cities and municipalities, including Manizales (30 km NW) (with the largest particle sizes towards the E side of the city), La Linda, La Cabaña (36 km NW), and trace amounts in Santagueda (40 km NW), Arauca (48 km NW), Kilómetro 41, Villamaría (27 km NW), Chinchiná, Palestina, and Neira (36 km NW) (figure 80). A news article reported that the La Nubia airport closed that day due to ash emissions. Most ash emissions during the month affected the regions of Caldas and Risaralda NW of the volcano.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 80. Ashfall was recorded in a number of cities during the 31 August 2015 emission event at Ruiz. The four left images are from the city of Manizales. The six right images are from different towns in the department of Caldas. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, August 2015).

The Washington VAAC issued advisory reports on 3, 12-15, 17, 23-24, 27, and 29-30 September 2015. Most reports were based on observations from the webcams near the volcano and/or seismic activity, but many events were not visible in satellite imagery due to weather clouds. Plume altitudes ranged from 5.5 to 7.9 km. Incandescence observed in a webcam on 4 September was followed by a high-energy tremor. The ash plumes reported by the Washington VAAC on 12 and 13 September rose to 7.9 km and drifted in several directions. Ash was moving to the NW below 5.2 km and extended for over 90 km; between 5.2 and 7.9 km altitude it extended about 80 km SW. Ongoing emissions with small bursts of ash continued through 15 September with a new emission to 7.6 km around 1600 that day.

The OVSM reported a strong seismic signal at 0728 on 17 September, but weather clouds blocked observation from satellite imagery of the potential ash plume. The largest tremor of the month occurred in the afternoon of 18 September and ash emissions were verified in the webcams as well as by SGO officials doing fieldwork in the area; ash emissions were also observed in the webcam on 19 September at 1556. SGO reported a seismic event on 22 September that produced water-vapor, gas, and ash plumes that rose 2 km above the crater and drifted mainly NW. An ash plume was confirmed by the Washington VAAC in a satellite image on 27 September extending about 70 km WNW at 6.1 km altitude. An advisory issued on 29 September noted ash to 8.5 km within 16 km of the summit. SGO noted that the 29 September emissions were observed both E and W of the volcano.

The Washington VAAC confirmed continuous ash emissions on 5 October 2015 at 7 km altitude extending about 25 km W of the summit. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 1.7 km and drifted NW on 8 October. Another report of volcanic ash early on 9 October was not visible in satellite imagery, although a thermal anomaly persisted and seismicity was elevated. A small ash emission was spotted in imagery data drifting WNW late on 9 October. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 1.8 km and drifted NW on 17 October. A discrete emission of ash rose to 9.1 km altitude on 22 October and drifted N. SGO reported ash emissions observed in webcams on 26 October, but weather clouds prevented satellite observation by the Washington VAAC. A gas, steam, and ash plume rose 1.7 km and drifted NW on 30 October.

SGC first noticed an unusual pattern of seismicity known as a "drumbeat" signal, for which they issued a special report on 20 August 2015. The "drumbeat" signal is characterized by discrete episodes of short duration (about 30 minutes each) that repeat at regular time intervals and show similar waveforms and energy. They are interpreted by volcanologists to represent phenomena associated with the ascent of high-viscosity magma to the surface and thus are an indicator of near-surface extrusion or dome building. SGC recorded the same signal on 8 September, and then again on 22 October (figure 81). Thermal anomalies near the Arenas crater were observed by SGO on 26, 28, and 30 September, and were again recorded on 7, 9, and 10 October 2015.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 81. Episodes of seismic "drumbeats" at Ruiz recorded on 22 October 2015. The top box is the vertical component seismic record from station BIS, the larger yellow shaded box highlights the entire 'drumbeat' episode. The seismogram from the OLLETA station (lower left) shows a clearer view of the first episode (1). The lower right images show details of the signal at three different time intervals highlighted in smaller boxes in the top image. This signal is interpreted to represent phenomena associated with the ascent of high-viscosity magma to the surface and thus are an indicator of near-surface extrusion or dome building over the emission conduit. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, October 2015).

Seismic activity decreased slightly during November 2015, but there still were episodes of volcanic tremor associated with gas and ash emissions that were recorded by the webcams and personnel at PNNN. Continuous tremor signal was recorded on 1 and 4 November. The "drumbeat" signal was again briefly recorded on 13 November. Thermal anomalies increased in frequency and were observed on 4, 18, 20, 22, 26, and 27 November. SGC confirmed ash emissions on 5, 10, 14, 27, and 29 November. The Washington VAAC reported an ash plume on 14 November at 6.4 km altitude moving SW. SGC captured images of the ash plume from two different webcams (figure 82).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 82. Photographs of the ash emission at Ruiz of 14 November 2015 at 0537 from two different webcams. Top image is from the Azufrado webcam (5 km NE) and the lower image is from the Pitayo webcam. Courtesy of SGC (Informe de Actividad, November 2015).

Thermal alerts captured by the University of Hawai'i's MODVOLC system appeared in December 2015 for the first time in several years. They were recorded on 3, 22, 26, and 31 December. Additionally, the MIROVA thermal anomaly system showed significant increases in anomalies at Ruiz during the last three months of 2015 (figure 83).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 83. MIROVA data for the year ending 2 January 2016 showing the substantial increase in frequency and magnitude of thermal anomalies at Ruiz during the last three months of 2015. Courtesy of MIROVA via SGC (Informe de Actividad, December 2015).

Minor episodes of volcanic tremor with ash emissions were reported by SGC during the first two weeks of December 2015. A significant volcanic tremor with ash emissions occurred on 20 December, and ashfall was reported by SGC officials, PNNN personnel, and residents near the volcano and in the city of Manizales. The Washington VAAC noted the ash plume at 6.1 km altitude with 25 km of the summit. A gas, steam and ash plume rose 1.7 km and drifted NW on 28 December.

Sulfur Dioxide emissions, June 2012-2015. Persistent, large SO2 plumes were captured from Ruiz many times during June 2012-December 2015 (figure 84 and 85). Every month during this period the OMI (Ozone Measuring Instrument) on the Aura satellite recorded days with SO2 emissions exceeding 2 DU (Dobson Units); many months had more than half of the recording days with values > 2 DU. Dobson Units are the number of molecules in a square centimeter of the atmosphere. If you were to compress all of the sulfur dioxide in a column of the atmosphere into a flat layer at standard temperature and pressure, one Dobson Unit would be 0.01 millimeters thick and contain 0.0285 grams of SO2 per square meter.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 84. Select Aura/OMI images of SO2 plumes from Ruiz, 2012-2013. Top left: 14 June 2012, the SO2 plume drifts NW. Top right: 18 August 2012, the SO2 plume from Ruiz drifts W. An SO2 plume is also visible drifting W from Ecuador's Cotopaxi in the lower left corner of the image. Bottom left: A 10.26 DU (Dobson Unit) SO2 plume sits directly over Ruiz on 7 December 2012. Bottom right: The SO2 plume drifts south on 19 December 2013. See text above for description of Dobson Units. Courtesy of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 85. Select Aura/OMI images of SO2 plumes from Ruiz, 2014-2015. Top left: On 3 February 2014 an SO2 plume from Ruiz drifts due W while another plume drifts NE from Guagua Pichincha in northern Ecuador. Top right: A 24 September 2014 SO2 plume drifts NW from Ruiz as far as the coastline. Bottom left: On 5 March 2015, a plume drifts slightly W from Ruiz. Bottom right: A W-drifting SO2 plume from Ruiz on 4 October 2015 is visible along with W-drifting plumes from both Cotopaxi and Tungurahua in Ecuador. Courtesy of NASA/GSFC.

Geologic Background. Nevado del Ruiz is a broad, glacier-covered volcano in central Colombia that covers more than 200 km2. Three major edifices, composed of andesitic and dacitic lavas and andesitic pyroclastics, have been constructed since the beginning of the Pleistocene. The modern cone consists of a broad cluster of lava domes built within the caldera of an older edifice. The 1-km-wide, 240-m-deep Arenas crater occupies the summit. The prominent La Olleta pyroclastic cone located on the SW flank may also have been active in historical time. Steep headwalls of massive landslides cut the flanks. Melting of its summit icecap during historical eruptions, which date back to the 16th century, has resulted in devastating lahars, including one in 1985 that was South America's deadliest eruption.

Information Contacts: Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC), Observatorio Vulcanologico Y Sismologico Manizales, Diagonal 53 N0. 34 - 53 - Bogotá D.C. Colombia (URL: http://www2.sgc.gov.co/Manizales.aspx); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP), MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Prensa Latina, Agencia Informativa Latinoamericana (URL: http://www.plenglish.com/).


Turrialba (Costa Rica) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Turrialba

Costa Rica

10.025°N, 83.767°W; summit elev. 3340 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Persistent explosions and ash emissions during 2015 and 2016

Strong fumarolic activity characterized activity at Costa Rica's Turrialba for several decades before a phreatic eruption in January 2010 resulted in ashfall tens of kilometers from the volcano. Since the January-March 2010 eruption, there have been one or two brief eruptive episodes with ash emissions each year, generally lasting days to weeks. An episode from 29 October through 8 December 2014 began with an ash explosion, followed by continuous emissions on 30 and 31 October. Several additional explosions with ash emissions occurred during November, followed by a strong Strombolian explosion on 8 December that included ashfall up to 1 cm thick in places, and ballistics deposited 300 m from the vent (BGVN 40:04). This report covers the increasing ash-emission activity during 2015 and 2016. Information comes primarily from the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sysmologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA). Aviation alerts are issued by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Turrialba began a new eruptive episode with an ash plume on 8 March 2015. Frequent, intermittent ash-bearing events continued through mid-May, and tapered off during June, with a final event reported on 22 June 2015. The larger plumes rose 2-2.5 km above the vent rim and drifted in many different directions, leading to ashfall throughout the region as far as 40 km from the volcano. A 'bubble of magmatic gas' dispersed accumulated ash from the vent on 15 August 2015. An eruption on 16 October 2015 was the largest in a year, and the start of a new series of emissions that persisted through the end of October, dispersing ash for tens of kilometers in most directions. A brief period of ash emissions between 2 and 8 February 2016 deposited ash within a few kilometers of the summit crater. Ash emissions and frequent small explosions between 28 April and 7 May preceded a longer series of emissions that began with a significant explosion on 16 May, included significant ashfall in regions within 30 km, and lasted until late July 2016. Strombolian activity and pyroclastic flows were also reported during late May; ashfall was reported up to 100 km SW. A new series of explosions and ash emissions began on 13 September that continued nearly uninterrupted through the end of the year, although ashfall reports were greatest in October 2016.

Activity during 2015. Little activity was reported during January and February 2015. Seismicity slowly increased from short-duration, low-amplitude, higher-frequency events in January to more lower-frequency events in February. Very-long-period earthquakes (VLP's) began to register in February and became more pronounced during March, when some were associated with explosions and ash emissions. The first, short, effusive emissions with low ash content occurred on 8 March. The largest events with prolonged ash emissions occurred on 12 (figure 43) and 15 March.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Eruption at Turrialba on 12 March 2015. Webcam image courtesy of OVSICORI (Boletín de Vulcanología Estado de los Volcanes de Costa Rica, January, February, March 2015).

Based on webcam views, weather models, and OVSICORI-UNA updates, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 March diffuse ash emissions rose from the Cráter Oeste (West Crater) and seismicity increased. OVSICORI-UNA reported more ash emissions on 11 and 12 March. Almost continuous ash emissions were observed in the afternoon of 12 March punctuated by two noticeable explosions. Ash plumes rose as high as 2 km above the crater and drifted NW. Ashfall also occurred in the Valle Central and in the capital of San José (30 km WSW), and caused the closure of the Juan Santamaria International Airport (48 km W), which reopened during the evening on 13 March. The local Tobias Bolanos airport (40 km WSW) closed intermittently. On 13 March three short-duration explosions were reported. According to the Washington VAAC, ash plumes that day drifted 45 km NE at an altitude of 9.1 km, and drifted over 35 km W at an altitude of 6.1 km.

On 18 March, OVSICORI-UNA reported that gas, vapor, and ash plumes rose from Cráter Oeste and seismicity remained high. Observers in Finca La Central (2 km SW) noted gas-and-steam emissions. On 19 March two gas-and-water-vapor emissions were observed; one from Cráter Central contained a small amount of ash. At 1400 the webcam recorded strong emissions of gas, vapor, and tephra from Cráter Oeste. On 23 March a gas, vapor, and ash plume rose from Cráter Oeste, causing ashfall in areas E and SE of the crater including in the Cráter Central and El Mirador. In addition, a dense and vigorous gas-and-vapor plume caused Parque Nacional Volcán Turrialba authorities to recommend masks for protection against gas inhalation.

There were 11 gas-and-ash eruptions and 10 additional smaller ash emissions during April 2015. OVSICORI-UNA reported that a small ash eruption occurred on 3 April, causing ashfall in nearby areas including Silvia and La Central. On 5 April, an eruption generated a plume that rose 500 m and caused ashfall in Curridabat (31 km WSW), Granadilla (29 km WSW), San Pedro, Desamparados (35 km WSW), Aserrí (40 km SW), San Sebastián (37 km WSW), and Escazú (42 km WSW). The eruption of 7 April was the largest of the month (figure 44), and although it occurred at night, the visible ash plume rose to about 2.5 km above the summit. Ash and sulfur odors were reported in many areas of the city of San José (30-40 km WSW). The largest quantities of ash fell in the La Picada and La Silvia communities a few kilometers NNE of the volcano, and affected several hundred cows and other animals at dairy farms. Small ash emissions occurred on 8, 16, and 18 April, and every day during 20-24 April. The ash on 20 April dispersed N and affected Guápiles (20 km N). On 23 and 24 April, ash dispersed NW and affected the inhabitants of the Valle Central, and was reported at Tobias Bolanos and San Juan Santamaria international airports.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Nightime eruption of ash and hot volcanic blocks from Turrialba on 7 April 2015 that began at 0205 and lasted until 0241. Webcam image courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA, (Boletín de Vulcanología, Estado de los Volcanes de Costa Rica, April 2015)

During May 2015, OVSICORI-UNA recorded 39 eruptions with ash emissions. In general, the plumes did not rise more than 500 m above the crater, and a few were accompanied by small pyroclastic flows. The largest events were on 1 and 4 May when emissions lasted for 4 and 23 minutes, respectively. The 4 May event produced an ash plume that rose 2.5 km and drifted SW. The eruption ejected ballistics 1 km from the crater. Most of the ashfall occurred around the crater. Reports of minor ashfall and sulfur odors came from communities 30-40 km WSW around the city of San José (Moravia, Coronado, Mata de Plátano, La Uruca, Guadalupe, Tibás, Calle Blancos, San Pedro Montes de Oca, Sabanilla Montes de Oca, Pavas, Zapote, Escazú, Paso Ancho, Curridabat, Santa Ana), and a few localities in the eastern region of Heredia (40 km W). Additional ash emissions were reported on 6, 11, 14, and 18 May. Although the multiple emissions on 18 May lasted as long or longer than earlier events (23 and 25 minutes), they were lower energy, and the plumes rose only 400-500 m above the summit crater.

OVSICORI-UNA reported that ash emissions occurred on 1, 4, 7, and 22 June 2015. The eruption on 1 June was the largest, and the small ash eruption on the afternoon of 22 June deposited ash mainly in the vicinity of the volcano to the SW (figure 45). They also reported a significant decrease in the seismic activity, such that by late June, the RSAM values had returned to levels similar to October 2014, prior to the start of the most recent eruptive events. Significant rains after April 2015 led to a shallow lake forming in the Cráter Oeste. Images taken in July of the Cráter Central showed deposits of eruptive material more than 2 m thick compared with May 2014.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Eruption at Turrialba on 22 June 2015. Webcam image courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (Boletín de Vulcanología, Estado de los Volcanes de Costa Rica, June 2015).

Seismicity continued to decrease during August 2015. However, an event on 15 August comprised nine hours of tremor associated with the ascent and escape of a bubble of magmatic gas, according to OVSICORI-UNA. The resulting ash ejection was believed to be material that had accumulated at the bottom of the crater. Seismicity remained low during September, with no reported ash emissions.

An increase in seismicity began on 1 October 2015, and until a large eruption on 16 October (figure 46). This was followed on 23 October by a lengthy sequence of ash emissions that continued until 31 October. The 16 October eruption was the largest in terms of energy since the 30 October 2014 eruption. Most of the ash fell on the summit, but a plume headed NW and minor ashfall was reported in parts of the Valle Central such as la Unión, Concepción de Tres Ríos, Montes de Oca (30 km WSW), San Rafael de Coronado (26 km WSW), and Moravia (27 km W). A strong odor of sulfur was reported in Tierra Blanca (18 km SW), Pacayas (12 km SSW), Moravia, and Guadalupe (32 km WSW).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. A Google Earth image of Turrialba annotated with images from the 16 and 26 October 2015 eruptions. a) 20-cm- diameter impact from volcanic ejecta. b) Solar panel destroyed by impacts. c) Ash deposit. d) Pyroclastic flow deposit. e) Hot material deposited by the pyroclastic flow. f) Thermal image of an eruption on 26 Of October (Photos: G.Avard). Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (Boletín de Vulcanología, Estado de los Volcanes de Costa Rica, October 2015).

Seismicity increased between 16 and 23 October, when new ash emissions began and were accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Between 23 and 31 October, OVSICORI-UNA reported 57 small emissions and 120 explosions of varying size and characteristics. The Washington VAAC was unable to see most of the emissions in satellite imagery due to weather clouds, however the plumes on 31 October were reported at 4.3 km altitude moving W. Both seismic and eruptive activity declined considerably during November 2015. OVSICORI-UNA reported one small eruption on 27 November and a small explosion on 30 November; they did not mention ash related to either event.

Activity during 2016. OVSICORI-UNA reported a brief emission of gases and volcanic ash to 500 m above the crater on 2 February 2016. Residents of La Silva (2 km NW) reported a sulfur odor and ashfall on 5 February, and additional emissions above Cráter Oeste on 6 February. The Washington VAAC noted gray emissions on 8 February. The next report, on 3 April, described an explosion lasting less than one minute that generated a small gas-and-ash plume. Seismicity increased on 28 April, followed by ash emissions and frequent small explosions on 30 April and 1 May from Cráter Oeste. Gas-and-tephra emissions increased on 1 May with minor amounts of ash deposited in La Central (4 km SW) and La Pastora (6 km SSE). A larger ash plume on 2 May rose 2 km above the summit, and was followed by frequent explosions producing 1-km-high ash plumes the next day. Frequent explosions were again recorded during 3-5 May with ash plumes rising up to 1 km above Cráter Oeste. Small lahars were reported on 7 May, and small, frequent ash emissions accompanied spasmodic tremor on 8 May.

A significant explosion on 16 May 2016, that caused abundant ashfall on farms 2.5 km WNW, was the start of a new episode that lasted for more than two months. Frequent ash emissions continued the next day, although seismic tremor amplitude decreased substantially from the initial explosion. Numerous gas-and-ash emissions were reported during 17-19 May. Ashfall was reported in areas of Valle Central (30-40 km W), including Coronado, Guadalupe, and Heredia (38 km W). On 20 May a Strombolian phase began, producing an ash-and-gas plume that rose 3 km and drifted W. The eruptive column collapsed, generating pyroclastic flows that reached the nearby ranches of La Silva and La Picada, and the Cráter Central. According to a news article, some airlines canceled or delayed flights into the Juan Santamaría International Airport (48 km W).

Gas-and-ash emissions continued during 21-22 May; plumes rose as high as 600 m above the summit. Villagers reported ashfall in areas of San José (40 km WSW), Cartago (25 km SW), Alajuela (49 km W), Heredia (38 km W), Puriscal (65 km WSW), and Jaco (100 km SW). Ash plumes rose as high as 1 km and drifted W and SW on 23 May, causing ashfall in areas downwind including Tapezco (Zarcero-Alfaro Ruíz, 70 km WNW), Guácima de Alajuela (55 km WSW), Barva (39 km W), Finca Lara (17 km W), Finca Laguna (23 km WNW), Grecia, and Naranjo. A strong explosion on 24 May generated new ash plumes that rose 3.5 km and drifted SW. This event ejected large rocks around the crater and led to ashfall in multiple areas including Santa Rosa de Oreamuno, Santa Cecilia de Heredia, and San Francisco de Heredia, tens of kilometers to the W. Large amounts of ash (deposits 2-7 mm thick) fell in Carthage, Heredia (38 km W), San José (40 km W), and Alajuela (49 km W) from more explosions on 25 May that also ejected incandescent material.

A small explosion on 1 June 2016 began a new sequence of ash emissions, with plumes rising 1-2 km, that lasted until 4 June. Ashfall was reported in a number of communities including San Rafael de Moravia (31 km WSW), Sabana (38 km WSW), Buenos Aires (17 km N), and Pococí (45 km N) during 2-3 June. Ash emissions and explosions on 10 June caused ashfall and/or a sulfur odor in multiple areas of Valle Central including San Luis, Santo Domingo, Moravia, San Francisco, and Coronado. OVSICORI-UNA reported increased seismic activity on 16 June; the webcam showed areas of incandescence. Morning satellite imagery showed a diffuse ash plume extending 45 km WNW of the summit that dissipated by mid-afternoon. Tremor increased on 23 June, followed by a lengthy sequence of tremor episodes and ash emissions that lasted through 26 June; ashfall was reported in several neighborhoods in San José and Heredia. Increased tremor on 28 June was likely accompanied by ash emissions, but darkness and clouds obscured views from the webcam.

Strong tremor on 7 July 2016 was followed by an ash plume that rose 1 km above the crater and likely drifted WNW and WSW. Ashfall was recorded in many neighborhoods downwind, in San José, Heredia, and Turrubares. Emissions of large amounts of ash were visible in the webcam the next day, and ashfall was reported in many of the same areas as the day before. The Washington VAAC issued daily reports from 7 to 15 July of diffuse ash emissions observed in the webcam, generally rising less than 500 m above the summit. A new series of explosions during 22-25 July were recorded seismically, but visual observations were difficult due to fog. Hot rock fragments, gas, and ash were noted as high as 500 m above the crater on 24 July. Ash plumes rose to 3 km above the crater and drifted NW, W, and SW the next day. OVSICORI-UNA reported possible volcanic ash again on 29 July and 1 August, but weather clouds prevented views in satellite imagery.

Another new series of explosions and ash emissions began on 13 September 2016. They were reported daily from 15 September to the end of the month. Most plumes rose less than 1 km above the crater, but explosions on 19 September generated ash plumes that rose as high as 4 km and resulted in ashfall in many communities in the Valle Central, including those in San José (35 km WSW), Heredia (38 km W), Alajuela, and Cartago (25 km SW). According to news articles, flights in and out of the Juan Santamaría International Airport were canceled; the airport remained closed at least through the morning of 20 September. The Pavas San José Tobías Bolaños Airport in San José was also temporarily closed. Plumes that rose as high as 2 km were reported on 22, 26, and 27 September.

During a 22-24 September field visit OVSICORI-UNA scientists observed a significant lahar in the Rio Toro Amarillo which flows NW from Turrialba, that mobilized logs and large rocks in a 1.5-m-deep flow (figure 47). They had observed 3 cm of fresh ash in the drainage prior to the start of the rainfall on 22 September.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. The abrupt change in flow conditions was observed by OVSICORI-UNA scientists on 22 September 2016 when heavy rains generated a lahar in the Rio Toro Amarillo at Turrialba. The inset photo shows the same area about an hour before the flooding. Photo by E. Duarte, courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (Algunos Efectos Proximales y Distales por Acumulación de la Ceniza: Volcán Turrialba, Reporte de campo: 22-24 de setiembre de 2016).

From 26 September through 24 November 2016 multiple reports were issued by the Washington VAAC virtually every day, usually reporting minor emissions of gas and ash. OVSICORI reported intermittent steam, gas, and ash emissions rising 500-1,000 m during all of October 2016. Ashfall was reported in Guadeloupe on 11 October. On 16 October OVSICORI-UNA noted that the almost constant ash emission in the previous few days affected the operation and communication of various scientific instruments installed at the top of the volcano and surrounding areas; communication with two seismic stations located near the summit was lost. Webcams showed continuing ash emissions rising as high as 1 km during 16-18 October. During 18-25 October, passive ash emissions continued, causing ashfall in Siquirres (30 ENE), Guacimo (23 km NNE), Guapiles (21 km N), Moravia (27 km W), San José (36 km WSW), Tibás (35 km WSW), Guadalupe (32 km WSW), Curridabat (32 km WSW), Tres Ríos (27 km SW), San Pedro (32 km WSW), and various areas of the Valle Central. Ashfall was reported in Nubes de Coronado (25 km W) on 28 October.

There were fewer reports of ashfall during November, although many areas of the Valle Central reported ashfall during 9-13 November. A small quantity of ash fell in Cartago and Paraiso de Cartago (25 km SE) on 20 November. The Washington VAAC again issued near-daily reports of ash and gas plumes between 6 December and the end of 2016. The weak and sporadic emissions generally rose only a few hundred meters, drifting in multiple directions, and there were few reports of ashfall in the surrounding communities.

Geologic Background. Turrialba, the easternmost of Costa Rica's Holocene volcanoes, is a large vegetated basaltic-to-dacitic stratovolcano located across a broad saddle NE of Irazú volcano overlooking the city of Cartago. The massive edifice covers an area of 500 km2. Three well-defined craters occur at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m summit depression that is breached to the NE. Most activity originated from the summit vent complex, but two pyroclastic cones are located on the SW flank. Five major explosive eruptions have occurred during the past 3500 years. A series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Fumarolic activity continues at the central and SW summit craters.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac/).


Unnamed (Tonga) — June 2017 Citation iconCite this Report

Unnamed

Tonga

20.852°S, 175.55°W; summit elev. -296 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Plumes of discolored water seen in satellite imagery during 23-28 January 2017

Murray Ford, a coastal geomorphologist from New Zealand's Auckland University, reported in a Radio New Zealand story on 1 February 2017 that satellite imagery showed a large plume of discolored water between Tongatapu and the volcanic Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai islands. The activity seen by Murray was on a Landsat 8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) satellite image acquired on 27 January 2017 (figure 2). which showed a bright area of discolored water above the summit and a broader area of discolored water immediately NW, likely from previous events. According to volcanologist Brad Scott (GNS Science) there are additional satellite images from 23, 26, 28, and 29 January 2017, indicating that the eruption had been ongoing for over a week. His colleagues in Tonga indicated a possible associated steam plume, but cloud cover made observations uncertain.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Landsat 8 OLI satellite image a submarine plume from an unnamed seamount in Tonga on 27 January 2017, about 33 km NW of Tongatapu island. A small bright area of discolored water is directly over the summit (bottom center), with a small plume immediately N, and a broad area of discolored water to the NW, likely from previous eruptive events. The larger plume to the NW measures 30 km long and 20 km wide. Courtesy of NASA Earth Observatory.

A report prepared by Taylor (2000) noted that there had been four previous reports of activity from this location: submarine activity in August 1911, a steam plume in July 1923, discolored water in 1970, and an ephemeral island near the end of an eruptive episode during 27 December 1998-14 January 1999 (also see BGVN 24:03). In a blog post about the latest eruption, Brad Scott (GNS Science) also stated that there had been discolored water and felt earthquakes sometime in 2007.

Reference: Taylor, P., 2000, A volcanic hazards assessment following the January 1999 eruption of Submarine Volcano III, Tofua Volcanic Arc, Kingdom of Tonga, Australian Volcanological Investigations (AVI) Occasional Report No. 99/01, 5 August 2000, 7 p.

Geologic Background. An unnamed submarine volcano is located 35 km NW of the Niu Aunofo lighthouse on Tongatapu Island. Tongatapu is a coral island at the southern end of an island chain paralleling the Tofua volcanic arc to the E. The volcano was constructed at the S end of a submarine ridge segment of the Tofua volcanic arc extending NNE to Falcon Island. The first documented eruptions took place in 1911 and 1923; an ephemeral island was formed in 1999.

Information Contacts: NASA Earth Observatory, EOS Project Science Office, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/, https://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/89565/underwater-eruption-near-tongatapu); Brad Scott, New Zealand GeoNet Project, a collaboration between the Earthquake Commission and GNS Science, Wairakei Research Centre, Private Bag 2000, Taupo 3352, New Zealand (URL: http://www.geonet.org.nz/, http://www.geonet.org.nz/news/1usjOmF4LqaI64qScMocuW); Radio New Zealand (URL: http://www.radionz.co.nz/international/pacific-news/323569/scientist-discovers-underwater-eruption-in-tonga).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).