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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network

All reports of volcanic activity published by the Smithsonian since 1968 are available through a monthly table of contents or by searching for a specific volcano. Until 1975, reports were issued for individual volcanoes as information became available; these have been organized by month for convenience. Later publications were done in a monthly newsletter format. Links go to the profile page for each volcano with the Bulletin tab open.

Information is preliminary at time of publication and subject to change.


Recently Published Bulletin Reports

Ibu (Indonesia) Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ebeko (Russia) Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

Klyuchevskoy (Russia) Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Yasur (Vanuatu) Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Bagana (Papua New Guinea) Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

Ambae (Vanuatu) Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Sangay (Ecuador) Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows

Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) Ash emissions and thermal anomalies during October 2018-April 2019; lava emissions at the E flank coast and summit area

Sarychev Peak (Russia) Brief ash emission reported on 16 May 2019

Nyiragongo (DR Congo) Lava lake remains active through May 2019; three new vents around the secondary cone

Bezymianny (Russia) Ongoing thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam plumes, and lava dome growth during February-May 2019; strong explosion in mid-March

Nevados de Chillan (Chile) Small ash explosions and dome growth during December 2018-May 2019; ballistic ejecta deposited around the crater, with a pyroclastic flow in May



Ibu (Indonesia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ibu

Indonesia

1.488°N, 127.63°E; summit elev. 1325 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent ash plumes and small lava flows active in the crater through June 2019

Ibu volcano on Halmahera island in Indonesia began the current eruption episode on 5 April 2008. Since then, activity has largely consisted of small ash plumes with less frequent lava flows, lava dome growth, avalanches, and larger ash plumes up to 5.5 km above the crater. This report summarizes activity during December 2018 through June 2019 and is based on Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) reports by MAGMA Indonesia, reports by Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG) and Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), and various satellite data.

During December PVMBG reported ash plumes ranging from 200 to 800 m above the crater. There were 11 MODVOLC thermal alerts that registered during 1-12 December. An explosion on 12 January 2019 produced an ash plume that reached 800 m above the crater and dispersed to the S (figure 15). A report released for this event by Sutopo at BNPB said that Ibu had erupted almost every day over the past three months; an example given was of activity on 10 January consisting of 80 explosions. There were four MODVOLC thermal alerts through the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 15. An eruption at Ibu at 1712 on 21 January 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to 800 m above the crater. Courtesy of BNPB (color adjusted).

Throughout February explosions frequently produced ash plumes as high as 800 m above the crater, and nine MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued. Daily reports showed variable plume heights of 200-800 m most days throughout the month. Wind directions varied and dispersed the plumes in all directions. A VONA released at 1850 on 6 February reported an ash plume that rose to 1,925 m altitude (around 600 m above the summit) and dispersed S. Activity continued through March with the Darwin VAAC and PVMBG reporting explosions producing ash plumes to heights of 200-800 m above the crater and dispersing in various directions. There were ten MODVOLC alerts through the month.

Similar activity continued through April, May, and June, with ash plumes reaching 200-800 m above the crater. There were 12, 6, and 15 MODVOLC Alerts in April, May, and June, respectively.

Planet Scope satellite images show activity at a two vents near the center of the crater that were producing small lava flows from February through June (figure 16). Thermal anomalies were frequent during December 2018 through June 2019 across MODVOLC, MIROVA, and Sentinel-2 infrared data (figures 17 and 18). Sentinel-2 data showed minor variation in the location of thermal anomalies within the crater, possibly indicating lava flow activity, and MIROVA data showed relatively constant activity with a few reductions in thermal activity during January and February.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. Planet Scope natural color satellite images showing activity in the Ibu crater during January through June 2019, with white arrows indicating sites of activity. One vent is visible in the 21 February image, and a 330-m-long (from the far side of the vent) lava flow with flow ridges had developed by 24 March. A second vent was active by 12 May with a new lava flow reaching a maximum length of 520 m. Activity was centered back at the previous vent by 23-27 June. Natural color Planet Scope Imagery, copyright 2019 Planet Labs, Inc.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 17. Examples of thermal activity in the Ibu crater during January through May 2019. These Sentinel-2 satellite images show variations in hot areas in the crater due to a vent producing a small lava flow. Sentinel-2 false color (urban) images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 18. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Ibu from September 2018 through June 2019. The registered energy was relatively stable through December, with breaks in January and February. Regular thermal anomalies continued with slight variation through to the end of June. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The truncated summit of Gunung Ibu stratovolcano along the NW coast of Halmahera Island has large nested summit craters. The inner crater, 1 km wide and 400 m deep, contained several small crater lakes through much of historical time. The outer crater, 1.2 km wide, is breached on the north side, creating a steep-walled valley. A large parasitic cone is located ENE of the summit. A smaller one to the WSW has fed a lava flow down the W flank. A group of maars is located below the N and W flanks. Only a few eruptions have been recorded in historical time, the first a small explosive eruption from the summit crater in 1911. An eruption producing a lava dome that eventually covered much of the floor of the inner summit crater began in December 1998.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); MAGMA Indonesia, Kementerian Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral (URL: https://magma.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Planet Labs, Inc. (URL: https://www.planet.com/).


Ebeko (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ebeko

Russia

50.686°N, 156.014°E; summit elev. 1103 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Continuing frequent moderate explosions though May 2019; ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk

The Ebeko volcano, located on the northern end of the Paramushir Island in the Kuril Islands, consists of many craters, lakes, and thermal features and has been frequently erupting since late February 2017. Typical activity includes ash plumes, explosive eruptions, and gas-and-steam activity. The previous report through November 2018 (BGVN 43:12) described frequent ash explosions that sometimes caused ashfall in Severo-Kurilsk (7 km E). The primary source of information is the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT). This report updates the volcanic activity at Ebeko for December 2018 through May 2019.

Frequent moderate explosive activity continued after November 2018. Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk observed explosions sending up ash, which drifted N, NE, and E, resulting in ash falls on Severo-Kurilsk on 28 different days between December 2018 and March 2019. On 25 December 2018 an explosion sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 4.5 km and then drifted N for about 5 km. Explosions occurring on 8-10 March 2019 sent ash up to an altitude of 4 km, resulting in ashfall on Severo-Kurilsk on 9-10 March 2019. An ash plume from these explosions rose to a height of 2.5 km and drifted to a maximum distance of 30 km ENE.

Satellite data analyzed by KVERT registered 12 thermal anomalies from December 2018 through May 2019. According to satellite data analyzed by MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), only one thermal anomaly was recorded from December 2018-May 2019, and no hotspot pixels were recognized using satellite thermal data from the MODVOLC algorithm.

Geologic Background. The flat-topped summit of the central cone of Ebeko volcano, one of the most active in the Kuril Islands, occupies the northern end of Paramushir Island. Three summit craters located along a SSW-NNE line form Ebeko volcano proper, at the northern end of a complex of five volcanic cones. Blocky lava flows extend west from Ebeko and SE from the neighboring Nezametnyi cone. The eastern part of the southern crater contains strong solfataras and a large boiling spring. The central crater is filled by a lake about 20 m deep whose shores are lined with steaming solfataras; the northern crater lies across a narrow, low barrier from the central crater and contains a small, cold crescentic lake. Historical activity, recorded since the late-18th century, has been restricted to small-to-moderate explosive eruptions from the summit craters. Intense fumarolic activity occurs in the summit craters, on the outer flanks of the cone, and in lateral explosion craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Klyuchevskoy (Russia) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Klyuchevskoy

Russia

56.056°N, 160.642°E; summit elev. 4754 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Weak thermal anomalies and moderate Strombolian-type eruptions in September 2018-June 2019

Klyuchevskoy has had alternating eruptive and less active periods since August 2015. Activity has included lava flows, a growing cinder cone, thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam plumes, and ash explosions. Though some eruptions occur near the summit crater, major explosive and effusive eruptions have also occurred from flank craters (BGVN 42:04 and 43:05). Intermittent moderate gas-and-steam and ash emissions were previously reported from mid-February to mid-August 2018. The Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT) is the primary source of information for this September 2018-June 2019 reporting period.

KVERT reported that moderate gas-and-steam activity, some of which contained a small amount of ash, and weak thermal anomalies occurred intermittently from the beginning of September 2018 through mid-April 2019. On 21-22 April 2019 webcam data showed a gas-and-steam plume extending about 160 km SE (figure 31). Moderate Strombolian-type volcanism began late April 2019 and continued intermittently through June 2019. On 11-12 June webcam data showed explosions that sent ash up to a maximum altitude of 6 km, with the resulting ash plume extending about 200 km WNW.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Gas-and-steam plume containing some amount of ash rising from the summit of Klyuchevskoy on 22 April 2019. Photo by A. Klimova, courtesy of Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (IVS FEB RAS).

Thermal anomalies were noted by KVERT during two days in September 2018, six days in April 2019, eleven days in May 2019, and six days in June 2019. MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data showed infrequent weak thermal anomalies December 2018 through early May 2019.

Geologic Background. Klyuchevskoy (also spelled Kliuchevskoi) is Kamchatka's highest and most active volcano. Since its origin about 6000 years ago, the beautifully symmetrical, 4835-m-high basaltic stratovolcano has produced frequent moderate-volume explosive and effusive eruptions without major periods of inactivity. It rises above a saddle NE of sharp-peaked Kamen volcano and lies SE of the broad Ushkovsky massif. More than 100 flank eruptions have occurred during the past roughly 3000 years, with most lateral craters and cones occurring along radial fissures between the unconfined NE-to-SE flanks of the conical volcano between 500 m and 3600 m elevation. The morphology of the 700-m-wide summit crater has been frequently modified by historical eruptions, which have been recorded since the late-17th century. Historical eruptions have originated primarily from the summit crater, but have also included numerous major explosive and effusive eruptions from flank craters.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Yasur (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Yasur

Vanuatu

19.532°S, 169.447°E; summit elev. 361 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Strong thermal activity with incandescent ejecta continues, February-May 2019

Yasur volcano on Tanna Island has been characterized by Strombolian activity with large incandescent bombs, frequent explosions, lava fountaining, and ash emissions for much of its known eruptive history. Melanesians from nearby islands are believed to have settled Tanna in about 400 BCE; it is now part of the nation of Vanuatu, independent since 1980. The Kwamera language (or Tannese) spoken on the SE coast of the island is thought to be the source of the name of the island. No known oral history describes volcanic activity; the first written English-language documentation of activity dates to 5 August 1774, when Captain James Cook saw "a great fire" on Tanna Island. Cook realized that it "was a Volcano which threw up vast quantities of fire and smoak and made a rumbling noise which was heard at a good distance" (The Captain Cook Society) (figure 51).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 51. Incandescence, steam, and dark ash from Yasur fill the sky in this sketch representing Captain James Cook's landing in the 'Resolution' at Tanna Island on 5 August 1774. The form of the volcano is behind the ship, the incandescence is in the upper right next to the ship's masts. "Landing at Tanna" by William Hodges, 1775-1776, National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London. The Maritime Museum noted that this is one of a group of panel paintings produced by Hodges of encounters with islanders during the voyage, in which the European perception of each society at the time is portrayed. Image taken from Wikimedia Commons.

Based on numerous accounts from ships logs and other sources, volcanic activity has been continuous since that time. During periods of higher activity, multiple vents within the summit crater send ejecta 100 m or more above the crater rim, with large bombs occasionally landing hundreds of meters away. Continued activity during February-May 2019 is covered in this report with information provided by the Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) which monitors the volcano and satellite data; photographs from tourists also provide valuable information about this remote location.

VMGD has maintained Alert Level 2 at Yasur since October 2016, indicating that it is in a major state of unrest. There is a permanent exclusion zone within 395 m of the eruptive vents where access is prohibited due to multiple hazards, primarily from large incandescent bombs up to 4 m in diameter which have been ejected from the vents onto the crater rim in the past, resulting in fatalities (BGVN 20:08).

Satellite and ground based information all support high levels of thermal activity during February -May 2019. MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued 11 times in February, 27 times in March, and 20 times each in April and May. The MIROVA graph also indicated the ongoing consistently high levels of thermal energy throughout the period (figure 52). Plumes of SO2 emissions are common from Vanuatu's volcanoes; newer higher resolution data available beginning in 2019 reveal a persistent stream of SO2 from Yasur on a near-daily basis (figure 53).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 52. The MIROVA graph of thermal energy at Yasur from 3 September 2018 through May 2019 indicates the ongoing activity at the volcano. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 53. The SO2 plumes from Yasur were persistent during January-May 2019 when they were visible many days of each week throughout the period. Top left: On 12 January plumes were visible drifting E from both Ambrym (top) and Yasur (bottom). Top right: Plumes drifted W from three Vanuatu volcanoes on 7 February, Gaua (top), Ambrym (middle) and Yasur (bottom). Bottom left: On 12 March N drifting plumes could be seen from Ambae (top) and Yasur (bottom). On 27 April, only Yasur had an SO2 plume drifting W. Courtesy of Goddard Space Flight Center.

Satellite imagery confirmed that the heat sources from Yasur were vents within the summit crater of the pyroclastic cone. Both northern and southern vent areas were active. On 7 March 2019 the N vent area had a strong thermal signal. Ten days later, on 17 March, similar intensity thermal anomalies were present in both the N and S vent areas (figure 54). On 6 April the S vent area had a stronger signal, and gas emissions from both vents were drifting N (figure 55). Satellite imagery from 21 May 2019 indicated a strong thermal signal inside the crater in the area of the vents, and included a weaker signal clearly visible on the inside E crater rim. Strong Strombolian activity or spatter sending large incandescent bombs as far as the crater rim are a likely explanation for the signal (figure 56), underscoring the hazardous nature of approaching the crater rim.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 54. Strong thermal anomalies from the crater of Yasur's pyroclastic cone seen in satellite images confirmed the ongoing high level of activity. Left: 7 March 2019, a strong thermal anomaly from the N vent area, shown with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Right: 17 March 2019, thermal anomalies at both the N and S vent areas, shown with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 55. Strong thermal anomalies (left) and gas emissions (right) at Yasur were captured with different bands in the same Sentinel-2 satellite image on 6 April 2019. Left: The thermal anomaly in the S vent area was stronger than in the N vent area, "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: Gas plumes drifted N from both vent areas, "Natural color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2). The crater is about 500 m in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 56. Thermal activity from the crater of Yasur on 21 May 2019 produced a strong thermal signal from the center of the crater and a weaker signal on the inside E crater rim, likely the result of hazardous incandescent bombs and ejecta, frequent products of the activity at Yasur. Left: "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Right: "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). The crater is about 0.5 km in diameter. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Tourists visit Yasur on a regular basis. A former lake on the N side of Yasur has left ripples in the sand deposits over older volcanic rocks on the N side of the volcano (figure 57) since it drained in 2000 (BGVN 28:01). Visitors are allowed to approach the S rim of the crater where incandescence from both the N and S vents is usually visible (figure 58). Incandescent spatter from the convecting lava in the vents is highly dangerous and unpredictable and often covers the inner slopes of the rim as well as sending bombs outside the crater (figure 59).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 57. The pyroclastic cone of Yasur viewed from the north on 6 May 2019. Ripples in volcaniclastic sand in the foreground are remnants of a lake that was present on the N side of the volcano until a natural dam breached in 2000. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 58. Two glowing vents were visible from the south rim of Yasur on 6 May 2019. The S vent area is in the foreground, the N vent area is in the upper left. Copyrighted by Nick Page, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 59. Incandescent spatter at Yasur on 6 May 2019 sent fragments of lava against the inside crater wall and onto the rim. The convecting lava in the vent can be seen in the lower foreground. Copyrighted photo by Nick Page, used with permission.

Geologic Background. Yasur, the best-known and most frequently visited of the Vanuatu volcanoes, has been in more-or-less continuous Strombolian and Vulcanian activity since Captain Cook observed ash eruptions in 1774. This style of activity may have continued for the past 800 years. Located at the SE tip of Tanna Island, this mostly unvegetated pyroclastic cone has a nearly circular, 400-m-wide summit crater. The active cone is largely contained within the small Yenkahe caldera, and is the youngest of a group of Holocene volcanic centers constructed over the down-dropped NE flank of the Pleistocene Tukosmeru volcano. The Yenkahe horst is located within the Siwi ring fracture, a 4-km-wide, horseshoe-shaped caldera associated with eruption of the andesitic Siwi pyroclastic sequence. Active tectonism along the Yenkahe horst accompanying eruptions has raised Port Resolution harbor more than 20 m during the past century.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); The Captain Cook Society (URL: https://www.captaincooksociety.com/home/detail/225-years-ago-july-september-1774); Royal Museums Greenwich (URL: https://collections.rmg.co.uk/collections/objects/13383.html); Wikimedia Commons, (URL: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Landing_at_Tana_one_of_the_New_Hebrides,_by_William_Hodges.jpg); Nick Page, Australia,Flickr: (URL: https://www.flickr.com/photos/152585166@N08/).


Bagana (Papua New Guinea) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bagana

Papua New Guinea

6.137°S, 155.196°E; summit elev. 1855 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Infrequent thermal anomalies, no ash emissions, February-May 2019

With historical eruptions reported back to 1842, Papua New Guinea's Bagana volcano on the island of Bougainville has been characterized by viscous andesitic lava flows down the steep flanks of its cone, along with intermittent ash plumes and pyroclastic flows. Ongoing thermal anomalies and frequent ash plumes have been typical of activity during the current eruption since it began in early 2000. Activity declined significantly in December 2018 and remained low through May 2019, the period covered in this report (figure 33). Information for this report comes primarily from satellite images and thermal data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. The MIROVA plot of radiative power at Bagana from 1 September 2018 through May 2019 shows a marked decline in thermal activity during December 2018 after ash explosions and satellite observations of flows during the previous months. Courtesy of MIROVA.

The last ash emission at Bagana was reported on 1 December 2018 by the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). A Sentinel-2 satellite image showed a linear thermal anomaly trending NW from the summit on 14 December (BGVN 50:01). On 8 January 2019, an image contained a dense steam plume drifting E and a very faint thermal anomaly on the N flank a few hundred meters from the summit. A more distinct thermal anomaly at the summit appeared on 22 February 2019 (figure 34). A visitor to the region photographed incandescence on the flank, likely from the volcano, at dawn around 19 February 2019 (figure 35).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery revealed thermal anomalies at Bagana in January and February 2019. Left: a very faint thermal anomaly was N of the summit at the edge of the E-drifting steam plume on 8 January 2019. Right: A thermal anomaly was located at the summit, at the base of the NE-drifting steam plume on 22 February 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite images with "Atmospheric Penetration" rendering (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. A visitor near Bagana spotted incandescence on the flank at dawn, possibly from a lava flow. Posted online 19 February 2019. Courtesy of Emily Stanford.

Two faint thermal anomalies were visible at the summit in satellite imagery on 19 March; a single one appeared on 29 March 2019 (figure 36). No thermal anomalies were recorded in Sentinel-2 images during April or May, but steam plumes and gas emissions were visible through cloud cover on multiple occasions (figure 37).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Faint thermal anomalies at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery twice during March 2019. Left: 19 March, two anomalies appear right of the date label. Right: 29 March, a small anomaly appears right of the date label. Sentinel-2 image rendered with "Atmospheric Penetration" (bands 12, 11, 8A). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 37. Steam and gas emissions at Bagana were recorded in satellite imagery during April and May 2019. Left: A steam plume drifted NW from the summit on 23 April, visible through dense cloud cover. Right: A gas plume drifted SW from the summit on 18 May. Sentinel-2 image with "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Bagana volcano, occupying a remote portion of central Bougainville Island, is one of Melanesia's youngest and most active volcanoes. This massive symmetrical cone was largely constructed by an accumulation of viscous andesitic lava flows. The entire edifice could have been constructed in about 300 years at its present rate of lava production. Eruptive activity is frequent and characterized by non-explosive effusion of viscous lava that maintains a small lava dome in the summit crater, although explosive activity occasionally producing pyroclastic flows also occurs. Lava flows form dramatic, freshly preserved tongue-shaped lobes up to 50 m thick with prominent levees that descend the flanks on all sides.

Information Contacts: MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Emily Stanford (Twitter: https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady, image posted at https://twitter.com/NerdyBatLady/status/1098052063009792001/photo/1).


Ambae (Vanuatu) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ambae

Vanuatu

15.389°S, 167.835°E; summit elev. 1496 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Declining thermal activity and no explosions during February-May 2019

Ambae (Aoba) is a large basaltic shield volcano in the New Hebrides arc, part of the multi-island country of Vanuatu. Its periodic phreatic and pyroclastic explosions originating in the summit crater lakes have been recorded since the 16th century. A pyroclastic cone appeared in Lake Voui during November 2005-February 2006 (BGVN 31:12, figure 30); an explosive eruption from a new pyroclastic cone in the lake began in mid-September 2017 (BGVN 43:02). Activity included high-altitude ash emissions (9.1 km), lava flows, and Strombolian activity. Intermittent pulses of ash emissions during the following months resulted in extensive ashfall and evacuations; multiple communities were affected by lahars. The most recent episode of the eruption from July to September 2018 (BGVN 44:02) resulted in 11-km-altitude ash plumes and the evacuation of the entire island due to heavy ashfall and lahars. This report covers activity from February to May 2019, with information provided by the Vanuatu Geohazards Observatory of the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) and satellite data from multiple sources.

Activity diminished after the extensive eruptive phase of July-September 2018 when substantial ash plumes and ashfall resulted in evacuations. An explosion with an ash plume on 30 October 2018 was the last activity reported for 2018. Thermal alerts were reported by the Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) MODVOLC thermal alerts system through January 2019, and the Log Radiative Power graph prepared by the MIROVA project showed decreasing thermal anomalies into June 2019 (figure 92). Satellite images recorded in April and May 2019 (figure 93) showed the configuration of the summit lakes to be little changed from the previous November except for the color (BGVN 44:02, figure 89). No ash emissions or SO2 plumes were reported during the period. VMGD noted that the volcano remained at Alert Level 2 through May 2019 with a 2-km-radius exclusion zone around the summit.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 92. The MIROVA log radiative power plot for Ambae showed ongoing intermittent thermal anomalies from early September 2018 through May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 93. Satellite imagery in April and May 2019 showed little change in the configuration of lakes at the summit of Ambae since November 2018 (see BGVN 44:02, figure 89). Left: 24 April 2019. Right: 29 May 2019. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery with "Natural Color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2); courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The island of Ambae, also known as Aoba, is a massive 2500 km3 basaltic shield that is the most voluminous volcano of the New Hebrides archipelago. A pronounced NE-SW-trending rift zone dotted with scoria cones gives the 16 x 38 km island an elongated form. A broad pyroclastic cone containing three crater lakes (Manaro Ngoru, Voui, and Manaro Lakua) is located at the summit within the youngest of at least two nested calderas, the largest of which is 6 km in diameter. That large central edifice is also called Manaro Voui or Lombenben volcano. Post-caldera explosive eruptions formed the summit craters about 360 years ago. A tuff cone was constructed within Lake Voui (or Vui) about 60 years later. The latest known flank eruption, about 300 years ago, destroyed the population of the Nduindui area near the western coast.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Sangay (Ecuador) — July 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangay

Ecuador

2.005°S, 78.341°W; summit elev. 5286 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Explosion on 26 March 2019; activity from 10 May through June produced ash plumes, lava flows, and pyroclastic flows

Sangay is the southernmost active volcano in Ecuador, with confirmed historical eruptions going back to 1628. The previous eruption occurred during August and December and was characterized by ash plumes reaching 2,500 m above the crater. Lava flows and pyroclastic flows descended the eastern and southern flanks. This report summarizes activity during January through July 2019 and is based on reports by Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and various satellite data.

After the December 2018 eruption there was a larger reduction in seismicity, down to one event per day. During January, February, and most of March there was no recorded activity and low seismicity until the Washington VAAC reported an ash plume at 0615 on 26 March. The ash plume rose to a height of around 1 km and dispersed to the SW as seen in GOES 16 satellite imagery as a dark plume within white meteorological clouds. There was no seismic data available due to technical problems with the station.

More persistent eruptive activity began on 10 May with thermal alerts (figure 30) and an ash plume at 0700 that dispersed to the W. An explosion was recorded at 1938 on 11 May, producing an ash plume and incandescent material down the flank (figure 31). Two M 2 earthquakes were detected between 3.5 and 9 km below the crater on 10 May, possibly corresponding to explosive activity. By 17 May there were two active eruptive centers, the central crater and the Ñuñurcu dome (figure 32).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared at Sangay for the year ending June 2019. The plot shows the August to December 2018 eruption, a break in activity, and resumed activity in May 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. An explosion at Sangay on 10 May 2019 sent ballistic projectiles up to 650 m above the crater at a velocity of over 400 km/hour, an ash plume that rose to over 600 m, and incandescent blocks that traveled over 1.5 km from the crater at velocities of around 150 km/hour. Screenshots are from video by IG-EPN.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. A photograph of the southern flank of Sangay on 17 May 2019 with the corresponding thermal infrared image in the top right corner. The letters correspond to: a) a fissure to the W of the lava flow; b) an active lava flow from the Ñuñurcu dome; c) the central crater producing a volcanic gas plume; d) a pyroclastic flow deposit produced by collapsing material from the front of the lava flow. Prepared by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 3 – 2019).

Activity at the central crater by 21 May was characterized by sporadic explosive eruptions that ejected hot ballistic ejecta (blocks) with velocities over 400 km/hour; after landing on the flanks the blocks travelled out to 2.5 km from the crater. Ash plumes reached heights between 0.9-2.3 km above the crater and dispersed mainly to the W and NW; gas plumes also dispersed to the W. The Ñuñurcu dome is located around 190 m SSE of the central crater and by 21 May had produced a lava flow over 470 m long with a maximum width of 175 m and an estimated minimum volume of 300,000 to 600,000 m3. Small pyroclastic flows and rockfalls resulted from collapse of the lava flow front, depositing material over a broad area on the E-SE flanks (figure 33). One pyroclastic flow reached 340 m and covered an area of 14,300 m2. During the 17 May observation flight the lava flow surface reached 277°C.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. A view of the ESE flanks of Sangay on 17 May 2019. The area within the black dotted line is the main area of pyroclastic flow deposition from the Ñuñurco Dome. Photo by M. Almeida; courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

At the end of June activity was continuing at the central crater and Ñuñurco Dome. At least three lava flows had been generated from the dome down the SE flank and pyroclastic flows continued to form from the flow fronts (figure 34). Pyroclastic material had been washed into the Upano river and steam was observed in the Volcán River possibly due to the presence of hot rocks. Ash plumes continued through June reaching heights of 800 m above the crater (figure 35), but no ashfall had been reported in nearby communities.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Sentinel-2 natural color (left) and thermal (center) images (bands 12, 11, 4), and 1:50 000 scale maps (right) of Sangay with interpretation on the background of a 30 m numerical terrain model (WGS84; Zone 17S) (Prepared by B. Bernard). The dates from top to bottom are 17 May, 22 May, 27 May, 16 June, and 26 June 2019. Prepared by B. Bernard; courtesy IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Plots giving the heights and dispersal direction of ash plumes at Sangay during May and June 2019. Top: Ash plume heights measures in meters above the crater. Bottom: A plot showing that the dominant dispersal direction of ash plumes is to the W during this time. Courtesy of IG-EPN (special report No. 4 – 2019).

Geologic Background. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec); Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB), NOAA/NESDIS OSPO, NOAA Science Center Room 401, 5200 Auth Rd, Camp Springs, MD 20746, USA (URL: www.ospo.noaa.gov/Products/atmosphere/vaac, archive at: http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/VAAC/archive.html); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kadovar (Papua New Guinea) — May 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kadovar

Papua New Guinea

3.608°S, 144.588°E; summit elev. 365 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash emissions and thermal anomalies during October 2018-April 2019; lava emissions at the E flank coast and summit area

Steeply-sloped Kadovar Island is located about 25 km NNE from the mouth of the Sepik River on the mainland of Papua New Guinea. The first confirmed historical eruption with ash plumes and lava extrusion began in early January 2018, resulting in the evacuation of around 600 residents from the N side of the approximately 1.4-km-diameter island (BGVN 43:03); continuing activity from October 2018 through April 2019 is covered in this report. Information was provided by the Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), satellite sources, and photos from visiting tourists.

Activity during March-September 2018. After the first recorded explosions with ash plumes in early January 2018, intermittent ash plumes continued through March 2018. A lava flow on the E flank extended outward from the island, extruding from a vent low on the E flank and forming a dome just offshore. The dome collapsed and regrew twice during February 2018; the growth rate slowed somewhat during March. A satellite image from 21 March 2018 was one of the first showing the new dome growing off the E flank with a thermal anomaly and sediment plumes in the water drifting N and E from the area. Thermal anomalies were visible at both the summit vent and the E-flank coastal dome in in April and May 2018, along with steam and gas rising from both locations (figure 19).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Sentinel-2 satellite imagery of Kadovar provided clear evidence of thermal activity at the new E-flank coastal dome during March-May 2018. Sediment plumes were visible drifting N and E in the water adjacent to the coastal dome. The summit crater also had a persistent steam plume and thermal anomaly in April and May 2018. Left: 21 March 2018. Middle 10 April 2018. Right: 15 May 2018. Images all shown with "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

A trip to Kadovar by tourists in mid-May 2018 provided close-up views of the dense steam plumes at the summit and the growing E-flank coastal dome (figures 20 and 21). The thermal anomaly was still strong at the E-flank coastal dome in a mid-June satellite image, but appeared diminished in late July. Intermittent puffs of steam rose from both the summit and the coastal dome in mid-June; the summit plume was much denser on 29 July (figure 22). Ash emissions were reported by the Darwin VAAC and photographed by tourists during June (figure 23) and September 2018 (BGVN 43:10), but thermal activity appeared to decline during that period (figure 24).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. A tourist photographed Kadovar and posted it online on 19 May 2018. Steam plumes rose from both the summit and the E-flank coastal dome in this view taken from the SE. Courtesy of Tico Liu.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. A closeup view of the E-flank coastal dome at Kadovar posted online on 19 May 2018 showed steam rising from several places on the dome, and dead trees on the flank of the volcano from recent eruptive activity. Courtesy of Tico Liu.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. The thermal anomaly was still strong at the E-flank coastal dome of Kadovar in a 14 June 2018 satellite image (left), but appeared diminished on 29 July 2018 (right). Intermittent puffs of steam rose from both the summit and the coastal dome on 14 June; the summit plume was much denser on 29 July. Sentinel-2 images both show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. An ash plume rose from the summit of Kadovar and drifted W while steam and gas rose from the E-flank coastal dome, posted online 27 June 2018. Courtesy of Shari Kalt.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Thermal activity at Kadovar for the year ending on 26 April 2019 was consistent from late April 2018 through mid-June 2018; a quiet period afterwards through late September ended with renewed and increased thermal activity beginning in October 2018. All distances are actually within 1 km of the summit of Kadovar, a DEM georeferencing error makes some locations appear further away. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Multiple satellite images during August and early September 2018 showed little or no sign of thermal activity at the E-flank coastal dome, with only intermittent steam plumes from the summit. A new steam plume on the eastern slope appeared in a 22 September 2018 image (figure 25). The Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO) reported explosive activity on the afternoon of 21 September. Noises of explosions were accompanied by dark gray and brown ash clouds that rose several hundred meters above the summit crater and drifted NW. Local reports indicated that the activity continued through 26 September and ashfall was reported on Blupblup island during the period. Ground observers noted incandescence visible from both the summit and the E-flank coastal dome.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Steam plumes were seen in satellite images of Kadovar during August and early September 2018, but no thermal anomalies. Intermittent steam plumes rose from the summit vent on 28 August (left). A new dense steam plume originating mid-way down the E flank appeared on 22 September 2018 (right). Sentinel-2 images both show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during October-December 2018. Evidence of both thermal and explosive activity reappeared in October 2018 (figure 24). The Darwin VAAC reported intermittent ash plumes rising to 2.7 km altitude and drifting W on 1 October 2018. Low-level continuous ash emissions rising less than a kilometer and drifting W were reported early on 3 October. A higher plume drifted WNW at 2.4 km altitude on 7 October. Intermittent discrete emissions of ash continued daily at that altitude through 16 October, drifting NW or W. Ash emissions drifting NW and thermal anomalies at the summit were visible in satellite imagery on 2 and 12 October (figure 26). A brief ash emission was reported on 21 October 2018 at 2.4 km altitude drifting NE for a few hours. Intermittent ash emissions also appeared on 29 October moving SE at 1.8 km altitude. For the following three days ash drifted SW, W, then NW at 2.1 km altitude, finally dissipating on 1 November; the thermal anomaly at the summit was large and intense in satellite images on 27 October and 1 November compared with previous images (figure 27).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Ash emissions drifting NW and thermal anomalies at the summit of Kadovar were visible in satellite imagery on 2 and 12 October 2018; no thermal activity was noted at the E-flank coastal dome. Sentinel-2 images both show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. Strong thermal anomalies at the summit of Kadovar on 27 October and 1 November 2018 were not concealed by the steam plumes drifting SW and NW from the summit. Sentinel-2 images both show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

An ash explosion was photographed by tourists on a cruise ship on the afternoon of 6 November 2018 (figure 28). After the explosion, a dense steam plume rose from a large dome of lava near the summit at the top of the E flank (figure 29). Continuous ash emissions rising to 1.8 km altitude were reported by the Darwin VAAC beginning on 9 November 2018 moving WNW and lasting about 24 hours. A new ash plume clearly identifiable on satellite imagery appeared on 13 November at 2.4 km altitude moving E, again visible for about 24 hours. Another shipboard tourist photographed an ash plume on 18 November rising a few hundred meters above the summit (figure 30).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. An explosion at Kadovar photographed on the afternoon of 6 November 2018 sent a dense gray ash plume hundreds of meters above the summit drifting W; blocks of volcanic debris descended the flanks as well. View is from the S. Courtesy of Coral Expeditions, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. Tourists on a cruise ship passed by Kadovar on 6 November 2018 and witnessed a steam plume drifting W from a large dome of lava near the summit at the top of the E flank after an ash explosion. Smaller steam plumes were visible in the middle and at the base of the E flank, but no activity was visible at the coastal dome off the E flank (lower right). View is from the SE. Courtesy of Coral Expeditions, used with permission.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. An ash plume rose at dusk from the summit of Kadovar and was witnessed by a cruise ship tourist on 18 November 2018. View is from the E; the E-flank coastal dome is a lighter area in the lower foreground. Courtesy of Philip Stern.

Low-level ash emissions were reported briefly on 28 November at about 1 km altitude moving SE. Intermittent puffs of ash were seen drifting WSW on 2 and 3 December at about 1.2 km altitude. They were the last VAAC reports for 2018. Two thermal anomalies were visible at the summit in satellite imagery on 26 November, they grew larger and more intense through 16 December when multiple anomalies appeared at the summit and on the E flank (figure 31).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Multiple thermal anomalies near the summit of Kadovar grew larger and more intense between 26 November and 16 December 2018. Sentinel-2 images show "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Activity during January-April 2019. Multiple thermal anomalies were still visible at the summit in satellite imagery on 5 January 2019 as regular puffs of steam drifted SE from the summit, leaving a long trail in the atmosphere (figure 32). Additional imagery on 10 and 30 January showed a single anomaly at the summit, even through dense meteorologic clouds. A short-lived ash emission rose to 2.4 km altitude on 11 January 2019 and drifted E; it dissipated the next day. Multiple minor intermittent discrete ash plumes extended WNW at 3.0 km altitude on 18 January; they dissipated within six hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Multiple thermal anomalies were visible in satellite imagery of Kadovar on 5 January 2019 as regular puffs of steam drifted SE from the summit. Sentinel-2 image shows "Geology" rendering using bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

The Royal New Zealand Air Force released images of eruptive activity on 10 February 2019 (figure 33). Satellite imagery in February was largely obscured by weather; two thermal anomalies were barely visible through clouds at the summit on 14 February. The Darwin VAAC reported an ash emission at 1.8 km altitude drifting ESE on 16 February; a similar plume appeared on 21 February that also dissipated in just a few hours.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. The Royal New Zealand Air Force released images of an ash plume at Kadovar on 10 February 2019. Courtesy of Brad Scott.

Satellite imagery on 1 March 2019 confirmed a strong thermal anomaly from the summit and down the E flank almost to the coast. A month later on 5 April the anomaly was nearly as strong and a dense ash and steam plume drifted N from the summit (figure 34). A tourist witnessed a dense steam plume rising from the summit on 4 April (figure 35). Multiple discrete eruptions were observed in satellite imagery by the Darwin VAAC on 9 April at 1.2-1.5 km altitude drifting SE. The thermal anomaly at the summit persisted in satellite imagery taken on 15 April 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. A strong thermal anomaly appeared from the summit down the E flank of Kadovar on 1 March 2019 (left). A month later on 5 April the strong anomaly was still present beneath a dense plume of ash and steam (right). Sentinel-2 imagery shows "Geology" rendering with bands 12, 4, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. A dense steam plume is shown here rising from the summit area of Kadovar, posted online on 4 April 2019. View is from the N. Courtesy of Chaiyasit Saengsirirak.

Geologic Background. The 2-km-wide island of Kadovar is the emergent summit of a Bismarck Sea stratovolcano of Holocene age. Kadovar is part of the Schouten Islands, and lies off the coast of New Guinea, about 25 km N of the mouth of the Sepik River. The village of Gewai is perched on the crater rim. A 365-m-high lava dome forming the high point of the andesitic volcano fills an arcuate landslide scarp that is open to the south, and submarine debris-avalanche deposits occur in that direction. Thick lava flows with columnar jointing forms low cliffs along the coast. The youthful island lacks fringing or offshore reefs. No certain historical eruptions are known; the latest activity was a period of heightened thermal phenomena in 1976.

Information Contacts: Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO), Geohazards Management Division, Department of Mineral Policy and Geohazards Management (DMPGM), PO Box 3386, Kokopo, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea; Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Tico Liu, Hong Kong (Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/tico.liu. https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10155389178192793&set=pcb.10155389178372793&type=3&theater); Shari Kalt (Instagram user LuxuryTravelAdvisor: https://www.instagram.com/luxurytraveladviser/, https://www.instagram.com/p/BkhalnuHu2j/); Coral Expeditions, Australia (URL: https://www.coralexpeditions.com/, Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/coralexpeditions); Philip Stern (Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/sternph, https://www.facebook.com/sternph/posts/2167501866616908); Brad Scott, GNS Science Volcanologist at GNS Science, New Zealand (Twitter: https://twitter.com/Eruptn); Chaiyasit Saengsirirak, Bangkok, Thailand (Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/chaiyasit.saengsirirak, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=2197513186969355).


Sarychev Peak (Russia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sarychev Peak

Russia

48.092°N, 153.2°E; summit elev. 1496 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Brief ash emission reported on 16 May 2019

Located on Matua Island in the central Kurile Islands of Russia, Sarychev Peak has historical observations of eruptions dating back to 1765. Thermal activity in October 2017 (BGVN 43:11) was the first sign of renewed activity since a major eruption with ash plumes and pyroclastic flows in June 2009 (BGVN 34:06). The following month (November 2017) there was fresh dark material on the NW flank that appeared to be from a flow of some kind. After that, intermittent thermal anomalies were the only activity reported until explosions with ash plumes took place that lasted for about a week in mid-September 2018 (figure 24). Additional explosions in mid-October were the last reported for 2018. A single ash explosion in May 2019 was the only reported activity from November 2018 to May 2019, the period covered in this report. Information is provided by the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT) and the Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), members of the Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (FEB RAS), and from satellite data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Multiple ash plumes were observed at Sarychev Peak during September 2018. Left: 13 September. Right: 18 September. Photos by S. A. Tatarenkov, courtesy of IMGG FEB RAS.

Satellite imagery in mid-September and early October 2018 showed gas emissions from the summit vent, and a weak thermal anomaly in October (figure 25). KVERT lowered the Aviation Color Code from Orange to Yellow on 1 November 2018, and SVERT released a VONA on 12 November 2018 lowering the Aviation Color Code from Yellow to Green after the ash emissions in October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. Minor gas emissions were visible at Sarychev Peak in satellite imagery in mid-September and early October 2018; a possible weak thermal anomaly appeared in the summit vent in October. Top left: 13 September. Top right: 18 September. Bottom left: 8 October. Bottom right: 11 October. The 13 September image uses "Natural Color" rendering (bands 4, 3, 2) and the other images use "Geology" rendering (bands 12, 4, 2). Sentinel-2 satellite imagery courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Sentinel-2 satellite instruments in March, April, and May 2019 acquired images that showed dark streaks in the snow-covered peak radiating out from the summit vent in various directions. As the spring snows melted, more dark streaks appeared. It is unclear whether the streaks represent fresh ash, particulates from gas emissions in the snow, or concentrated material from earlier emissions that were exposed during the spring melting (figure 26). No further activity was reported until the Tokyo VAAC noted an eruption on 16 May 2019 that produced an ash plume which rose to 2.4 km altitude and drifted S. It was visible in satellite imagery for 3 or 4 hours before dissipating. SVERT reported the ash plume visible up to 50 km SE of the island. They also noted that weak thermal anomalies had been seen in satellite data on 10, 12, and 17 May 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Streaks of brown radiate outward from the summit vent at Sarychev Peak in Sentinel-2 satellite imagery taken during March-May 2019. The exact material and timing of deposition is unknown. Top left: 17 March. Top middle: 14 April. Top right: 19 April. Bottom left: 29 April, Bottom middle: 6 May. Bottom right: 26 May 2019. Sentinel-2 images with "Natural Color" rendering using bands 4,3, and 2. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Sarychev Peak, one of the most active volcanoes of the Kuril Islands, occupies the NW end of Matua Island in the central Kuriles. The andesitic central cone was constructed within a 3-3.5-km-wide caldera, whose rim is exposed only on the SW side. A dramatic 250-m-wide, very steep-walled crater with a jagged rim caps the volcano. The substantially higher SE rim forms the 1496 m high point of the island. Fresh-looking lava flows, prior to activity in 2009, had descended in all directions, often forming capes along the coast. Much of the lower-angle outer flanks of the volcano are overlain by pyroclastic-flow deposits. Eruptions have been recorded since the 1760s and include both quiet lava effusion and violent explosions. Large eruptions in 1946 and 2009 produced pyroclastic flows that reached the sea.

Information Contacts: Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, (FEB RAS IMGG), 693 022 Russia, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, ul. Science 1B (URL: http://imgg.ru/ru); Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), Institute of Marine Geology and Geophysics, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Science, Nauki st., 1B, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Russia, 693022 (URL: http://www.imgg.ru/en/, http://www.imgg.ru/ru/svert/reports); Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Nyiragongo (DR Congo) — May 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Nyiragongo

DR Congo

1.52°S, 29.25°E; summit elev. 3470 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lake remains active through May 2019; three new vents around the secondary cone

Since at least 1971 scientists and tourists have observed a lava lake within the Nyiragongo summit crater. Lava flows have been a hazard in the past for the nearby city of Goma (15 km S). The previous report (BGVN 43:06) of activity between November 2017 and May 2018 described nearly daily record of thermal anomalies due to the active lava lake and lava fountaining, gas-and-steam plumes, and the opening of a new vent within the crater in February 2016. Monthly reports from the Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG) disseminate information regarding the volcano's activity. This report updates the activity during June 2018-May 2019.

OVG noted that the level of the lava lake changes frequently, and was lower when observed on October 2018, 12 April 2019, and 12 May 2019. According to data from the OVG, on 15 April 2019 the secondary cone that formed in February 2016 produced lava flows and ejecta. In addition, at least three other vents formed surrounding this secondary cone. During most of April 2019 the lava lake was still active; however, beginning on 12 April 2019, seismic and lava lake activity both declined.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) analysis of MODIS satellite data continues to show almost daily, strong thermal anomalies every month from June 2018 through 24 May 2019 (figure 66). Similarly, the MODVOLC algorithm reports a majority of the hotspot pixels (2,406) occurring within the lava lake at the summit crater (figure 67).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 66. Thermal anomalies at Nyiragongo for June 2018 through 24 May 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power) were frequent and strong. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Map showing the number of MODVOLC hotspot pixels at Nyiragongo from 1 June 2018 to 31 May 2019. Nyiragongo (2,423 pixels) is at the bottom center; Nyamuragira volcano (342 pixels) is about 13 km NW. Courtesy of HIGP-MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

Geologic Background. One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining catastrophically through its outer flanks in 1977. The steep slopes of a stratovolcano contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira. Benches in the steep-walled, 1.2-km-wide summit crater mark levels of former lava lakes, which have been observed since the late-19th century. Two older stratovolcanoes, Baruta and Shaheru, are partially overlapped by Nyiragongo on the north and south. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures south of Shaheru, east of the summit, and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Many cones are buried by voluminous lava flows that extend long distances down the flanks, which is characterized by the eruption of foiditic rocks. The extremely fluid 1977 lava flows caused many fatalities, as did lava flows that inundated portions of the major city of Goma in January 2002.

Information Contacts: Observatoire Volcanologique de Goma (OVG), Goma, North Kivu, DR Congo (URL: https://www.facebook.com/Observatoire-Volcanologique-de-Goma-OVG-180016145663568/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Bezymianny (Russia) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Bezymianny

Russia

55.972°N, 160.595°E; summit elev. 2882 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ongoing thermal anomalies, gas-and-steam plumes, and lava dome growth during February-May 2019; strong explosion in mid-March

Volcanism at Bezymianny has been frequent since 1955. During the last reporting period, observations primarily consisted of moderate gas-and-steam emissions and thermal anomalies. Lava dome growth has been reported, as well as the effusion of several lava flows onto the dome flanks. Monitoring is the responsibility of the Kamchatka Volcano Eruptions Response Team (KVERT). Activity during February to mid-March 2019 consisted of predominantly moderate gas-and-steam emissions. Incandescent, hot avalanches from the lava dome, strong fumarolic activity, and a thermal anomaly began to occur in mid-March 2019. This reporting period includes activity from February-May 2019.

One explosion occurred during this reporting period. According to video data from KVERT and seismic data from the Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service, on 15 March 2019 an explosion sent ash up to an altitude of 15 km. According to the KVERT Weekly Reports, satellite data showed large ash clouds from this eruption drifting several thousands of kilometers east from the volcano. The Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) issued by KVERT for this event described ash clouds to a distance of about 870 km. Ashfall was reported in Ust'-Kamchatsk (115 km E) on 15 March and Nikolskoe (350 km E) on 15-16 March 2019.

Beginning 15 March and continuing through May 2019, the number of hot avalanches from the lava dome top significantly increased, as well as the temperature of the thermal anomalies as reported by KVERT based on satellite data. Incandescent lava dome growth with extruding, viscous lava flows accompanying strong fumarolic activity and thermal anomalies continued in late April-May 2019 (figure 30).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. Fumarolic plume rising above at Bezymianny on 14 April 2019. Photo by A. Klimova, courtesy of the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology FEB RAS, KVERT.

MODIS infrared data processed by MIROVA showed stronger and more frequent thermal anomalies in mid-March 2019 compared to the typical thermal activity since late January and afterwards through May (figure 31). According to the MODVOLC algorithm, 11 hotspot pixels were recorded between February and May 2019.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Thermal anomalies at Bezymianny for September 2018 through May 2019 as recorded by the MIROVA system (Log Radiative Power). Courtesy of MIROVA.

Geologic Background. Prior to its noted 1955-56 eruption, Bezymianny had been considered extinct. The modern volcano, much smaller in size than its massive neighbors Kamen and Kliuchevskoi, was formed about 4700 years ago over a late-Pleistocene lava-dome complex and an ancestral edifice built about 11,000-7000 years ago. Three periods of intensified activity have occurred during the past 3000 years. The latest period, which was preceded by a 1000-year quiescence, began with the dramatic 1955-56 eruption. This eruption, similar to that of St. Helens in 1980, produced a large horseshoe-shaped crater that was formed by collapse of the summit and an associated lateral blast. Subsequent episodic but ongoing lava-dome growth, accompanied by intermittent explosive activity and pyroclastic flows, has largely filled the 1956 crater.

Information Contacts: Kamchatka Volcanic Eruptions Response Team (KVERT), Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/kvert/); Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IVS FEB RAS), 9 Piip Blvd., Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 683006, Russia (URL: http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/eng/); Kamchatka Branch of the Geophysical Service, Russian Academy of Sciences (KB GS RAS) (URL: http://www.emsd.ru/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/).


Nevados de Chillan (Chile) — June 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Nevados de Chillan

Chile

36.868°S, 71.378°W; summit elev. 3180 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Small ash explosions and dome growth during December 2018-May 2019; ballistic ejecta deposited around the crater, with a pyroclastic flow in May

The current Nevados de Chillán eruption period began on 8 January 2018 with a phreatic explosion from the new Nicanor crater, within the Nuevo crater; a new dome was observed within this crater the next day. Dome growth continues with explosions that eject ash plumes and incandescent ejecta. This bulletin summarizes activity from December 2018 through May 2019 and is based on reports by Chile's Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN)-Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS) and satellite imagery.

Throughout December 2018 pulsating emissions from the Nicanor crater produced white plumes predominantly composed of water vapor, with occasional ash ejections giving the plume a gray appearance. Incandescence was frequently observed during the night due to the ejection of hot ballistic ejecta emplaced around the crater during explosions. After 11 months of observations, the dacite dome in the crater maintained a semi-stable extrusion rate of around 345 m3/day. Explosions were reported on 7, 17, 28, and 29 December.

Similar background activity continued through January with pulsating gas-and-steam plumes occasionally including ash, and incandescence observed during the nights due to hot ejecta around the crater. Explosions were recorded at 0500 and 1545 on 11 January, and on 13, 21, and 31 January (figures 33 and 34). During the night explosions and incandescent ejecta were observed impacting the area around the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. An explosion at Nevados de Chillán on 11 January 2019. The explosion ejected incandescent blocks that impacted the flanks. The timestamp is at the top left of each image; screenshots are of footage courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. An explosion at Nevados de Chillán on 31 January 2019 produced an ash plume from the Nicanor crater. Courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN.

Activity continued through February similar to previous months. The dome in the crater maintained a low extrusion, and activity alternated between dome growth and partial destruction during explosions. Steam-and-gas plumes with occasional ash content continued, with plumes reaching 1 km and drifting in multiple directions. Incandescence was observed during the night. Explosions were reported on 15 February.

During March through May, typical activity consisting of pulsating emission of steam plumes with occasional ash content, and incandescence at night, continued. Intermittent explosions associated with the partial destruction of the dome continued, with events reported on 1 March at 2323, and on 4, 7, and 8 March. Several explosions were reported during 8-9 and 23-30 April. Three explosions were reported on 3 May with one of them producing a 2-km-high ash plume and a pyroclastic flow on 10 May (figure 35). Additional explosions occurred on the 12 and 18 May.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. An explosion at Nevados de Chillán on 10 May 2019 produced an ash plume that rose to 2 km above the crater and a pyroclastic flow. The white plume in the bottom two images is steam from the interaction of the hot pyroclastic material and the snow. Screenshots are of a video courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN with timestamps indicated in the top left of each image.

Satellite data from December 2018 through May 2019 recorded intermittent thermal energy, with an increase after February 2019 (figure 36). Thermal anomalies from MODIS instruments were detected by the MODVOLC system on 29 March and 17 May 2019 (two anomalies). A thermal anomaly in the Nicanor crater was persistent in Sentinel-2 data throughout this period.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 36. Thermal anomalies at the active Nicanor crater of the Nevados de Chillán complex. Top: Sentinel-2 thermal image of showing the location of the thermal anomaly (orange). Bottom: MIROVA log radiative power plot of MODIS thermal infrared data from September 2018 through May 2019. Thermal signatures are intermittent and increase after February 2019. Note that the black lines are not from the crater and are unlikely to be related to volcanic activity. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground and MIROVA.

Geologic Background. The compound volcano of Nevados de Chillán is one of the most active of the Central Andes. Three late-Pleistocene to Holocene stratovolcanoes were constructed along a NNW-SSE line within three nested Pleistocene calderas, which produced ignimbrite sheets extending more than 100 km into the Central Depression of Chile. The largest stratovolcano, dominantly andesitic, Cerro Blanco (Volcán Nevado), is located at the NW end of the group. Volcán Viejo (Volcán Chillán), which was the main active vent during the 17th-19th centuries, occupies the SE end. The new Volcán Nuevo lava-dome complex formed between 1906 and 1945 between the two volcanoes and grew to exceed Volcán Viejo in elevation. The Volcán Arrau dome complex was constructed SE of Volcán Nuevo between 1973 and 1986 and eventually exceeded its height.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

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Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network - Volume 44, Number 01 (January 2019)

Managing Editor: Edward Venzke

Aira (Japan)

Ash plumes continue at the Minamidake crater from July through December 2018

Ambrym (Vanuatu)

Fissure eruption in mid-December 2018 produces fountaining and lava flows; no activity evident in caldera after 17 December

Copahue (Chile-Argentina)

Frequent emissions and small ash plumes continue from July through 7 December 2018

Erebus (Antarctica)

Lava lakes persist through 2017 and 2018

Kilauea (United States)

Fissure 8 lava flow continues vigorously until 4 August, ocean entry ends in late August, last activity at fissure 8 cone on 5 September 2018

Poas (Costa Rica)

Frequent changes at the crater lake throughout 2018

Sangay (Ecuador)

Eruption produced ash plumes, lava flows, and rockfalls during August-December 2018

Soputan (Indonesia)

Ash explosions on 3-4 October and 16 December 2018

Suwanosejima (Japan)

Multiple explosive events with incandescence and ash plumes during November 2018

Veniaminof (United States)

Eruption with lava flows and ash plumes during September-December 2018



Aira (Japan) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Aira

Japan

31.593°N, 130.657°E; summit elev. 1117 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash plumes continue at the Minamidake crater from July through December 2018

Sakurajima is one of the most active volcanoes in Japan and is situated in the Aira caldera in southern Kyushu. It regularly produces ash plumes and scatters blocks onto the flanks during explosions. This report covers July through December 2018 and describes activity at the Minamidake crater, which has continued with the activity typically observed at Sakurajima volcano. In late 2017 the eruptive activity has migrated from being centered at the Showa crater, to being focused at the Minamidake crater. This change has continued into the later half of 2018. The following activity summarizes information issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), the Japan Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and satellite data.

Activity from July through December 2018 was focused at the summit Minamidake crater with 8 to 64 ash emission events per month, with 50-60% being explosive in nature during four of the six months reported (table 20, figure 67). The maximum explosions per day was 64 on 31 August (figure 68). No pyroclastic flows were recorded during this time. Recent activity at the Showa crater has been declining and no activity was observed during the reporting period. Sakurajima has remained on Alert Level 3 on a 5-level scale during this time, reflecting the regular ash plumes and volcanic blocks that erupt out onto the slopes of the volcano during explosive events.

Table 20. Monthly summary of eruptive events recorded at Sakurajima's Minamidake crater in Aira caldera, July-December 2018. The number of events that were explosive in nature are in parentheses. No events were recorded at the Showa crater during this time. Data courtesy of JMA (July to December 2018 monthly reports).

Month Ash emissions (explosive) Max. plume height above the crater Max. ejecta distance from crater
Jul 2018 29 (16) 4.6 km 1.7 km
Aug 2018 64 (37) 2.8 km 1.3 km
Sep 2018 44 (22) 2.3 km 1.1 km
Oct 2018 8 (0) 1.6 km --
Nov 2018 14 (2) 4 km 1.7 km
Dec 2018 56 (34) 3 km 1.3 km
Figure (see Caption) Figure 67. Satellite images showing ash plumes from Sakurajima's Minamidake summit crater (Aira caldera) in August, September, and November 2018. Natural color satellite images (bands 4, 3, 2) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 68. Explosions per day at Sakurajima's Minamidake summit crater (Aira caldera) for July through December 2018. Data courtesy of JMA.

Activity through July consisted of 29 ash emission events (16 of which were explosive) producing ash plumes up to a maximum height of 4.6 km above the crater and ballistic ejecta (blocks) out to 1.7 km from the crater, but ash plumes were more commonly 1.2 to 2.5 km high. The largest explosive event occurred on 16 July, producing an ash plume up to 4.6 km from the vent and ejecting ballistic rocks out to 1.3-1.7 km from the crater (figure 69). On 17 July, sulfur dioxide emissions were measured at 1,300 tons per day, and on 26 July emissions were measured to be 2,100 tons per day.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 69. Ash plumes erupting from the Sakurajima Minamidake crater (Aira caldera) on 16 July 2018 at 1538 (upper) and 1500 (lower) local time. The ash plumes reached 4.6 km above the crater rim and ejected rocks out to 1.3-1.7 km from the crater. Higashikorimoto webcam images courtesy of JMA (July 2018 monthly report).

During August the Minamidake crater produced 64 ash emission events (37 explosive in nature) with a maximum ash plume height of 2.8 km above the crater, and a maximum ballistic ejecta distance of 1.3 km from the crater on 31 August (figure 70). Ash plumes were more commonly up to 1 to 2.1 km above the crater. Sulfur dioxide emissions were very high on 2 August, measured as high as 3,200 tons per day, and was measured at 1,500 tons per day on 27 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 70. Activity at Sakurajima volcano (Aira Caldera) in August 2018. Top: A gas-and-ash plume that reached 2.8 km above the crater at 1409 on 29 August. Bottom: Scattered incandescent blocks out to 1-1.3 km from the crater on the flanks of Sakurajima after an explosion on 31 August. Higashikorimoto and Kaigata webcam images courtesy of JMA (August 2018 monthly report).

Throughout September 44 ash emission events occurred, with 22 of those being explosive in nature. The Maximum ash plume height reached 2.3 km above the crater, and the maximum ejecta landed out to 1.1 km from the crater. An explosive event on 9 September ejected material out to 700 m away from the crater and on 22 September an event scattered blocks out to 1.1 km from the crater (figure 71).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 71. Incandescent blocks on the flanks of Sakurajima volcano (Aira caldera) after an explosion on 22 September 2018 at 2025. The event scattered blocks out to 1.1 km from the Minamidake crater. Kaigata webcam image courtesy of JMA (September 2018 monthly report).

October and November were relatively quiet with regards to the number of ash emission events with only 22 events over the two months. The maximum ash plume heights reached 1.6 and 4 km, respectively. An observation flight on 22 October showed the currently inactive Showa crater restricted to minor fumarolic degassing, and steam-and-gas and dilute ash plume activity in the Minamidake crater (figure 72). An eruption on 14 November at 0043 local time produced an ash plume to over 4 km above the crater and scattered incandescent blocks out to over 1 km from the crater (figure 73). This was the first ash plume to exceed a height of 4 km since 16 July 2018. Two events occurred during 16-19 November that produced ash plumes up to 1.6 km. Sulfur dioxide measurements were 3,400 tons on 4 October, 400 tons on 17 October, 1,000 tons on 23 October, 1,100 tons on 6 November, and 1,400 tons on 20 November.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 72. Minor fumarolic degassing has occurred in Sakurajima's Showa crater (Aira caldera) and the vent has been blocked by ash and rock. The active Minamidake crater is producing a blue-white plume to 400 m above the crater and a dilute brown plume that remained within the crater. Images taken by the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force 1st Air Group P-3C on 22 October 2018, courtesy of JMA (October 2018 monthly report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 73. Eruption of Sakurajima (Aira caldera) on 14 November at 0043 local time ejecting incandescent blocks more than 1 km from the crater and an ash plume up to 4 km above the crater. Photos courtesy of The Asahi Shimbun.

Small ash plumes continued through December with 56 ash emission events, 34 of which were explosive in nature. The maximum ash plume height above the crater reached 3 km, and the maximum distance that ejecta traveled from the vent was 1.3 km, both during an event on 24 December (figure 74). An explosive event produced an ash plume that reached a height of 2.5 km above the crater and scattered ejecta out to 1.1 km from the crater.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 74. An explosive event at 1127 on 24 December 2018 at Sakurajima's Minamidake crater (Aira caldera). The ash plume reached 3 km above the crater rim. Higashikorimoto webcam image courtesy of JMA (December 2018 monthly report).

Intermittent incandescence was observed at the summit at nighttime throughout the entire reporting period. Areas of elevated thermal energy within the Minamidake crater were visible in cloud-free Sentinel-2 satellite images (figure 75) and elevated temperatures were detected in MIROVA on a few days.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 75. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite images showing the summit area of Sakurajima volcano, Aira caldera, in October 2018. The areas of elevated thermal activity (bright orange-red) are visible within the Minamidake crater. No thermal anomalies are visible within the Showa crater. Thermal (Urban) satellite images (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The Aira caldera in the northern half of Kagoshima Bay contains the post-caldera Sakurajima volcano, one of Japan's most active. Eruption of the voluminous Ito pyroclastic flow accompanied formation of the 17 x 23 km caldera about 22,000 years ago. The smaller Wakamiko caldera was formed during the early Holocene in the NE corner of the Aira caldera, along with several post-caldera cones. The construction of Sakurajima began about 13,000 years ago on the southern rim of Aira caldera and built an island that was finally joined to the Osumi Peninsula during the major explosive and effusive eruption of 1914. Activity at the Kitadake summit cone ended about 4850 years ago, after which eruptions took place at Minamidake. Frequent historical eruptions, recorded since the 8th century, have deposited ash on Kagoshima, one of Kyushu's largest cities, located across Kagoshima Bay only 8 km from the summit. The largest historical eruption took place during 1471-76.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); The Asahi Shimbun (URL: http://www.asahi.com/ajw/articles/AJ201811140035.html accessed on 12 March 2018).


Ambrym (Vanuatu) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Ambrym

Vanuatu

16.25°S, 168.12°E; summit elev. 1334 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fissure eruption in mid-December 2018 produces fountaining and lava flows; no activity evident in caldera after 17 December

Ambrym is a shield volcano in the Vanuatu archipelago with a 12-km-wide summit caldera containing the persistently active Benbow and Marum craters. These craters are home to multiple active vents that produce episodic lava lakes, explosions, lava flows, ash, and gas emissions. Occasional fissure eruptions occur outside of these main craters. This report covers July to December 2018 and summarizes reports by the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD), the Wellington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and multiple sources of satellite data.

As of the beginning of the reporting period, the hazard status at Ambrym had remained at Volcanic Alert Level 2 ("Major unrest") since 7 December 2017. Monthly VMGD activity reports describe the continued activity within the two main craters, consisting of multiple lava lakes, sustained substantial degassing and steam emission, and seismic unrest. Frequent thermal anomalies were detected throughout the reporting period (figure 42). The danger areas were confined to the Permanent Exclusion Zone within a 1 km radius of Benbow crater, and the Permanent Exclusion Zone and Danger Zone A within about a 2.7 km radius of Marum crater (including Maben-Mbwelesu, Niri-Mbwelesu and Mbwelesu, see BGVN 43:07, figure 38).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 42. Plot of MODIS thermal infrared data analyzed by MIROVA showing the log radiative power of thermal anomalies at Ambrym for the year ending on 1 February 2019. After the December 2018 eruption no further thermal anomalies were noted for the reporting period. Courtesy of MIROVA.

Observations and seismic data analysis by VMGD confirmed the onset of a small-scale intra-caldera fissure eruption at 0600 local time on 15 December. This new fissure produced lava fountains and lava flows with ash and gas plumes (figure 43). Footage of the eruption by John Tasso shows the fissure eruption to the SE of Marum crater producing lava fountaining. A Sentinel-2 satellite image shows a white eruption plume and two new lava flow lobes (figure 44); the actual fissure vent was hidden by the plume. The northernmost lava flow filled in the 500 x 900 m Lewolembwi crater and a smaller lobe continued to flow towards the E (figure 44). Due to this elevated activity, the Volcanic Alert Level was raised to 3 ("Minor eruption"), with the danger zones increased to a 2 km radius around Benbow crater and a 4 km radius around Marum crater. VMGD warned of additional risk within 3 km of eruptive fissures in the SE caldera area.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 43. Image of the fissure eruption producing lava fountaining at Ambrym volcano, taken from a video recorded by John Tasso on 16 December 2018.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 44. Satellite imagery showing the Ambrym caldera area in November-December 2018. Top: True color Landsat-8 satellite image acquired on 13 December 2018 showing the area prior to the fissure eruption. Bottom: False-color infrared Sentinel-2 composite image (bands 12, 11, and 4) showing the multiple active vents and lava lakes within Marum and Benbow craters (top third of the image, acquired on 25 November 2018), and the eruption plume and the bright orange/red lava flow fronts in the bottom of the image (acquired on 15 December 2018); the fissure is obscured by the plume. Courtesy of Sentinel-Hub Playground.

Through 16-17 December, ash and gas emission continued from Benbow and Marum craters (figures 45 and 46), accompanied by ongoing localized seismicity; earthquakes with a magnitude greater than five were felt on neighboring islands. The Wellington VAAC issued ash advisories on 16 and 17 December noting maximum cloud altitudes of approximately 8 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 45. Ash emission from Ambrym volcano at 1600 on 16 December 2018. Webcam image courtesy of, and annotated by, VMGD.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 46. Elevated atmospheric SO2 emissions from Ambrym on 17 December 2018 with a total measured mass of 23.383 kt in this scene. The units on the scale bar reflect SO2 in terms of Dobson Units (DU). Courtesy of the NASA Goddard Flight Center Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory.

From 14 to 26 December, the National Volcano Monitoring Network detected over 4,500 earthquakes related to the eruptive activity, but locally felt seismicity decreased. Analysis of satellite imagery confirmed surface deformation associated with the increase in activity. Media reports from Radio New Zealand indicated that seismic activity during December resulted in ground rupture and damage to homes on the island and residents were moved to evacuation centers.

During the reporting period, thermal anomalies were frequently detected by the MODIS satellite instruments and subsequently analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, reflecting the lava lake activity in Benbow and Marum craters, as well additional thermal anomalies during the December 2018 fissure eruption and subsequent lava flows to the SE of the main crater area (figures 47 and 48).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 47. MODVOLC Thermal Alert System from July through December 2018 showing the two active craters of Ambrym, Benbow and Marum, and the December 2018 fissure eruption. Red areas indicate approximate locations of Thermal Anomaly detections along with the number of detections. Courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 48. MODVOLC thermal alerts detected over Ambrym volcano during July 2018 through December 2018 showing hot spots located at Benbow and Marum craters and the December 2018 fissure eruption. Courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System.

As of 7 January 2019, Ambrym remains on Alert Level 3 with continued seismic activity. The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) system has not detected any recent thermal anomalies, indicating the end of the fissure eruption and a reduction in activity at the main craters.

Geologic Background. Ambrym, a large basaltic volcano with a 12-km-wide caldera, is one of the most active volcanoes of the New Hebrides arc. A thick, almost exclusively pyroclastic sequence, initially dacitic, then basaltic, overlies lava flows of a pre-caldera shield volcano. The caldera was formed during a major plinian eruption with dacitic pyroclastic flows about 1900 years ago. Post-caldera eruptions, primarily from Marum and Benbow cones, have partially filled the caldera floor and produced lava flows that ponded on the caldera floor or overflowed through gaps in the caldera rim. Post-caldera eruptions have also formed a series of scoria cones and maars along a fissure system oriented ENE-WSW. Eruptions have apparently occurred almost yearly during historical time from cones within the caldera or from flank vents. However, from 1850 to 1950, reporting was mostly limited to extra-caldera eruptions that would have affected local populations.

Information Contacts: Geo-Hazards Division, Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD), Ministry of Climate Change Adaptation, Meteorology, Geo-Hazards, Energy, Environment and Disaster Management, Private Mail Bag 9054, Lini Highway, Port Vila, Vanuatu (URL: http://www.vmgd.gov.vu/, https://www.facebook.com/VanuatuGeohazardsObservatory/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Radio New Zealand, 155 The Terrace, Wellington 6011, New Zealand (URL: https://www.radionz.co.nz/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); John Tasso, Vanuatu Island Experience, Port Vatu, West Ambrym, Vanuatu (URL: http://vanuatuislandexperience.com/).


Copahue (Chile-Argentina) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Copahue

Chile-Argentina

37.856°S, 71.183°W; summit elev. 2953 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent emissions and small ash plumes continue from July through 7 December 2018

Copahue, on the border of Chile and Argentina, has frequent small ash eruptions and gas-and-steam plumes. The volcano alert was raised from Green to Yellow (on a scale going from green, yellow, orange, to red) on 24 March 2018 due to an increase in seismic activity and a phreatic explosion. Copahue has a dozen craters with recent activity focused at the Agrio crater, which contains a persistent fumarole field and a crater lake. This report summarizes activity from July through December 2018 and is based on reports issued by Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN) Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur, (OVDAS), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and satellite data.

Throughout July, Copahue produced gas-and-steam and ash plumes that deposited ash on and away from the slopes of the volcano (figure 19). From 1 to 15 July degassing was continuous with a maximum plume height of 300 m above the crater. A more energetic gas-and-steam plume was produced on 18 July (figure 20). Persistent gas and ash plumes during 16-31 July rose up to 1,500 m above the crater. Nighttime incandescence was present throughout the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 19. Sentinel-2 natural color satellite images of Copahue that show plumes and dark ash deposition throughout July 2018. The location of the active Agrio crater is indicated by the black arrow in the upper left image. Sentinel-2 Natural Color images (bands 12, 11, 14) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 20. Energetic degassing at Copahue related to hydrothermal activity on 18 July 2018. Webcam image courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN-OVDAS.

Throughout August intermittent gas-and-steam and ash plumes continued due to the interaction of the hydrothermal and magmatic system within the volcano (figure 21). Notices were issued by the Buenos Aires VAAC on 14 and 15 August for diffuse steam plumes possibly containing ash up to an altitude on 3.6 km. Constant degassing, intermittent ash plumes, and nighttime incandescence continued through September (figure 22).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 21. Low-level ash-and-gas emission at Copahue on 11, 24, and 28 of August 2018, and a plume and incandescence on 15 August. Webcam images courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN-OVDAS via CultureVolcan and Roberto Impaglione.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. A plume from Copahue on 1 September 2018. Webcam image courtesy of SERNAGEOMIN-OVDAS via Roberto Impaglione.

During September, October, and November, variable gas-and-steam and ash plumes were accompanied by visible incandescence at night. Continuous ash emission was observed from 16 to 30 November (figure 23); similar activity with plume heights up to 800 m from 1 to 6 December. On 2 December a Buenos Aires VAAC notice was issued for a narrow ash plume that drifted ESE. During 6-7 December an ash plume that rose up to 3 km altitude and drifted towards the SW was accompanied by a seismic swarm. No further ash emissions were noted through the end of the year.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. A low-lying plume at Copahue on the morning of 23 November 2018. Courtesy of Valentina.

MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) data showed intermittent minor thermal activity at the summit from July through December. There were no thermal anomalies detected by the MODVOLC algorithm for this time period. Twenty cloud-free Sentinel-2 satellite images revealed elevated thermal activity (hotspots) within Agrio crater throughout the reporting period (figure 24).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. Thermal activity in the Copahue crater during 2018 seen in Sentinel-2 infrared images. The orange-yellow areas indicate high temperatures within the active Agrio crater. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Volcán Copahue is an elongated composite cone constructed along the Chile-Argentina border within the 6.5 x 8.5 km wide Trapa-Trapa caldera that formed between 0.6 and 0.4 million years ago near the NW margin of the 20 x 15 km Pliocene Caviahue (Del Agrio) caldera. The eastern summit crater, part of a 2-km-long, ENE-WSW line of nine craters, contains a briny, acidic 300-m-wide crater lake (also referred to as El Agrio or Del Agrio) and displays intense fumarolic activity. Acidic hot springs occur below the eastern outlet of the crater lake, contributing to the acidity of the Río Agrio, and another geothermal zone is located within Caviahue caldera about 7 km NE of the summit. Infrequent mild-to-moderate explosive eruptions have been recorded since the 18th century. Twentieth-century eruptions from the crater lake have ejected pyroclastic rocks and chilled liquid sulfur fragments.

Information Contacts: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Observatorio Volcanológico de Los Andes del Sur (OVDAS), Avda Sta María No. 0104, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.sernageomin.cl/); Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Beaucheff 1637/1671, Santiago, Chile (URL: http://www.onemi.cl/); Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Servicio Meteorológico Nacional-Fuerza Aérea Argentina, 25 de mayo 658, Buenos Aires, Argentina (URL: http://www.smn.gov.ar/vaac/buenosaires/inicio.php); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Valentina (URL: https://twitter.com/valecaviahue, Twitter: @valecaviahue); Roberto Impaglione (URL: https://twitter.com/robimpaglione, Twitter: @robimpaglione); CultureVolcan (URL: https://twitter.com/CultureVolcan, Twitter: @CultureVolcan).


Erebus (Antarctica) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Erebus

Antarctica

77.53°S, 167.17°E; summit elev. 3794 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Lava lakes persist through 2017 and 2018

Between the early 1980's through 2016, activity at Erebus was monitored by the Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory (MEVO), using seismometers, infrasonic recordings to measure eruption frequency, and annual scientific site visits. MEVO recorded occasional explosions propelling ash up to 2 km above the summit of this Antarctic volcano and the presence of two, sometimes three, lava lakes (figure 26). However, MEVO closed in 2016 (BGVN 42:06).

Activity at the lava lakes in the summit crater can be detected using MODIS infrared detectors aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites and analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm. A compilation of thermal alert pixels during 2017-2018 (table 4, a continuation of data in the previous report) shows a wide range of detected activity, with a high of 182 alert pixels in April 2018. Although no MODVOLC anomalies were recorded in January 2017, detectors on the Sentinel-2 satellite imaged two active lava lakes on 25 January.

Table 4. Number of MODVOLC thermal alert pixels recorded per month from 1 January 2017 to 31 December 2018 for Erebus by the University of Hawaii's thermal alert system. Table compiled by GVP from data provided by MODVOLC.

Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec SUM
2017 0 21 9 0 0 1 11 61 76 52 0 3 234
2018 0 21 58 182 55 17 137 172 103 29 0 0 774
SUM 0 42 67 182 55 18 148 233 179 81 0 3 1008
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Sentinel-2 images of the summit crater area of Erebus on 25 January 2017. Top: Natural color filter (bands 4, 3, 2). Bottom: Atmospheric penetration filter (bands 12, 11, 8A) in which two distinct lava lakes can be observed. The main crater is 500 x 600 m wide. Courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. Mount Erebus, the world's southernmost historically active volcano, overlooks the McMurdo research station on Ross Island. It is the largest of three major volcanoes forming the crudely triangular Ross Island. The summit of the dominantly phonolitic volcano has been modified by one or two generations of caldera formation. A summit plateau at about 3,200 m elevation marks the rim of the youngest caldera, which formed during the late-Pleistocene and within which the modern cone was constructed. An elliptical 500 x 600 m wide, 110-m-deep crater truncates the summit and contains an active lava lake within a 250-m-wide, 100-m-deep inner crater; other lava lakes are sometimes present. The glacier-covered volcano was erupting when first sighted by Captain James Ross in 1841. Continuous lava-lake activity with minor explosions, punctuated by occasional larger Strombolian explosions that eject bombs onto the crater rim, has been documented since 1972, but has probably been occurring for much of the volcano's recent history.

Information Contacts: Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Kilauea (United States) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Kilauea

United States

19.421°N, 155.287°W; summit elev. 1222 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fissure 8 lava flow continues vigorously until 4 August, ocean entry ends in late August, last activity at fissure 8 cone on 5 September 2018

Kilauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) has been intermittently active for at least two thousand years. Since the current eruptive period began in 1983 there have been open lava lakes and flows from the summit caldera and the East Rift Zone. A marked increase in seismicity and ground deformation at Pu'u 'O'o Cone on the upper East Rift Zone on 30 April 2018, and the subsequent collapse of its crater floor, marked the beginning of the largest lower East Rift Zone eruptive episode in at least 200 years; the ending of this episode in early September 2018 marked the end of 36 years of continuous activity.

During May 2018, lava moving into the Lower East Rift Zone opened 24 fissures along a 6-km-long NE-trending fracture zone, sending lava flows in multiple directions. As lava emerged from the fissures, the lava lake at Halema'uma'u drained and explosions sent ash plumes to several kilometer's altitude (BGVN 43:10). At the end of May, eruptive activity focused on 60-m-high fountains of lava from fissure 8 that created a rapidly moving flow that progressed 13 km in just five days, entering the ocean at Kapoho Bay and destroying over 500 homes. Throughout June vigorous effusion from fissure 8 created a 50-m-tall cone and a massive lava channel that carried lava to a growing 3-km-wide delta area which spread out into the ocean along the coast (BGVN 43:12). At Halema'uma'u crater, regular collapse explosion events were the response of the crater to the subsidence caused by the magma withdrawal on the lower East Rift Zone. The deepest part of the crater had reached 400 m below the caldera floor by late June. The eruptive events of July-September 2018 (figure 424), the last three months of this episode, are described in this report with information provided primarily from the US Geological Survey's (USGS) Hawaii Volcano Observatory (HVO) in the form of daily reports, volcanic activity notices, and abundant photo, map, and video data.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 424. Timeline of Activity at Kilauea, 1 July through 14 September 2018. Blue shaded region denotes activity at Halema'uma'u crater at the summit. Green shaded area describes activity on the lower East Rift Zone (LERZ). HST is Hawaii Standard Time. Black summit symbols indicate earthquakes; red LERZ symbols indicate lava fountains (stars), lava flows (triangles) and lava ocean entry.

Summary of activity, July-September 2018. The lava flow emerging from the fissure 8 cone on the Lower East Rift Zone continued unabated throughout July 2018. Overflows from the open channel were common, and often occurred a few hours after summit collapse events. There were multiple active ocean entry areas along the north, central, and southern portions of the coastal flow front of the fissure 8 flow at various times throughout the month. As the flow approached the delta area, lava spread out over the flow field and was no longer flowing on the surface but continued on the interior of the delta; numerous ocean entry points spanned the growing delta. In mid-July, an overflow diverted the channel W of Kapoho Crater, causing a new channel to the S of the delta that destroyed a park and a school, and increased the width of the delta to 6 km. The near-daily collapse events at Halema'uma'u crater continued until 2 August, transforming the geomorphology of the summit caldera.

Lower lava levels at the fissure 8 channel flow were first reported in early August; a reduced output from the cone was reported on 4 August and the lava level in the cone fell below the spillway the next day, shutting off the lava supply to the channel. The lava channel drained and crusted over during the next few days, but lava continued to enter the ocean at a decreasing rate for the rest of the month; the last ocean entry point had ceased by 29 August. A minor burst of spatter from gas jets inside the cone was noted on 20 August. The last activity was a small flow that covered the floor of the fissure 8 cone and created a small spatter cone during 1-5 September. Incandescence at the crater subsided during the next week until only steam activity was reported on the Lower East Rift Zone by the second half of September 2018.

Activity on the Lower East Rift Zone during 1-12 July 2018. The lava flow emerging from the fissure 8 cone on the Lower East Rift Zone continued unabated during July 2018 (figure 425). Overflows from the open channel were common, sending multiple short streams of lava down the built-up flanks of the channel (figure 426). The fissure 8 lava flow was the most significant activity at the Lower East Rift Zone during July 2018, but it was not the only activity observed by HVO scientists. Fissure 22 was also spattering tephra 50-80 m above a small spatter cone and feeding a short lava flow that was moving slowly NE along the edge of earlier flows during 1-11 July (figures 427 and 428). There were multiple active ocean entry areas along the north, central, and southern portions of the coastal flow front of the fissure 8 flow at various times throughout the month.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 425. The lava flow emerging from the fissure 8 cone on Kilauea's Lower East Rift Zone continued unabated on 3 July 2018, as viewed from the early morning HVO helicopter overflight. Recent heavy rains had soaked into the still-warm tephra causing the moisture to rise as steam around the channel. Note house and road in lower right for scale. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 426. Numerous overflows were visible from Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 lava channel during the HVO morning overflight on 2 July 2018. They appear as lighter gray to silver areas on the margins of the channel. Note road and Puna Geothermal Venture (PGV) for scale on top. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 427. Ocean entries were active on the northern and central parts of the ocean entry delta of Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow on 2 July 2018. Flows and overflows were also active along the W side of the delta area. Dark red areas are active flow zones, shaded purple areas indicate lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 428. This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 0600 HST on 2 July 2018. The fountain at fissure 8 remained active, with the lava flow entering the ocean at Kapoho, although the active channel on the surface ended about 0.8 km from the coast. Fissure 22 was also spattering tephra 50-80 m above a small spatter cone and feeding a short lava flow that was moving slowly NE along the edge of earlier flows. The black and white area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas. The map was constructed by stitching many overlapping oblique images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.

The lava channel had begun crusting over near the coast late in June, and the lava was streaming from the flow's molten interior into the ocean at many points along its broad front during the first half of July. The crusted-over area was 0.8 km from the coast on 2 July and had increased to 2 km from the coast on 6 July (figure 429). Temporary channel blockages of the flow caused minor overflows north of Kapoho Crater during 4-6 July. Multiple breakouts fed flows on the N and the SW edge of the main `a`a flow. HVO captured images during an overflight on 8 July of the area where the open channel ended and turned into the broad flow area of the delta (figure 430).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 429. This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 0600 on 6 July 2018. The fountain at fissure 8 remained active, with the lava flow entering the ocean in several places at Kapoho; the northern delta area was especially active. The crusted over area had increased to 2 km from the coast (compare with figure 428). Small flows were still observed near fissure 22. The black and white area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas. The map was constructed by stitching many overlapping oblique images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 430. The end of the surface channel in Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 was near Kapoho Crater on 8 July 2018. Top: The partially filled Kapoho Crater (center) is next to the open lava channel where it makes a 90-degree turn around the crater. Lava flows freely through the channel only to the southern edge of the crater (left side of image). Lava then moves into and through the molten core of the thick 'a'a flow across a broad area. Bottom: Close up view of the "end" of the open lava channel where lava moves beneath the crusted 'a'a flow. Courtesy of HVO.

By 9 July the main lava channel had reorganized and was nearly continuous to the ocean on the S side of the flow, expanding the south margin by several hundred meters (figure 431). Lava was also entering the ocean along a 4-km-long line of small entry points across the delta. Early that afternoon observers reported multiple overflows along both sides of the main lava channel in an area just W of Kapoho Crater; small brushfires were reported along the margins. Another flow lobe farther down the channel was moving NE from the main channel. The channel near Four Corners was mostly crusted over, and plumes from the ocean entry were significantly reduced. The dramatic difference in landscapes on the northern and southern sides of the fissure 8 lava channel was readily apparent during a 10 July overflight (figure 432). With dominant trade winds blowing heat and volcanic gases to the SW, the N side of the lava channel remained verdant, while vegetation on the S side was severely impacted and appeared brown and yellow.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 431. By 9 July 2018 the lower part of Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow had reorganized and was nearly continuous to the ocean on the south side of the flow, expanding the south margin by several hundred meters. Dark red areas denote active flow expansion and shaded purple areas indicate lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 432. During HVO's morning overflight on 10 July 2018, the dramatic difference in landscapes on the northern and southern sides of Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 lava channel was readily apparent. With dominant trade winds blowing heat and volcanic gases to the SW, the N side of the lava channel remains verdant, while vegetation on the S side has been severely impacted and appears brown and yellow. The fissure 8 cone is obscured by a cloud of steam (top center), but a small speck of incandescence rises at the center. The width of the channel and levee in the narrowest place at lower left is about 500 m. Note houses and trees for scale. Courtesy of HVO.

A channel blockage just W of Kapoho Crater overnight on 10-11 July sent most of the channel S along the W edge of previous flows on the W side of the crater. By mid-morning this channelized ?a?a flow had advanced to within 0.5 km of the coast at Ahalanui Beach Park. A few houses were also threatened by overflows along the upper channel on 11 July (figure 433). The broad ocean entry area widened as a result and covered nearly 6 km by 12 July (figure 434).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 433. A pahoehoe flow fed by overflows from Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 lava channel was active and threatening homes along Nohea Street in the Leilani Estates subdivision on 11 July 2018. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 434. An aerial view to the SW of the ocean entry at Kapoho from Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 on 11 July 2018 shows Cape Kumukahi (with lighthouse) in the foreground surrounded by lava flows that formed in 1960. The northern edge of the new fissure 8 flow is close to the steam plume closest to the lighthouse. Kapoho Crater in the upper right is surrounded by new lava from fissure 8. See figure 431 for additional location details. Courtesy of HVO.

HVO first mentioned a connection between the lava levels in the upper channel of the fissure 8 flow and the collapse-explosion events at the summit on 12 July. They observed a rise in the lava level shortly after each collapse event at the summit for most of the rest of July. Overnight into 12 July, the diverted channelized ?a?a flow W of Kapoho Crater advanced to the ocean destroying the Kua O Ka La Charter School and Ahalanui Count Beach Park and established a robust ocean entry area (figure 435). Despite no visible surface connection to the fissure 8 channel, lava continued to stream out at several points on the 6-km-wide flow front into the ocean. A small island of lava also appeared offshore of the northernmost part of the ocean entry on 12 July (figure 436).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 435. The channel overflow during 9-10 July from Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow created a new lobe that reached the ocean on 12 July 2018 destroying Ahalanui Park and the nearby charter school. The lava flow was also still entering the ocean at numerous points along the coast. The black and white area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas. The map was constructed by stitching many overlapping oblique thermal images collected by a handheld camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 436. A small new island of lava from Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow formed on the northernmost part of the ocean entry; it was visible during the morning overflight on 13 July 2018. HVO's field crew noticed the island was effusing lava similar to the lava streaming from the broad flow front along the coastline. The freshest lava in the delta has a silvery sheen and is adjacent to older flows. Courtesy of HVO.

Activity on the LERZ during 13-31 July 2018. As the southern margin of the flow continued to advance slowly south, it reached to within 1 km of the Isaac Hale Park on 14 July and within 750 m on 17 July. An increase in lava supply overnight into 18 July produced several channel overflows threatening homes on Nohea street and also additional overflows downstream on both sides of the channel. The overflows had stalled by mid-morning. South of Kapoho Crater, the surge produced an ?a?a flow that rode over the active southern flow that was still entering the ocean. The southern margin was 500 m from the boat ramp at Isaac Hale Park on 19 July (figure 437).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 437. The southern margin of Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow was 500 m N of Isaac Hale Park on 19 July 2018. Active flow expansion is shown in dark red, shaded purple areas indicate lava flows erupted in 1840, 1955, 1960, and 2014-2015. Courtesy of HVO.

During the HVO morning overflight on 20 July scientists noted that the channel was incandescent along its entire length from the vent to the ocean entry (figure 438, top). The most vigorous ocean entry was located a few hundred meters NE of the southern flow boundary; a few small pahoehoe flows were also entering the ocean on either side of the channel's main entry point (figure 438, bottom). On 23 July there were overflows just NW of Kapoho Crater following a collapse event at the summit the previous evening. During the day, small breakouts along the edge of the lava flow in the Ahalanui area caused the flow to expand westward. The flow margin was about 175 m from the Pohoiki boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park by the end of 24 July, and the active ocean entry was still a few hundred meters to the E of the lava flow margin. The numerous ocean entry points were concentrated along the southern half of the 6-km-long delta (figure 439).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 438. HVO scientists noted that Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow was incandescent all the way from the vent to the ocean the day before these 21 July 2018 images of the flow. Top: Fissure 8, source of the white gas plume in the distance, continued to erupt lava into the channel heading NE from the vent. Near Kapoho Crater (lower left), the channel turned S on the W side of the crater, sending lava toward the coast, where it entered the ocean in the Ahalanui area (bottom image). Channel overflows are visible in the lower right. Bottom: The most vigorous ocean entry of the fissure 8 flow was located a few hundred meters NE of the southern flow margin in the Ahalanui area. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 439. Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow at 0600 on 24 July 2018. The dominant ocean entry points were on the section of coastline near Ahalanui and Pohoiki. The flow margin was about 175 m from the Pohoiki boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park by the end of 24 July. The black and white area is the extent of the thermal map. Temperature in the image is displayed as gray-scale values, with the brightest pixels indicating the hottest areas. The map was constructed by stitching many overlapping oblique images collected by a handheld thermal camera during a helicopter overflight of the flow field. The base is a copyrighted color satellite image (used with permission) provided by Digital Globe. Courtesy of HVO.

On 26 July, lava movement in the channel appeared sluggish and levels had dropped in the lower part of the channel compared to previous days. Pulses of lava were recorded every few minutes at the fissure 8 vent (figure 440). HVO suggested that overflows on 28 July may have resulted from a channel surge following a summit collapse event in the morning (figures 441 and 442). Lava was actively entering the ocean along a broad 2 km flow front centered near the former Ahalanui Beach Park, but the edge of the flow remained about 175 m from the Pohoiki boat ramp at Isaac Hale park for the rest of the month. There were a few breakouts to the W that were distant from the coast and not directly threatening Pohoiki. A more minor entry was building a pointed delta near the south edge of the flow. At 2202 on 29 July an earthquake on Kilauea's south flank was felt as far north as Hilo by a few people. The M 4.1 (NEIC) earthquake was weaker than recent summit earthquakes but it was felt more widely, possibly due to its greater depth of 7 km (compared with 2 km for summit earthquakes).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 440. Pulses of lava from Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 vent occurred intermittently every few minutes on 26 July 2018. These photographs, taken over a period of about 4 minutes, showed the changes that occurred during these pulses. Initially, lava within the channel was almost out of sight. A pulse in the system then created a banked lava flow that threw spatter (fragments of molten lava) onto the channel margin. After the bottom photo was taken, the lava level again dropped nearly out of sight. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 441. Incandescent lava covering the 'a'a flow between Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 lava channel and Kapoho Crater (lower left) is from an overflow that may have resulted from a channel surge following the morning summit collapse event on 28 July 2018. The active ocean entry can be seen in the far distance (upper left). Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 442. Overflows from Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 lava channel on 28 July 2018 may have ignited this fire (producing dark brown smoke) on Halekamahina, an older cinder-and-spatter cone to the west of Kapoho Crater. Courtesy of HVO.

Activity at Halema'uma'u during July and August 2018. Periodic collapse explosion events with energy equivalents to a M 5.2 or 5.3 earthquake continued on a near daily basis throughout July at Halema'uma'u, enlarging the crater floor inside the Kilauea caldera and creating large down-dropped blocks and fractures across the caldera (figure 443). Ash-poor plumes occasionally rose a few hundred meters above the caldera floor. Summit seismicity would drop dramatically after each explosion and then gradually increase to 25-35 earthquakes (mostly in the M 2-3 range) prior to the next collapse explosion. The periodicity of the explosion events was consistent until 24 July when a gap of 53 hours occurred until the next event on 26 July, the longest break since early June.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 443. The WorldView-3 satellite acquired this view of Kilauea's summit on 3 July 2018. Despite a few clouds, the area of heaviest fractures in the caldera is clear. Views into the expanding Halema'uma'u crater revealed a pit floored by rubble. The now-evacuated Jaggar Museum and Hawaii Volcano Observatory (HVO) is labelled on the NW caldera rim. Remains of the Crater Rim Drive are visible along the bottom of the image; the overlook parking lot was completely removed by the growing S rim of the crater. Courtesy of HVO.

Images of the caldera on 13 July and 1 August demonstrated the unprecedented magnitude of change that affected Kilauea during the month (figures 444 and 445). The last collapse explosion event, at 1155 HST on 2 August, was reported as a M 5.4 seismic event (figure 446). Seismicity increased after the event as it had after previous events, but after reaching about 30 earthquakes per hour on 4 August, seismicity decreased without a collapse-explosion event occurring. The rate of deformation at the summit as measured by tiltmeter and GPS was also much reduced after 4 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 444. USGS scientists acquired this aerial photo of Halema'uma'u and part of the Kilauea caldera floor during a helicopter overflight of the summit on 13 July 2018. In the lower third of the image are the buildings that housed the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory and Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park's Jaggar Museum, the museum parking area, and a section of the Park's Crater Rim Drive. Although recent summit explosions had produced little ash, the gray landscape was a result of multiple thin layers of ash that blanketed the summit area during the ongoing explosions. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 445. This aerial view of Kilauea's summit taken on 1 August 2018 shows the continued growth of the crater. Compare with the previous image (figure 444) taken a few weeks earlier; a section of Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park's Crater Rim Drive and the road leading to the Kilauea Overlook parking area are visible at lower right. HVO, Jaggar Museum, and the museum parking area are visible at far middle right. On the far rim of the caldera, layers that are downdropped significantly more than on 13 July are clearly exposed. On the caldera rim (upper right) light-colored ash deposits from explosions in May were stirred up by brisk winds, creating a dust cloud dispersing downwind. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 446. Rockfalls along Kilauea's caldera walls were common during summit collapse events. This image, taken just after the 1155 HST collapse on 2 August 2018, shows dust rising from rockfalls along Uekahuna Bluff. This was the last collapse explosion event at Halema'uma'u during the current eruption.

Activity on the Lower East Rift Zone during August 2018. Activity continued essentially unchanged on the fissure 8 flow during 1-4 August, although there were reports of somewhat lower lava levels in the channel. Multiple overflows were reported late on 2 August, one of which started a small fire near Noni Farms Road. Other overflows were concentrated in the wide lava field W and SSW of Kapoho Crater, also igniting small fires in adjacent vegetation (figure 447). The south edge of the flow did not advance any closer to the boat ramp in Isaac Hale Park (figure 448). The channel was incandescent at its surface to approximately 4.5 km from the vent (figure 449); lava was still flowing farther beneath the crust to the vicinity of Kapoho Crater where it was seeping out of both sides of the channel. The lower lava channel adjacent to Kapoho Crater shifted W about 0.25 km early on 4 August and was feeding lava into the SW sector of the lower flow field.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 447. Overflows formed a pool of lava at the channel bend just west of Kapoho Crater (vegetated cone at left) on 1 and 2 August 2018 as seen in this view toward the SE on 1 August 2018 at Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 448. During the morning overflight on 2 August 2018, HVO geologists observed the ocean entry laze plume was being blown offshore, allowing this fairly clear view (looking NE) of the Pohoiki boat ramp at Isaac Hale Beach Park (structure, lower left). Incandescent spots of lava can be seen within the flow field beyond the boat ramp. HVO geologists also observed some lava escaping on or near the western flow margin. The southern margin of the flow front was still more than 100 m from the boat ramp. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 449. Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 channel was incandescent for about 4.5 km from the vent in the early morning on 2 August 2018. Downstream of the vent, the channel split to form a "braided" section in the lava channel, and the north (right) arm of the braided section appeared to be partially abandoned. Lava was still visible in part of the northern braid, but the lower section was only weakly incandescent. The lava within the channel generally appeared to be at a lower level than in previous days. Courtesy of HVO.

The NE half of the flow's ocean-front was inactive with no evidence of effusion into the ocean by 4 August. Field observations and UAS overflight images indicated a reduced output of lava from fissure 8 during the day on 4 August. During the morning helicopter overflight on 5 August geologists confirmed a significant reduction in lava output from fissure 8 that began the previous day. HVO field geologists observed low levels of fountaining within the fissure 8 spatter cone and largely crusted lava in the spillway and channel system downstream (figure 450). The lava level in the channel near Kapoho Crater had dropped substantially on 5 August. (figure 451).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 450. HVO field geologists observed low levels of fountaining within Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 spatter cone and largely crusted lava in the spillway and channel system downstream (left) during the morning overflight on 5 August 2018. The inner walls of the cone and lava surface were exposed and a dark crust had formed on the lava with the spillway. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 451. Incandescent lava remained visible in a section of Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 channel W of Kapoho Crater (just visible at far left) on 5 August 2018 after a large drop in the flow rate during the previous day. This view is looking S toward the ocean; the laze plume rising from the ocean entry can be seen in the far distance. Courtesy of HVO.

Lava continued to slowly enter the ocean along a broad flow front generally near Pohoiki, but remained about 70 m SE of the boat ramp on 5 August. The next morning's overflight crew saw a weak to moderately active bubbling lava lake within the fissure 8 cone, a weak gas plume, and a completely crusted lava channel. Later in the morning ground crews found the upper channel largely devoid of lava, confirming that the channel was empty to at least the vicinity of Kapoho Crater where a short section of spiny active lava in a channel was present. There were small active breakouts near the coast on the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui lobes, but the laze plume was greatly diminished. Active lava was close to the Pohoiki boat ramp but had not advanced significantly toward it. A major change in the heat flow recorded by satellite instruments was apparent by the end of the first week in August (figure 452). The MIROVA signal, which had shown a persistent high-intensity thermal signal for several years, recorded an abrupt drop in activity early in May that coincided with the opening of the fissures on the LERZ, and the dropping of the lava lake at Halema'uma'u. The lower levels of heat flow fluctuated from May through early August, and then ended abruptly after the first week of August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 452. The MIROVA plot of thermal activity at Kilauea changed abruptly after the first week of August 2018 after many years of registering high heat flow from numerous sources at Kilauea. Compare with figure 310 (BGVN 43:03) and figure 290 (BGVN 42:11). Courtesy of MIROVA.

On 7 August the surface of the lava lake was about 5-10 m below the spillway entrance (figure 453) and the upper part of the channel was crusted over (figure 454). There were a diminishing number of small active flow points near the coast on the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui lobes. By 9 August the overflight crew observed a crusted lava pond deep inside the steaming cone at a level significantly below that seen on 7 August. Up-rift of fissure 8, fissures 9, 10, and 24, and down-rift fissures 13, 23, 3, 21 and 7, continued to steam, but no new activity was observed. Lava was streaming at several points along the Kapoho Bay and Ahalanui coastline, causing wispy laze plumes on 10 August, and only minor areas of incandescence were visible in the lava pond inside the fissure 8 cone (figure 455). The next day the overflight crew noted two small ponds of lava inside the cone; one was crusted over and stagnant, and the other was incandescent and sluggishly convecting. A gas plumed billowed up from fissure 8 and low-level steaming was intermittent from a few of the otherwise inactive fissures.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 453. On 7 August 2018 Hawaii County's Civil Air Patrol got a closer view of Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 cone and the small pond of lava within the vent. The lava was below the level of the spillway that fed the fissure 8 channel from May 27 to August 4, 2018. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 454. Lava in Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 channel near the vent was crusted over by 7 August 2018. Fissure 8 and other inactive fissures were steaming in the background. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 455. The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) team flew over Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 on 10 August 2018 and provided this aerial view into the cinder cone. The pond of lava within the vent had receded significantly from a few days earlier (see figure 453), and was about 40 m below the highest point on the cone's rim. Courtesy of HVO.

By 12 August the only incandescent lava visible on the flow field was that entering the ocean between Kapoho Bay and the Ahalanui area. Fresh black sand, created as molten lava is chilled and shattered by the surf, was being transported SW by longshore currents and accumulating in the Pohoiki small boat harbor (figure 456). A sandbar blocked the entrance to the harbor the following day. The westernmost ocean entry of lava was about 1 km from the harbor on 13 August.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 456. The Pohoiki boat ramp at Isaac Hale Park at Kilauea on 11 August 2018 was blocked in by a black sand bar forming from the longshore currents carrying material SW from the edge of the fissure 8 flow delta even though the southern-most flow margin had not advanced significantly toward the Pohoiki boat ramp. Geologists observed several small lava streams trickling into the sea along the southern portion of the lava delta, producing weak laze plumes. Courtesy of HVO.

By 14 August only a small, crusted over pond of lava deep inside the fissure 8 cone and a few scattered ocean entries were active; there had been no new lava actively flowing in the lower East Rift Zone since 6 August. No collapse events had occurred at the summit since 2 August. Earthquake and deformation data showed no net changes suggesting movement of subsurface magma or pressurization. Sulfur dioxide emission rates at both the summit and LERZ were drastically reduced; the combined rate was lower than at any time since late 2007. As a result of the reduced activity, HVO lowered the Alert Level for ground-based hazards from WARNING to WATCH on 17 August. By 18 August, the only incandescence visible was at the coast near Ahalanui, where there were a few ocean entries and minor laze plumes (figure 457).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 457. Lava was still entering the ocean at scattered entry points, mainly near Ahalanui (shown here), but also at Kapoho from Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow on 17 August 2018 even though no new lava had entered the system since 6 August. Courtesy of HVO.

Gas jets were throwing spatter, fragments of glassy lava, from small incandescent areas deep within the fissure 8 cone on 20 August (figure 458). The last day that the small lava pond deep within the fissure 8 cone was visible during an overflight was on 25 August; a few ocean entries were still active. A single small lava stream from the Kapoho Bay lobe was the only moving lava noted during an HVO overflight on 27 August (figure 459). Two days later, on 29 August, no lava was entering the ocean.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 458. Gas jets were throwing spatter (fragments of glassy lava) from small incandescent areas deep within Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 cone on 20 August 2018. The spatter is the light gray material around the two incandescent points at the center. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 459. Only one small ocean entry near Ahalanui was visible on 27 August 2018 at Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 flow delta. Courtesy of HVO.

The fissure 8 lava flow entering the ocean had built a lava delta over 354 hectares (875 acres) in size by the end of August 2018 (figure 460). A sand bar, comprised of black sand and lava fragments carried by longshore currents from the lava delta, completely blocked the boat ramp at Isaac Hale Beach Park on 31 August 2018 (figure 461).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 460. Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 lava flows had built a lava delta over 354 hectares (875 acres) in size, but no active ocean entries were observed by HVO geologists on 30 August 2018. View is to the SW. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 461. A sand bar, comprised of black sand and lava fragments carried by longshore currents from Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 lava delta, blocked access to the boat ramp at Isaac Hale Beach Park on 31 August 2018. The white cement ramp leads down to a small pool of brackish water surrounded by black sand. The S edge of the ocean-entry delta is at lower left. Courtesy of HVO.

Activity during September 2018. A brief resurgence of minor activity during the first few days of September was the last observed from LERZ fissure 8. Incandescence was noted in the fissure 8 cone on 1 September. There was a persistent spot of spattering, and lava slowly covered the 15 x 65 m crater floor by evening (figure 462). Webcam views showed weak incandescence occasionally reflected on the eastern spillway wall from the crater overnight, suggesting that the lava in the crater remained active. A UAS oblique image the next afternoon showed that the new lava was mostly confined to the crater floor within the cone, although a small amount extended a short distance into the spillway (figure 463). Weak lava activity continued inside the fissure 8 cone for several days; lava filled the small footprint-shaped crater inside the cone as sluggish pahoehoe flows crept across the crater floor but did not flow down the spillway. A small spatter cone ejecting material every few seconds was noted on the floor of the crater on 4 September; observations the next day showed that it had reached an estimated height of around 3-4 m (figure 464). Only a small amount of incandescence was visible overnight on 5-6 September at fissure 8.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 462. An Unmanned Aircraft Systems overflight of Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 on 1 September 2018 showed incandescence within the cinder cone, with reports that lava had covered the 15 x 65 m foot-print shaped crater floor by evening. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 463. This 2 September 2018 UAS oblique image of Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 cone showed that the new lava was mostly confined to the crater floor within the cone, although a small amount extended a short distance into the spillway. HVO geologists noted that the lava activity was at a low level by the evening, with only minimal (if any) incandescence emanating from the cone. Gas emissions from the vent were nearly nonexistent. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 464. A close-up view of the small cone that formed on the floor of the crater within Kilauea's LERZ fissure 8 on 5 September 2018. Bits of spatter emitted from the cone every few seconds had built it up to an estimated height of around 3-4 m. See video of spatter on HVO website. Courtesy of HVO.

 Pu'u O'o crater experienced a series of small collapses on 8 September. These produced episodes of visible brown plumes throughout the day and generated small tilt offsets and seismic energy recorded by nearby geophysical instruments. The collapses had no discernable effect on other parts of the rift and continued for several days at a decreasing frequency. Minor amounts of incandescence and fuming continued to be observed on 9 September at the fissure 8 cone. A small collapse pit formed in the cone on 10 September exposing hot material underneath and producing a short-lived increase in incandescence. Minor fuming was visible the next day from the small spatter cone. Incandescence at the collapse pit decreased over the next few days, but a glowing spot just west of the pit appeared on 11 September and grew slowly for a few days before diminishing. HVO interpreted it to be a layer of incandescence exposed in the slowly subsiding lava surface within the fissure 8 cone. Minimal incandescence was visible overnight on 14-15 September. After this, only minor fuming was visible during the day; incandescence was no longer observed for the remainder of the month.

HVO determined that the 2018 Lower East Rift Zone eruptive episode ended on 5 September 2018, bringing with it an end to the lava lake at Halema'uma'u crater and the eruptive activity that had been continuous at either Pu'u O'o or Halema'uma'u since 3 January 1983; a period of more than 36 years. Satellite imagery from early September 2018 demonstrated some of the impact of this last eruptive episode on the region around Kilauea's lower East Rift Zone since the first fissure opened at the beginning of May 2018 (figures 465 and 466).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 465. This comparison shows satellite images of Leilani Estates subdivision before (2014) and after the LERZ eruptive episode of May-September 2018 at Kilauea. The image on the right, collected in early September 2018, shows that the eastern portion of the subdivision was covered by new lava. The fissure 8 lava channel runs NE from the fissure 8 cone at the start of the channel. Note also the brown areas of dead vegetation S of the lava flow. Highway 130 runs N-S along the left side of the images. Courtesy of HVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 466. This comparison of satellite imagery from before (2014) and after the May-September 2018 LERZ eruptive episode at Kilauea shows the area of Kapoho before and after the event. Kapoho Crater is in the left portion of the image. Lava filled much of the crater, including the small nested crater that contained Green Lake. The Kapoho Beach Lots subdivision is on the right side of the image, north of Kapoho Bay, and was completely covered by the fissure 8 lava flow. Vacationland Hawai'i, in the lower right corner of the image, was also completely covered, along with the adjacent tide pools. Kapoho Farm Lots, near the center of the image, is also beneath the flow. Courtesy of HVO.

Geologic Background. Kilauea, which overlaps the E flank of the massive Mauna Loa shield volcano, has been Hawaii's most active volcano during historical time. Eruptions are prominent in Polynesian legends; written documentation extending back to only 1820 records frequent summit and flank lava flow eruptions that were interspersed with periods of long-term lava lake activity that lasted until 1924 at Halemaumau crater, within the summit caldera. The 3 x 5 km caldera was formed in several stages about 1500 years ago and during the 18th century; eruptions have also originated from the lengthy East and SW rift zones, which extend to the sea on both sides of the volcano. About 90% of the surface of the basaltic shield volcano is formed of lava flows less than about 1100 years old; 70% of the volcano's surface is younger than 600 years. A long-term eruption from the East rift zone that began in 1983 has produced lava flows covering more than 100 km2, destroying nearly 200 houses and adding new coastline to the island.

Information Contacts: Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO), U.S. Geological Survey, PO Box 51, Hawai'i National Park, HI 96718, USA (URL: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/).


Poas (Costa Rica) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Poas

Costa Rica

10.2°N, 84.233°W; summit elev. 2708 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Frequent changes at the crater lake throughout 2018

After an eruption in April 2017, the hot acidic lake of Poás volcano has been in a state of frequent change, with a fluctuating or absent crater lake and other crater changes. During 2018 low-level activity was dominated by hydrothermal vents and degassing. The crater lake was variable, with changes in water level and complete drying of the lake several times. Seismicity was variable with some periods of increased seismicity, deformation was variable but slight, and gas levels fluctuated through the year (figure 120).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 120. Typical situation in the Poás crater and gas data from 2018. Left: The bottom of the dry crater in March 2018 (top) and hydrothermal activity at the bottom of the crater in May 2018 (bottom). Right: Time series graphs showing the maximum concentration of SO2, ratio of SO2/CO2, and the ratio of H2S/SO2 measured at the Poás volcano by the permanent MultiGAS station. The variations are associated with the presence of the lake and with seismicity. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (2018 annual bulletin).

Hydrothermal activity took place during January, with associated low-level gas emissions, and seismicity that reduced later in the month. At the beginning of January the crater lake was absent. After an increase in hydrothermal activity, the lake returned between 18-20 January (figure 121). The lake was measured to be 54°C on 22 January (on the eastern edge) and had a milky blue color with abundant degassing. Temperatures at actively degassing vents reached 97°C. Fumaroles with abundant yellow sulfur deposits were measured to be 160°C (figure 122).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 121. Changes to the Poás crater lake from January through March 2018. The level of water in the crater varies through time and the lake drained in January and March. Images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 122. Active fumaroles within the Poás crater, east of the lake. Yellow sulfur deposits and active degassing are visible. The fumaroles had a temperature of 160°C on 22 January 2018 when this photograph was taken. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (22 January 2018 field report).

During February, activity remained low with fluctuating levels of CO2, SO2, and seismicity; the level of the lake also fluctuated. Activity remained shallow and related to the hydrothermal system with no magmatic activity. During March the seismicity decreased, coinciding with the disappearance of the crater lake during the March-May dry season. During April there was no change observed at the crater, and gas and seismicity continued to fluctuate within normal levels. Background activity and normal fluctuations continued through May until a phreatic (steam) eruption occurred on 25 May, producing a small gray plume and a larger white steam-and-gas plume (figure 123).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 123. A phreatic (steam) explosion on 25 May 2018 at the active Poás crater. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (20 December 2018 report).

In June there was an increase in activity on the crater floor with increased submarine degassing and an increase in the lake water level. A high flow of SO2 (approximately 500 tons per day) was measured on 22 June. The measured level of SO2 was higher on 27 June, at 1,500 tons per day.

Gas emissions, deformation, and seismicity continued with fluctuations through July and August, with a decrease in SO2 around 30 July. Underwater fumaroles continued to be active. A milky-blue crater lake was present throughout this time (figure 124). During September, seismicity was described as highly variable and the crater lake was present (figure 125). Increased seismicity around 8 October coincided with slight inflation at the surface with an increase in activity through to 16 October. Gas emissions remained variable throughout September and October. A slight increase in seismicity occurred in early November and declined again by 19 November, with all other activity variable and within normal levels.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 124. The Caliente crater at Poás with a blue crater lake on 28 August 2018. Courtesy of Costa Rica Gobierno del Bicentenario.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 125. The partially-flooded Poás crater with a blue 38°C lake on 14 September 2018. The black arrow points to convection in the water from a flooded vent, with the insert photo showing a vent on the dry crater floor on 4 September 2017. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA (14 September 2018 report).

During December phreatic activity was observed at hydrothermal vents on the 19th (four events) and 20th (three events) that ejected water-saturated material up to 30 m above the vent accompanied by strong degassing and steam plumes. On 20 December it was observed that the lake level had dropped by 1 m and the lake was divided into two bodies of water, Boca A and Boca C. There were also changes in the crater lake color. Starting at the beginning of the month, the lake progressively changed from blue to green, especially visible on 8 December (figures 126, 127, and 128).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 126. Photos of the Poás crater lake showing the nearly-dry lakebed on 31 May, a blue lake on 7 July and 1 August, and a green lake on 6 December 2018. The change in the color of the water is due to the chemical composition of the lake including silica, iron, and sulfur, reflecting different wavelengths of light. Courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 127. A view of the green crater lake with reduced water levels at Poás on 13 December 2018. Photo by Federico Chavarría-Kopper courtesy of OVSICORI-UNA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 128. The changing crater lake of Poás volcano in December 2018. In one month the crater had a turquoise lake, a green lake, and was dry with no lake. Images courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

Geologic Background. The broad, well-vegetated edifice of Poás, one of the most active volcanoes of Costa Rica, contains three craters along a N-S line. The frequently visited multi-hued summit crater lakes of the basaltic-to-dacitic volcano, which is one of Costa Rica's most prominent natural landmarks, are easily accessible by vehicle from the nearby capital city of San José. A N-S-trending fissure cutting the 2708-m-high complex stratovolcano extends to the lower northern flank, where it has produced the Congo stratovolcano and several lake-filled maars. The southernmost of the two summit crater lakes, Botos, is cold and clear and last erupted about 7500 years ago. The more prominent geothermally heated northern lake, Laguna Caliente, is one of the world's most acidic natural lakes, with a pH of near zero. It has been the site of frequent phreatic and phreatomagmatic eruptions since the first historical eruption was reported in 1828. Eruptions often include geyser-like ejections of crater-lake water.

Information Contacts: Observatorio Vulcanologico Sismologica de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA), Apartado 86-3000, Heredia, Costa Rica (URL: http://www.ovsicori.una.ac.cr/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground); Costa Rica Gobierno del Bicentenario, Official Website - Presidency of the Republic of Costa Rica, Zapote, San José, Costa Rica (URL: https://presidencia.go.cr/comunicados/2018/08/29-de-agosto-presidente-alvarado-dara-banderazo-de-reapertura-del-volcan-poas/).


Sangay (Ecuador) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Sangay

Ecuador

2.005°S, 78.341°W; summit elev. 5286 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption produced ash plumes, lava flows, and rockfalls during August-December 2018

Sangay is the southernmost active volcano in Ecuador and has displayed frequent eruptive activity since 1628, producing pyroclastic flows, lava flows, ash plumes, and lahars. An eruption from July through October 2017 produced ash plumes and lava flows on the ESE flank. After nine months of quiescence an eruption occurred from 8 August to 7 December 2018, with four months of continuous activity producing ash plumes, lava flows, and rockfalls. This report covers March through December 2018 and summarizes reports issued by the Instituto Geofisico, the Washington Volcano Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and satellite data.

There was no reported activity from March through July. After nine months of inactivity a new eruptive phase began on 8 August 2018. On this day the Washington VAAC reported a possible ash plume that rose approximately 500 m above the vent and drifted 28 km WSW. An ash plume on 11 August reached a height of 2.3 km above the crater and moved towards the WSW. Prior to these two events, the last ash plume was detected on 13 October 2017.

The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) thermal alert and the first thermal anomaly alert issued by the MODVOLC near-real-time thermal monitoring algorithm for this eruptive episode was on 14 August. The eruption onset was confirmed visually on 14 August when an incandescent lava flow was seen on the upper SE flank on a webcam image (figure 22). Sentinel-2 detected elevated temperatures at the summit and lava effusion on the ESE flank (figure 23).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 22. Visual confirmation of eruptive activity with incandescence on the upper SE flank of Sangay volcano on 14 August. Webcam image by ECU911 from the city of Macas, courtesy of Instituto Geofisico (14 August 2018 report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 23. Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image showing the active central crater, Ñuñurco dome, and a lava flow (bright orange/yellow) on the ESE flank of Sangay on 25 August 2018. The bright blue indicates snow on the volcano and the white/light blue areas are meteoric clouds. Sentinel-2 false color (Urban) image (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground.

During 28 August to 3 September ash emissions reached altitudes of 5.8-6.7 km and traveled various directions out to 45 km. Ash plumes on 11, 13, 15, and 17 September reached altitudes of 5.8-6.4 km and drifted to the SW and W. Light ashfall occurred in the city of Guayaquil on 18 September, 170 km W. Ash plumes reached 5.8 to 6.1 km altitude on 19 and 20 September and drifted 37 km to the WNW and W.

Activity continued through October with lava emission. A Sentinel-2 thermal satellite image acquired on 24 October shows the lava flow on the ESE flank, with elevated thermal energy at the central crater and the Ñuñurco dome (figure 24). The final MODVOLC thermal alert was on 30 November 2018. During this time, lava flows were emitted and flowed down the ESE flank, and ash plumes were often produced and traveled to the W and NW (figure 25). From 2 December there was a substantial decrease in seismicity, ten times less than the previous months (figure 26). No further activity was noted in December.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 24. False color Sentinel-2 Satellite image of Sangay acquired on 24 October 2018 showing the active crater, the Ñuñurco dome, and a hot lava flow (bright orange/yellow) that has traveled more than 1.83 km. Sentinel-2 false color (Urban) image (bands 12, 11, 4) courtesy of Sentinel Hub Playground, figure labels and description courtesy of Instituto Geofisico (17 December 2018 report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. The activity of Sangay during September, August, and November 2018. Small explosive events occurred at the main crater throughout the eruptive episode. The red outlines the active lava flow on the ESE flank and the yellow indicates the area impacted by rockfalls and possible collapse of the lava flow front. Annotated images courtesy of Instituto Geofisico (21 November 2018 report), webcam images taken by ECU-911 from the city of Macas.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Chart showing the number of seismic events during the November-December 2018 activity at Sangay. The tremor was related to the lava flow activity, VT (volcano-tectonic) events are related to rock fracturing, LP (long-period) events are related to fluid movement, and explosions are the number of detected explosions. Between 25 and 88 explosions were detected per day prior to a decrease in seismicity on 2 December. Courtesy of Instituto Geofisico (17 December 2018 report).

Elevated temperatures on the volcano were detected from 14 August to 30 November (figure 27). During this period the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) issued 164 alerts for ash plumes. The ash plumes occasionally exceeded 2 km above the crater but were typically below 1.4 km, drifting in different directions through time (figures 28 and 29). The continuous emission of lava produced flows that traveled 1-2 km from the vent. Rockfalls and possible small pyroclastic flows produced at the lava flow fronts reached a distance of 7 km from the crater. Due to a decrease in thermal activity, ash plumes, and seismicity, Instituto Geofisico declared the eruption over on 7 December, after 121 days of activity.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. Plot of MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) thermal infrared satellite data analyzed by MIROVA from February 2018 to 2019. Top: the log radiative power of thermal anomalies showing through the eruptive episode. Bottom: The locations of the crater, dome, and lava flow as indicated by thermal anomalies, measured as the distance of the thermal anomalies from the vent in kilometers. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. The ash plume heights in meters above the Sangay crater during the 2018 August to December eruption period (top) with detected thermal energy (bottom). Ash plume heights were given by the Washington VAAC and thermal anomalies were calculated by the MODVOLC satellite algorithm. Courtesy of Instituto Geofisico (17 December 2018 report).
Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. A summary of ash plumes from Sangay during the August-December 2018 eruptive episode. A) The ash plume heights as reported by the Washington VAAC. The red line gives the average value for that month while the box represents the standard deviation. The maximum heights are indicated by the circles. B) The ash plume extents overlain over an image of Ecuador. Courtesy of Instituto Geofisico (21 November 2018 report).

Geologic Background. The isolated Sangay volcano, located east of the Andean crest, is the southernmost of Ecuador's volcanoes and its most active. The steep-sided, glacier-covered, dominantly andesitic volcano grew within horseshoe-shaped calderas of two previous edifices, which were destroyed by collapse to the east, producing large debris avalanches that reached the Amazonian lowlands. The modern edifice dates back to at least 14,000 years ago. It towers above the tropical jungle on the east side; on the other sides flat plains of ash have been sculpted by heavy rains into steep-walled canyons up to 600 m deep. The earliest report of a historical eruption was in 1628. More or less continuous eruptions were reported from 1728 until 1916, and again from 1934 to the present. The almost constant activity has caused frequent changes to the morphology of the summit crater complex.

Information Contacts: Instituto Geofísico (IG-EPN), Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Casilla 17-01-2759, Quito, Ecuador (URL: http://www.igepn.edu.ec); ECU911 - Integrated Security Service ECU 911, ulio Endara street s/n. Sector Parque Itchimbía Quito – Ecuador (URL: http://www.ecu911.gob.ec/servicio-integrado-de-seguridad-ecu-911/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).


Soputan (Indonesia) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Soputan

Indonesia

1.112°N, 124.737°E; summit elev. 1785 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Ash explosions on 3-4 October and 16 December 2018

Soputan typically erupts every few years with ash explosions, lava flows, and Strombolian eruptions (SEAN 07:08, BGVN 42:03). After a short eruptive period during January-February 2016, the volcano quieted, with only occasional steam plumes and low seismicity. An ash explosion on 3 October 2018 marked the beginning of a new eruption. The volcano is monitored by the Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG). This report discusses activity during September through December 2018.

According to PVMBG, increased seismicity at Soputan was notable on 2 October 2018, characterized by an increased number of signals indicating emissions and avalanches (which began in September and mid-July, respectively), increased Real-time Seismic-Amplitude Measurement (RSAM) values, and a higher number of volcanic earthquakes (since September). Data from a thermal camera showed increased summit temperatures, interpreted as indicating the presence of lava. The Alert Level was increased to 3 (on a scale of 1-4) on 3 October; people were advised not to approach the craters within a radius of 4 km, with an additional expansion to 6.5 km on the WSW flank due to increased risk from a breach in the crater rim.

An eruption at 0847 on 3 October produced a dense ash plume that rose 4 km above the summit and drifted W and NW (figure 16). Based on seismic data the event lasted six minutes. Events at 1044, 1112, and 1152 produced ash plumes that rose 2, 2.5, and 5 km above the crater rim, respectively. A thermal anomaly identified in satellite data significantly increased, and incandescent ejecta at the summit was clearly observed by residents. Avalanches of material traveled 2.5 km down the NE flank.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 16. An ash plume from Soputan on 3 October 2018, as seen from Tomohon (25 km NNE). Courtesy of AP Photo/Hetty Andih.

Based on satellite images, information from PVMBG, and wind model data, the Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC) reported that on 4 October ash plumes rose to an altitude of 4.6 km and drifted W. On 16 October, PVMBG issued a Volcano Observatory Notice for Aviation (VONA) that noted only white emissions; consequently, the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow.

According to PVMBG, seismic activity rapidly and significantly increased at 1700 on 15 December. An eruption began at 0102 on 16 December, though dark and foggy conditions prevented views of emissions. The event lasted for almost 10 minutes, and thunderous sounds were heard at the Soputan Volcano Observation Post located in Silian Raya (about 10 km SW). The conditions improved about two hours later, and a dense ash plume was visible, rising 3 km above the summit and drifting SE. Incandescence from the summit was also visible. An event that began at 0540 produced dense gray-to-black ash plumes that rose as high as 7 km above the summit (summit elevation is 1,785 m) and drifted SE. The event lasted for 6 minutes and 10 seconds based on the seismic network. Ash plumes from events at 0743 and 0857 rose as high as 7.5 km and drifted SW.

Satellite data. Thermal anomalies, based on MODIS satellite instruments analyzed using the MODVOLC algorithm, were observed during two days in September (14 and 30 September), seven days in October, and lastly on 8 November 2018. Pixel numbers peaked during 3-7 October (six pixels on 3 October). The MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) volcano hotspot detection system, also based on analysis of MODIS data, detected numerous hotspots within 5 km of the volcano during the reporting period. Significant sulfur dioxide levels near the volcano were recorded by NASA's satellite-borne ozone instruments on or just after the 3 October and 16 December explosions.

Geologic Background. The Soputan stratovolcano on the southern rim of the Quaternary Tondano caldera on the northern arm of Sulawesi Island is one of Sulawesi's most active volcanoes. The youthful, largely unvegetated volcano is located SW of Riendengan-Sempu, which some workers have included with Soputan and Manimporok (3.5 km ESE) as a volcanic complex. It was constructed at the southern end of a SSW-NNE trending line of vents. During historical time the locus of eruptions has included both the summit crater and Aeseput, a prominent NE-flank vent that formed in 1906 and was the source of intermittent major lava flows until 1924.

Information Contacts: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, CVGHM), Jalan Diponegoro 57, Bandung 40122, Indonesia (URL: http://www.vsi.esdm.go.id/); Badan Nasional Penanggulangan Bencana (BNPB), National Disaster Management Agency, Graha BNPB - Jl. Scout Kav.38, East Jakarta 13120, Indonesia (URL: http://www.bnpb.go.id/); Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Bureau of Meteorology, Northern Territory Regional Office, PO Box 40050, Casuarina, NT 0811, Australia (URL: http://www.bom.gov.au/info/vaac/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Global Sulfur Dioxide Monitoring Page, Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard, Maryland, USA (URL: https://so2.gsfc.nasa.gov/); Associated Press (URL: http://www.ap.org/).


Suwanosejima (Japan) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Suwanosejima

Japan

29.638°N, 129.714°E; summit elev. 796 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Multiple explosive events with incandescence and ash plumes during November 2018

Suwanosejima, an andesitic stratovolcano in Japan's northern Ryukyu Islands, was intermittently active for much of the 20th century, producing ash plumes, Strombolian explosions, and ash deposits. Continuous activity since October 2004 has produced intermittent explosions, generating ash plumes in most months that rise hundreds of meters above the summit to altitudes between 1 and 3 km. Ongoing activity for the second half of 2018 is covered in this report with information provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) and the Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC).

Activity during July-December 2018 was intermittent with explosions reported twice in September and 21 times during November. Incandescent activity was observed a few times each month, increasing significantly during November. Thermal data support a similar pattern of activity; the MIROVA thermal anomaly graph indicated intermittent activity through the period that was most frequent during October and November (figure 33). MODVOLC thermal alerts were issued once in September (9), three times in October (7, 21), and four times on 14 and 15 November.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. MIROVA thermal data for Suwanosejima from 7 February through December 2018 indicated intermittent activity at the summit that increased to more significant activity during October and November before declining by the end of the year. Courtesy of MIROVA.

There were no explosions at Suwanosejima during July or August 2018; steam plumes rose 900-1,000 m above the crater rim and incandescence was intermittently observed on clear nights. During September incandescence was also observed at night; in addition, explosions were reported on 12 and 13 September, with ash plumes rising 1,100 m above the crater rim. October was again quiet with no explosions, only steam plumes rising 800 m, and occasional incandescence at night, although thermal activity increased (figure 33).

More intense activity resumed during November 2018 with 21 explosions reported. On 9 and 14 November tephra was ejected up to 700 m from the Otake crater. The Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite imagery at 2.4 km altitude moving E on 14 November. The next day, a plume was reported at 2.7 km altitude drifting NW but it was not visible in satellite imagery. JMA reported gray ash plumes that rose up to 2,000 m above the crater rim on 16 and 23 November (figure 34). The ash plume on 23 November was visible in satellite imagery drifting N at 2.7 km altitude. On 30 November the Tokyo VAAC reported an ash plume visible in satellite data drifting SE at 2.4 km altitude. Incandescence was often observed at night from the webcams throughout the month. Ashfall was confirmed in the village 4 km SSW on 14, 17, and 23 November, and sounds were reported on 20 November.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Ash plumes rose 2,000 m above the crater rim at Suwanosejima on 23 November 2018 as seen with the 'campsite' webcam. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity commentary (November, 2018) of Suwanose Island).

During December 2018, no explosive eruptions were reported, but an ash plume rose 1,800 m above the summit on 26 December. Incandescence was observed on clear nights in the webcam. Throughout 2018, a total of 42 explosive events were reported; 21 of them occurred during November (figure 35).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 35. Eruptive activity at Suwanosejima during 2018. Black bars represent heights of steam, gas, or ash plumes in meters above crater rim (left axis), gray volcanoes along the top represent explosions, usually accompanied by ash plumes, red volcanoes represent large explosions with ash plumes, orange diamonds indicate incandescence observed in webcams. Courtesy of JMA (Volcanic activity of Suwanose Island in 2018).

Geologic Background. The 8-km-long, spindle-shaped island of Suwanosejima in the northern Ryukyu Islands consists of an andesitic stratovolcano with two historically active summit craters. The summit of the volcano is truncated by a large breached crater extending to the sea on the east flank that was formed by edifice collapse. Suwanosejima, one of Japan's most frequently active volcanoes, was in a state of intermittent strombolian activity from Otake, the NE summit crater, that began in 1949 and lasted until 1996, after which periods of inactivity lengthened. The largest historical eruption took place in 1813-14, when thick scoria deposits blanketed residential areas, and the SW crater produced two lava flows that reached the western coast. At the end of the eruption the summit of Otake collapsed forming a large debris avalanche and creating the horseshoe-shaped Sakuchi caldera, which extends to the eastern coast. The island remained uninhabited for about 70 years after the 1813-1814 eruption. Lava flows reached the eastern coast of the island in 1884. Only about 50 people live on the island.

Information Contacts: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), Otemachi, 1-3-4, Chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-8122, Japan (URL: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html); Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), 1-3-4 Otemachi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan (URL: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/).


Veniaminof (United States) — January 2019 Citation iconCite this Report

Veniaminof

United States

56.17°N, 159.38°W; summit elev. 2507 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Eruption with lava flows and ash plumes during September-December 2018

The most recent eruptive period at Veniaminof began in September 2018 with seismic activity followed by ash emissions and lava flows continuing through mid-December 2018, the end of this reporting period (figure 25). An intracaldera cone has been the source of historic volcanic activity in the last 200 years and more recent activity last reported in June 2013 (BGVN 42:02). Veniaminof is closely monitored by the Alaska Volcanic Observatory (AVO) and the Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), and is also monitored by a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) web camera in the town of Perryville, 35 km E.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 25. View of Veniaminof to the W with a diffuse ash plume at 1517 local time on 5 September 2018. Photo by Zachary Finley (color adjusted from original); courtesy of USGS/AVO.

The most recent Strombolian-type eruptive cycle commenced with increased seismic activity on 2 September 2018. Low-level ash that rose 3 km and pulsatory low-altitude ash emissions were observed in FAA webcam images on 4-6 September. Ash deposits extended onto the snowfield at and below the summit to the SSW and SE, forming a "v" shape downslope from the summit. On 7 September a thermal feature was detected, suggesting lava fountaining at the summit, which was later confirmed by satellite data showing a S-flank lava flow about 800 m long on 9-11 September (figure 26). FAA webcam images on 26 September showed lava fountains issuing from a second vent 75 m N of the first, producing additional lava flows on the S flank (figures 27 and 28). Minor ash emissions associated with lava fountaining possibly rose as high as 4.5 km and quickly dispersed.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 26. Geologic sketch map of lava flows and features on the intracaldera cone of Veniaminof as of 11 September 2018. DigitalGlobe WorldView-3 image (left) acquired with Digital Globe NextView License. Image by Chris Waythomas; courtesy of USGS/AVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 27. Veniaminof eruption on the evening of 18 September 2018. Photo by Pearl Gransbury; courtesy USGS/AVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 28. Veniaminof in eruption on 26 September 2018. A lava flow is visible on the S flank of the volcano with steaming at the base. Photo by Jesse Lopez (color adjusted from original); courtesy of USGS/AVO.

The lava flow had traveled 1 km down the S flank of the summit cone by 1 October. Satellite imagery from 6 October showed three lobes of lava flows and a plume over a thin tephra deposit. By 25 October the lava flow had traveled as far as 1.2 km (figures 29 and 30). Fractures in the ice sheet adjacent to the lava flow field continued to grow due to meltwater flowing beneath. Additionally, a persistent and robust steam plume which contained sulfur dioxide was visible from the FAA webcam on 18 October.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 29. False color ESA Sentinel-2 image of Veniaminof on 6 October 2018 showing lava effusion and a plume with a thin tephra deposit beneath to the N. The flow is ~1 km in length with the most active front on the E, which has a SWIR (short wave infrared) anomaly extending to the flow front. A branch in the channel feeding the western lobes appears to be active as well, but without any SWIR anomaly near the flow front, suggesting that this western branch is less active. The eastern flow front is producing the strongest steam plume. Prepared by Hannah Dietterich with ESA Sentinel-2 imagery; courtesy of USGS/AVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 30. Sentinel-2 satellite image of Veniaminof acquired 5 December 2018. Image shows three lava lobes with relative ages from oldest (1) to youngest (3). AVO became aware of flow 3 on 29 November 2018. It is uncertain when this flow first formed because the volcano had been obscured by clouds earlier. Prepared by Chris Waythomas; courtesy of USGS/AVO.

Ash emissions significantly increased overnight on 20-21 November, prompting AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code (ACC) to Red and the Alert Level to "Warning" (the highest levels on a four-level scale). The ash emissions rose to below 4.6 km and drifted more than 240 km SE. On 21 November observations and FAA webcam images indicated continuous ash emissions through most of the day as ash plumes drifted SE, extending as far as 400 km (figure 31). A short eruptive pulse was recorded during 1526-1726, and subsequent ash plumes rose to below 3 km with low-altitude ash emissions drifting 100 km S on 22 November (figure 32). Decreased ash emissions prompted AVO to lower the ACC and Alert Level to Orange and "Watch", respectively. However, lava effusion was persistent through 27 November.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 31. Plume rising from Veniaminof on 9 November 2018. View is to the west. Ash is visible at the summit and steam is rising from the S-flank lava flow. Photo by Zachary Finley (color adjusted from original); courtesy of USGS/AVO.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 32. Annotated satellite image of the Veniaminof eruption taken by Sentinel-2 on 22 November 2018. The image shows an eruptive plume above the active cone within the caldera, as well as a broad tephra deposit to the SE on snow extending to Perryville. Image courtesy of USGS/AVO (ESA/Copernicus; Sentinel-2 image visualized in EOS LandViewer).

During 27-28 November acoustic waves were recorded by regional infrasound sensors. A continuous low-amplitude tremor was recorded until the network went offline following a M 7 earthquake in Anchorage on 30 November. On 6 December seismicity changed from nearly continuous low-level volcanic tremor to intermittent small low-frequency events and short bursts of tremors, possibly indicating that lava effusion had slowed or stopped. Variable seismicity continued through 12 December, though there was no visual confirmation of lava effusion.

Minor ashfall was recorded in Perryville (35 km E) on 25 October and 22 November 2018. Elevated surface temperatures and thermal anomalies were identified in satellite data on 7, 12-26 September, 2-9 and 24-30 October, 7-22 November, and 4-5 December. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the FAA webcam at various times during this reporting period (figure 27). Following 22 November, the ACC remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at "Watch."

The MIROVA thermal anomalies detected during this period were reported as having moderate to high radiative power (figure 33). Numerous thermal anomalies identified using the MODVOLC algorithm were also detected during this period, and showed the S-flank lava flows (figure 34).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 33. Plot showing the log radiative power of thermal anomalies at Veniaminof identified using MODIS data by the MIROVA system for the year ending on 28 February 2019. Courtesy of MIROVA.
Figure (see Caption) Figure 34. Map of thermal alert pixels at Veniaminof from the MODVOLC Thermal Alert System during 7 September-24 December 2018 (UTC). Courtesy of HIGP - MODVOLC Thermal Alert System.

Geologic Background. Veniaminof, on the Alaska Peninsula, is truncated by a steep-walled, 8 x 11 km, glacier-filled caldera that formed around 3,700 years ago. The caldera rim is up to 520 m high on the north, is deeply notched on the west by Cone Glacier, and is covered by an ice sheet on the south. Post-caldera vents are located along a NW-SE zone bisecting the caldera that extends 55 km from near the Bering Sea coast, across the caldera, and down the Pacific flank. Historical eruptions probably all originated from the westernmost and most prominent of two intra-caldera cones, which rises about 300 m above the surrounding icefield. The other cone is larger, and has a summit crater or caldera that may reach 2.5 km in diameter, but is more subdued and barely rises above the glacier surface.

Information Contacts: Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), a cooperative program of a) U.S. Geological Survey, 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508-4667 USA (URL: https://avo.alaska.edu/), b) Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, PO Box 757320, Fairbanks, AK 99775-7320, USA, and c) Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys, 794 University Ave., Suite 200, Fairbanks, AK 99709, USA (URL: http://dggs.alaska.gov/); Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Alaska Aviation Weather Unit, NWS NOAA US Dept of Commerce, 6930 Sand Lake Road, Anchorage, AK 99502-1845 USA (URL: http://vaac.arh.noaa.gov/); Hawai'i Institute of Geophysics and Planetology (HIGP) - MODVOLC Thermal Alerts System, School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), Univ. of Hawai'i, 2525 Correa Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA (URL: http://modis.higp.hawaii.edu/); MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity), a collaborative project between the Universities of Turin and Florence (Italy) supported by the Centre for Volcanic Risk of the Italian Civil Protection Department (URL: http://www.mirovaweb.it/); Sentinel Hub Playground (URL: https://www.sentinel-hub.com/explore/sentinel-playground).

Atmospheric Effects

The enormous aerosol cloud from the March-April 1982 eruption of Mexico's El Chichón persisted for years in the stratosphere, and led to the Atmospheric Effects section becoming a regular feature of the Bulletin. Descriptions of the initial dispersal of major eruption clouds remain with the individual eruption reports, but observations of long-term stratospheric aerosol loading will be found in this section.

Atmospheric Effects (1980-1989)  Atmospheric Effects (1995-2001)

Special Announcements

Special announcements of various kinds and obituaries.

Special Announcements

Additional Reports

Reports are sometimes published that are not related to a Holocene volcano. These might include observations of a Pleistocene volcano, earthquake swarms, or floating pumice. Reports are also sometimes published in which the source of the activity is unknown or the report is determined to be false. All of these types of additional reports are listed below by subregion and subject.

Kermadec Islands


Floating Pumice (Kermadec Islands)

1986 Submarine Explosion


Tonga Islands


Floating Pumice (Tonga)


Fiji Islands


Floating Pumice (Fiji)


Andaman Islands


False Report of Andaman Islands Eruptions


Sangihe Islands


1968 Northern Celebes Earthquake


Southeast Asia


Pumice Raft (South China Sea)

Land Subsidence near Ham Rong


Ryukyu Islands and Kyushu


Pumice Rafts (Ryukyu Islands)


Izu, Volcano, and Mariana Islands


Acoustic Signals in 1996 from Unknown Source

Acoustic Signals in 1999-2000 from Unknown Source


Kuril Islands


Possible 1988 Eruption Plume


Aleutian Islands


Possible 1986 Eruption Plume


Mexico


False Report of New Volcano


Nicaragua


Apoyo


Colombia


La Lorenza Mud Volcano


Pacific Ocean (Chilean Islands)


False Report of Submarine Volcanism


Central Chile and Argentina


Estero de Parraguirre


West Indies


Mid-Cayman Spreading Center


Atlantic Ocean (northern)


Northern Reykjanes Ridge


Azores


Azores-Gibraltar Fracture Zone


Antarctica and South Sandwich Islands


Jun Jaegyu

East Scotia Ridge


Additional Reports (database)

08/1997 (BGVN 22:08) False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

12/1997 (BGVN 22:12) False Report of Somalia Eruption

Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

11/1999 (BGVN 24:11) False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

05/2003 (BGVN 28:05) Har-Togoo

Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

12/2005 (BGVN 30:12) Elgon

False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube



False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption (Philippines) — August 1997

False Report of Mount Pinokis Eruption

Philippines

7.975°N, 123.23°E; summit elev. 1510 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of volcanism intended to exclude would-be gold miners

In discussing the week ending on 12 September, "Earthweek" (Newman, 1997) incorrectly claimed that a volcano named "Mount Pinukis" had erupted. Widely read in the US, the dramatic Earthweek report described terrified farmers and a black mushroom cloud that resembled a nuclear explosion. The mountain's location was given as "200 km E of Zamboanga City," a spot well into the sea. The purported eruption had received mention in a Manila Bulletin newspaper report nine days earlier, on 4 September. Their comparatively understated report said that a local police director had disclosed that residents had seen a dormant volcano showing signs of activity.

In response to these news reports Emmanuel Ramos of the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) sent a reply on 17 September. PHIVOLCS staff had initially heard that there were some 12 alleged families who fled the mountain and sought shelter in the lowlands. A PHIVOLCS investigation team later found that the reported "families" were actually individuals seeking respite from some politically motivated harassment. The story seems to have stemmed from a local gold rush and an influential politician who wanted to use volcanism as a ploy to exclude residents. PHIVOLCS concluded that no volcanic activity had occurred. They also added that this finding disappointed local politicians but was much welcomed by the residents.

PHIVOLCS spelled the mountain's name as "Pinokis" and from their report it seems that it might be an inactive volcano. There is no known Holocene volcano with a similar name (Simkin and Siebert, 1994). No similar names (Pinokis, Pinukis, Pinakis, etc.) were found listed in the National Imagery and Mapping Agency GEOnet Names Server (http://geonames.nga.mil/gns/html/index.html), a searchable database of 3.3 million non-US geographic-feature names.

The Manila Bulletin report suggested that Pinokis resides on the Zamboanga Peninsula. The Peninsula lies on Mindanao Island's extreme W side where it bounds the Moro Gulf, an arm of the Celebes Sea. The mountainous Peninsula trends NNE-SSW and contains peaks with summit elevations near 1,300 m. Zamboanga City sits at the extreme end of the Peninsula and operates both a major seaport and an international airport.

[Later investigation found that Mt. Pinokis is located in the Lison Valley on the Zamboanga Peninsula, about 170 km NE of Zamboanga City and 30 km NW of Pagadian City. It is adjacent to the two peaks of the Susong Dalaga (Maiden's Breast) and near Mt. Sugarloaf.]

References. Newman, S., 1997, Earthweek, a diary of the planet (week ending 12 September): syndicated newspaper column (URL: http://www.earthweek.com/).

Manila Bulletin, 4 Sept. 1997, Dante's Peak (URL: http://www.mb.com.ph/).

Simkin, T., and Siebert, L., 1994, Volcanoes of the world, 2nd edition: Geoscience Press in association with the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program, Tucson AZ, 368 p.

Information Contacts: Emmanuel G. Ramos, Deputy Director, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, Department of Science and Technology, PHIVOLCS Building, C. P. Garcia Ave., University of the Philippines, Diliman campus, Quezon City, Philippines.


False Report of Somalia Eruption (Somalia) — December 1997

False Report of Somalia Eruption

Somalia

3.25°N, 41.667°E; summit elev. 500 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Press reports of Somalia's first historical eruption were likely in error

Xinhua News Agency filed a news report on 27 February under the headline "Volcano erupts in Somalia" but the veracity of the story now appears doubtful. The report disclosed the volcano's location as on the W side of the Gedo region, an area along the Ethiopian border just NE of Kenya. The report had relied on the commissioner of the town of Bohol Garas (a settlement described as 40 km NE of the main Al-Itihad headquarters of Luq town) and some or all of the information was relayed by journalists through VHF radio. The report claimed the disaster "wounded six herdsmen" and "claimed the lives of 290 goats grazing near the mountain when the incident took place." Further descriptions included such statements as "the volcano which erupted two days ago [25 February] has melted down the rocks and sand and spread . . . ."

Giday WoldeGabriel returned from three weeks of geological fieldwork in SW Ethiopia, near the Kenyan border, on 25 August. During his time there he inquired of many people, including geologists, if they had heard of a Somalian eruption in the Gedo area; no one had heard of the event. WoldeGabriel stated that he felt the news report could have described an old mine or bomb exploding. Heavy fighting took place in the Gedo region during the Ethio-Somalian war of 1977. Somalia lacks an embassy in Washington DC; when asked during late August, Ayalaw Yiman, an Ethiopian embassy staff member in Washington DC also lacked any knowledge of a Somalian eruption.

A Somalian eruption would be significant since the closest known Holocene volcanoes occur in the central Ethiopian segment of the East African rift system S of Addis Ababa, ~500 km NW of the Gedo area. These Ethiopian rift volcanoes include volcanic fields, shield volcanoes, cinder cones, and stratovolcanoes.

Information Contacts: Xinhua News Agency, 5 Sharp Street West, Wanchai, Hong Kong; Giday WoldeGabriel, EES-1/MS D462, Geology-Geochemistry Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545; Ayalaw Yiman, Ethiopian Embassy, 2134 Kalorama Rd. NW, Washington DC 20008.


False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption (Turkey) — November 1999

False Report of Sea of Marmara Eruption

Turkey

40.683°N, 29.1°E; summit elev. 0 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


UFO adherent claims new volcano in Sea of Marmara

Following the Ms 7.8 earthquake in Turkey on 17 August (BGVN 24:08) an Email message originating in Turkey was circulated, claiming that volcanic activity was observed coincident with the earthquake and suggesting a new (magmatic) volcano in the Sea of Marmara. For reasons outlined below, and in the absence of further evidence, editors of the Bulletin consider this a false report.

The report stated that fishermen near the village of Cinarcik, at the E end of the Sea of Marmara "saw the sea turned red with fireballs" shortly after the onset of the earthquake. They later found dead fish that appeared "fried." Their nets were "burned" while under water and contained samples of rocks alleged to look "magmatic."

No samples of the fish were preserved. A tectonic scientist in Istanbul speculated that hot water released by the earthquake from the many hot springs along the coast in that area may have killed some fish (although they would be boiled rather than fried).

The phenomenon called earthquake lights could explain the "fireballs" reportedly seen by the fishermen. Such effects have been reasonably established associated with large earthquakes, although their origin remains poorly understood. In addition to deformation-triggered piezoelectric effects, earthquake lights have sometimes been explained as due to the release of methane gas in areas of mass wasting (even under water). Omlin and others (1999), for example, found gas hydrate and methane releases associated with mud volcanoes in coastal submarine environments.

The astronomer and author Thomas Gold (Gold, 1998) has a website (Gold, 2000) where he presents a series of alleged quotes from witnesses of earthquakes. We include three such quotes here (along with Gold's dates, attributions, and other comments):

(A) Lima, 30 March 1828. "Water in the bay 'hissed as if hot iron was immersed in it,' bubbles and dead fish rose to the surface, and the anchor chain of HMS Volage was partially fused while lying in the mud on the bottom." (Attributed to Bagnold, 1829; the anchor chain is reported to be on display in the London Navy Museum.)

(B) Romania, 10 November 1940. ". . . a thick layer like a translucid gas above the surface of the soil . . . irregular gas fires . . . flames in rhythm with the movements of the soil . . . flashes like lightning from the floor to the summit of Mt Tampa . . . flames issuing from rocks, which crumbled, with flashes also issuing from non-wooded mountainsides." (Phrases used in eyewitness accounts collected by Demetrescu and Petrescu, 1941).

(C) Sungpan-Pingwu (China), 16, 22, and 23 August 1976. "From March of 1976, various large anomalies were observed over a broad region. . . . At the Wanchia commune of Chungching County, outbursts of natural gas from rock fissures ignited and were difficult to extinguish even by dumping dirt over the fissures. . . . Chu Chieh Cho, of the Provincial Seismological Bureau, related personally seeing a fireball 75 km from the epicenter on the night of 21 July while in the company of three professional seismologists."

Yalciner and others (1999) made a study of coastal areas along the Sea of Marmara after the Izmet earthquake. They found evidence for one or more tsunamis with maximum runups of 2.0-2.5 m. Preliminary modeling of the earthquake's response failed to reproduce the observed runups; the areas of maximum runup instead appeared to correspond most closely with several local mass-failure events. This observation together with the magnitude of the earthquake, and bottom soundings from marine geophysical teams, suggested mass wasting may have been fairly common on the floor of the Sea of Marmara.

Despite a wide range of poorly understood, dramatic processes associated with earthquakes (Izmet 1999 apparently included), there remains little evidence for volcanism around the time of the earthquake. The nearest Holocene volcano lies ~200 km SW of the report location. Neither Turkish geologists nor scientists from other countries in Turkey to study the 17 August earthquake reported any volcanism. The report said the fisherman found "magmatic" rocks; it is unlikely they would be familiar with this term.

The motivation and credibility of the report's originator, Erol Erkmen, are unknown. Certainly, the difficulty in translating from Turkish to English may have caused some problems in understanding. Erkmen is associated with a website devoted to reporting UFO activity in Turkey. Photographs of a "magmatic rock" sample were sent to the Bulletin, but they only showed dark rocks photographed devoid of a scale on a featureless background. The rocks shown did not appear to be vesicular or glassy. What was most significant to Bulletin editors was the report author's progressive reluctance to provide samples or encourage follow-up investigation with local scientists. Without the collaboration of trained scientists on the scene this report cannot be validated.

References. Omlin, A, Damm, E., Mienert, J., and Lukas, D., 1999, In-situ detection of methane releases adjacent to gas hydrate fields on the Norwegian margin: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Yalciner, A.C., Borrero, J., Kukano, U., Watts, P., Synolakis, C. E., and Imamura, F., 1999, Field survey of 1999 Izmit tsunami and modeling effort of new tsunami generation mechanism: (Abstract) Fall AGU meeting 1999, Eos, American Geophysical Union.

Gold, T., 1998, The deep hot biosphere: Springer Verlag, 256 p., ISBN: 0387985468.

Gold, T., 2000, Eye-witness accounts of several major earthquakes (URL: http://www.people.cornell.edu/ pages/tg21/eyewit.html).

Information Contacts: Erol Erkmen, Tuvpo Project Alp.


Har-Togoo (Mongolia) — May 2003

Har-Togoo

Mongolia

48.831°N, 101.626°E; summit elev. 1675 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


Fumaroles and minor seismicity since October 2002

In December 2002 information appeared in Mongolian and Russian newspapers and on national TV that a volcano in Central Mongolia, the Har-Togoo volcano, was producing white vapors and constant acoustic noise. Because of the potential hazard posed to two nearby settlements, mainly with regard to potential blocking of rivers, the Director of the Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Dr. Bekhtur, organized a scientific expedition to the volcano on 19-20 March 2003. The scientific team also included M. Ulziibat, seismologist from the same Research Center, M. Ganzorig, the Director of the Institute of Informatics, and A. Ivanov from the Institute of the Earth's Crust, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Geological setting. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau (figure 1). The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Pliocene and Quaternary volcanic rocks are also abundant in the vicinity of the Holocene volcanoes (Devyatkin and Smelov, 1979; Logatchev and others, 1982). Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 1. Photograph of the Har-Togoo volcano viewed from west, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Observations during March 2003. The name of the volcano in the Mongolian language means "black-pot" and through questioning of the local inhabitants, it was learned that there is a local myth that a dragon lived in the volcano. The local inhabitants also mentioned that marmots, previously abundant in the area, began to migrate westwards five years ago; they are now practically absent from the area.

Acoustic noise and venting of colorless warm gas from a small hole near the summit were noticed in October 2002 by local residents. In December 2002, while snow lay on the ground, the hole was clearly visible to local visitors, and a second hole could be seen a few meters away; it is unclear whether or not white vapors were noticed on this occasion. During the inspection in March 2003 a third hole was seen. The second hole is located within a 3 x 3 m outcrop of cinder and pumice (figure 2) whereas the first and the third holes are located within massive basalts. When close to the holes, constant noise resembled a rapid river heard from afar. The second hole was covered with plastic sheeting fixed at the margins, but the plastic was blown off within 2-3 seconds. Gas from the second hole was sampled in a mechanically pumped glass sampler. Analysis by gas chromatography, performed a week later at the Institute of the Earth's Crust, showed that nitrogen and atmospheric air were the major constituents.

Figure (see Caption) Figure 2. Photograph of the second hole sampled at Har-Togoo, with hammer for scale, March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

The temperature of the gas at the first, second, and third holes was +1.1, +1.4, and +2.7°C, respectively, while air temperature was -4.6 to -4.7°C (measured on 19 March 2003). Repeated measurements of the temperatures on the next day gave values of +1.1, +0.8, and -6.0°C at the first, second, and third holes, respectively. Air temperature was -9.4°C. To avoid bias due to direct heating from sunlight the measurements were performed under shadow. All measurements were done with Chechtemp2 digital thermometer with precision of ± 0.1°C and accuracy ± 0.3°C.

Inside the mouth of the first hole was 4-10-cm-thick ice with suspended gas bubbles (figure 5). The ice and snow were sampled in plastic bottles, melted, and tested for pH and Eh with digital meters. The pH-meter was calibrated by Horiba Ltd (Kyoto, Japan) standard solutions 4 and 7. Water from melted ice appeared to be slightly acidic (pH 6.52) in comparison to water of melted snow (pH 7.04). Both pH values were within neutral solution values. No prominent difference in Eh (108 and 117 for ice and snow, respectively) was revealed.

Two digital short-period three-component stations were installed on top of Har-Togoo, one 50 m from the degassing holes and one in a remote area on basement rocks, for monitoring during 19-20 March 2003. Every hour 1-3 microseismic events with magnitude <2 were recorded. All seismic events were virtually identical and resembled A-type volcano-tectonic earthquakes (figure 6). Arrival difference between S and P waves were around 0.06-0.3 seconds for the Har-Togoo station and 0.1-1.5 seconds for the remote station. Assuming that the Har-Togoo station was located in the epicentral zone, the events were located at ~1-3 km depth. Seismic episodes similar to volcanic tremors were also recorded (figure 3).

Figure (see Caption) Figure 3. Examples of an A-type volcano-tectonic earthquake and volcanic tremor episodes recorded at the Har-Togoo station on 19 March 2003. Courtesy of Alexei Ivanov.

Conclusions. The abnormal thermal and seismic activities could be the result of either hydrothermal or volcanic processes. This activity could have started in the fall of 2002 when they were directly observed for the first time, or possibly up to five years earlier when marmots started migrating from the area. Further studies are planned to investigate the cause of the fumarolic and seismic activities.

At the end of a second visit in early July, gas venting had stopped, but seismicity was continuing. In August there will be a workshop on Russian-Mongolian cooperation between Institutions of the Russian and Mongolian Academies of Sciences (held in Ulan-Bator, Mongolia), where the work being done on this volcano will be presented.

References. Devyatkin, E.V. and Smelov, S.B., 1979, Position of basalts in sequence of Cenozoic sediments of Mongolia: Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 1, p. 16-29. (In Russian).

Logatchev, N.A., Devyatkin, E.V., Malaeva, E.M., and others, 1982, Cenozoic deposits of Taryat basin and Chulutu river valley (Central Hangai): Izvestiya USSR Academy of Sciences, geological series, no. 8, p. 76-86. (In Russian).

Geologic Background. The Miocene Har-Togoo shield volcano, also known as Togoo Tologoy, is situated on top of a vast volcanic plateau. The 5,000-year-old Khorog (Horog) cone in the Taryatu-Chulutu volcanic field is located 135 km SW and the Quaternary Urun-Dush cone in the Khanuy Gol (Hanuy Gol) volcanic field is 95 km ENE. Analysis of seismic activity recorded by a network of seismic stations across Mongolia shows that earthquakes of magnitude 2-3.5 are scattered around the Har-Togoo volcano at a distance of 10-15 km.

Information Contacts: Alexei V. Ivanov, Institute of the Earth Crust SB, Russian Academy of Sciences, Irkutsk, Russia; Bekhtur andM. Ulziibat, Research Center of Astronomy and Geophysics, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia; M. Ganzorig, Institute of Informatics MAS, Ulan-Bator, Mongolia.


Elgon (Uganda) — December 2005

Elgon

Uganda

1.136°N, 34.559°E; summit elev. 3885 m

All times are local (unless otherwise noted)


False report of activity; confusion caused by burning dung in a lava tube

An eruption at Mount Elgon was mistakenly inferred when fumes escaped from this otherwise quiet volcano. The fumes were eventually traced to dung burning in a lava-tube cave. The cave is home to, or visited by, wildlife ranging from bats to elephants. Mt. Elgon (Ol Doinyo Ilgoon) is a stratovolcano on the SW margin of a 13 x 16 km caldera that straddles the Uganda-Kenya border 140 km NE of the N shore of Lake Victoria. No eruptions are known in the historical record or in the Holocene.

On 7 September 2004 the web site of the Kenyan newspaper The Daily Nation reported that villagers sighted and smelled noxious fumes from a cave on the flank of Mt. Elgon during August 2005. The villagers' concerns were taken quite seriously by both nations, to the extent that evacuation of nearby villages was considered.

The Daily Nation article added that shortly after the villagers' reports, Moses Masibo, Kenya's Western Province geology officer visited the cave, confirmed the villagers observations, and added that the temperature in the cave was 170°C. He recommended that nearby villagers move to safer locations. Masibo and Silas Simiyu of KenGens geothermal department collected ashes from the cave for testing.

Gerald Ernst reported on 19 September 2004 that he spoke with two local geologists involved with the Elgon crisis from the Geology Department of the University of Nairobi (Jiromo campus): Professor Nyambok and Zacharia Kuria (the former is a senior scientist who was unable to go in the field; the latter is a junior scientist who visited the site). According to Ernst their interpretation is that somebody set fire to bat guano in one of the caves. The fire was intense and probably explains the vigorous fuming, high temperatures, and suffocated animals. The event was also accompanied by emissions of gases with an ammonia odor. Ernst noted that this was not surprising considering the high nitrogen content of guano—ammonia is highly toxic and can also explain the animal deaths. The intense fumes initially caused substantial panic in the area.

It was Ernst's understanding that the authorities ordered evacuations while awaiting a report from local scientists, but that people returned before the report reached the authorities. The fire presumably prompted the response of local authorities who then urged the University geologists to analyze the situation. By the time geologists arrived, the fuming had ceased, or nearly so. The residue left by the fire and other observations led them to conclude that nothing remotely related to a volcanic eruption had occurred.

However, the incident emphasized the problem due to lack of a seismic station to monitor tectonic activity related to a local triple junction associated with the rift valley or volcanic seismicity. In response, one seismic station was moved from S Kenya to the area of Mt. Elgon so that local seismicity can be monitored in the future.

Information Contacts: Gerald Ernst, Univ. of Ghent, Krijgslaan 281/S8, B-9000, Belgium; Chris Newhall, USGS, Univ. of Washington, Dept. of Earth & Space Sciences, Box 351310, Seattle, WA 98195-1310, USA; The Daily Nation (URL: http://www.nationmedia.com/dailynation/); Uganda Tourist Board (URL: http://www.visituganda.com/).