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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail.

This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives on various volcanoes are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 21 March-27 March 2001
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Arenal Costa Rica New
Kanlaon Philippines New
Lokon-Empung Sulawesi (Indonesia) New
Piton de la Fournaise Reunion Island (France) New
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) Continuing
Guagua Pichincha Ecuador Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Oct 2 Continuing
Krakatau Indonesia 2018 Jun 18 Continuing
Mayon Luzon (Philippines) Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java (Indonesia) 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Continuing
Tungurahua Ecuador Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 16,302 individual reports over 1,046 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 308 different volcanoes.

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Agung Concepcion Ibu Lewotolo Parker Sotara
Ahyi Copahue Ijen Little Sitkin Pavlof Soufriere Hills
Aira Cotopaxi Iliamna Llaima Pelee Soufriere St. Vincent
Akan Cuicocha Iliwerung Loihi Peuet Sague South Sarigan Seamount
Alaid Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Pinatubo Spurr
Alu-Dalafilla Dabbahu Ioto Lopevi Planchon-Peteroa St. Helens
Ambae Dempo Irazu Machin Poas Stromboli
Ambang Descabezado Grande Iya Makian Popocatepetl Sulu Range
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Izu-Torishima Makushin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sumbing
Anatahan Dukono Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Rabaul Sundoro
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebeko Kaba Manam Raikoke Suretamatai
Antuco Ebulobo Kadovar Manda Hararo Ranakah Suwanosejima
Apoyeque Egon Kambalny Marapi Raoul Island Taal
Arenal Ekarma Kanaga Maroa Rasshua Tair, Jebel at
Asamayama Epi Kanlaon Martin Raung Takawangha
Askja Erebus Karangetang Masaya Redoubt Talang
Asosan Erta Ale Karkar Maule, Laguna del Reventador Tambora
Augustine Etna Karthala Mauna Loa Reykjanes Tanaga
Avachinsky Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Mayon Rincon de la Vieja Tandikat-Singgalang
Awu Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi McDonald Islands Rinjani Tangkoko-Duasudara
Axial Seamount Fernandina Katla Melimoyu Ritter Island Tangkuban Parahu
Azul, Cerro Fogo Katmai Merapi Rotorua Tara, Batu
Azumayama Fonualei Kavachi Midagahara Ruang Telica
Bagana Fournaise, Piton de la Kelimutu Misti, El Ruapehu Tenerife
Balbi Fourpeaked Kelut Miyakejima Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Bamus Fuego Kerinci Momotombo Sabancaya Three Sisters
Banda Api Fujisan Ketoi Monowai Sakar Tinakula
Bardarbunga Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kharimkotan Montagu Island Salak Tofua
Barren Island Galeras Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Cristobal Tokachidake
Batur Galunggung Kikai Mutnovsky San Miguel Tolbachik
Bezymianny Gamalama Kilauea Myojinsho San Vicente Toliman
Bogoslof Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nabro Sangay Tongariro
Brava Gaua Kizimen Negra, Sierra Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Santa Ana Turrialba
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Santa Maria Ubinas
Calbuco Grimsvotn Korovin Nishinoshima Sarigan Ulawun
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Koryaksky Nisyros Sarychev Peak Unnamed
Cameroon Guallatiri Krakatau Novarupta Saunders Unnamed
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semeru Veniaminof
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Nyamuragira Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Cereme Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam West Mata
Chachadake [Tiatia] Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okataina Sheveluch Westdahl
Chaiten Hekla Kverkfjoll Okmok Shishaldin Whakaari/White Island
Chiginagak Helgrindur Lamington Ontakesan Simbo Witori
Chikurachki Hierro Lamongan Oraefajokull Sinabung Wolf
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Osorno Sinarka Yasur
Chillan, Nevados de Home Reef Lanin Pacaya Siple Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Hood Lascar Pagan Sirung Zavodovski
Chirpoi Huaynaputina Lateiki Palena Volcanic Group Slamet Zhupanovsky
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Paluweh Snaefellsjokull Zubair Group
Colima Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Panarea Soputan
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Papandayan Sorikmarapi
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Arenal
OVSICORI-UNA reported on 26 March that at least three pyroclastic-flow episodes occurred on 24 March between 1234 and 1342. Unlike previous pyroclastic flows, these descended the W flank. National Park guards observed the resulting ash clouds moving SW. There were no reports of injuries or damage.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Kanlaon
PHIVOLCS noted in a 21 March report that since January 2001 earthquake clusters or occurrences have been recorded by the seismic monitoring network around the volcano. These earthquakes may signify a reactivation of the volcanic system at depth and could be a precursor to more vigorous activity, such as ash explosions. This interpretation is based on similar earthquake clusters manifested prior to the 10 August 1996 phreatic explosion from the active summit crater of the volcano. In view of the possibility of a sudden ash ejection, PHIVOLCS recommends the immediate suspension of all treks to the summit crater until further notice. As an additional precaution, the pre-defined 4-km-radius Permanent Danger Zone (PDZ) should be avoided at all times.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Lokon-Empung
Activity continued after the 28 January 2001 explosion. On 26 March 2001 at 1440 another eruption sent a dark ash plume 1,500 m above the crater rim. Ash drifted E and N. No incandescent material was observed, but 25 minutes after the explosion ash started to fall at Kinilow village (3.5 km from the crater) and Kakaskasen village (4 km from the crater). Activity slowly decreased though 1510, when thick white gas emissions from the crater rose 400 m. The ashfall was 0.3-0.5 cm thick at Kinilow village, 0.1-0.3 cm thick at Kakaskasen village, and 1-2 cm thick around Pasahapen river, about 1 km from the crater. After the initial explosion, volcanic tremor was recorded between 1442 and 1457 with a maximum amplitude of 2-16 mm. The seismograph recorded 13 deep volcanic (type A) and 12 shallow volcanic (type B) events on 25 March; six deep and seven shallow volcanic earthquakes were detected on the 26th.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Piton de la Fournaise
The OVPDLF reported that an eruption began in Dolomieu Crater at 1130 on 27 March. Additional details are not yet available, but inspection of photographs (http://www.ipreunion.com/) shows a fissure eruption, fountaining, and lava flows.
Sources: Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (OVPF), Imaz Press Reunion
Report for Cleveland
On 20 March AVO could no longer detect the ash cloud resulting from the 19 March eruption of Cleveland. Based on satellite data, AVO estimates that the explosive eruption started at 1430 on 19 March and may have lasted as long as 6 hours. The National Weather Service estimated the top of the ash cloud was as high as 9.1 km a.s.l. No ashfall was reported in Nikolski, 75 km E of the volcano. A thermal anomaly detected in satellite imagery following the explosive activity was still visible as of 23 March. The elevated temperature indicated by the anomaly is most likely the result of continued unrest at the volcano and the cooling of recently erupted material.
Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Guagua Pichincha
The IG reported that during the week of 18-24 March a total of 806 long-period earthquakes were registered. However, 460 of those occurred on the 18th along with a moderate ash emission. Long-period event counts were below 20/day as of 21 March. Visual observations made by the Guards of the Refuge revealed that fumarolic activity increased, with higher steam columns on 18, 22, and 23 March, and a stronger sulfur smell until 22 March. No rockfall sounds were heard. The small number of rockfall signals detected as of 26 March suggests that lava dome 9 is stable. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Kilauea
Lava continued to flow down the Pulama Pali and across the coastal flat, but has not yet entered the ocean. During the past few weeks, the flows have covered about 230 m of the private access road to Royal Gardens and are now farther east than any active flows since 1992. Activity is robust on the coastal flat near the truncated road that formerly accessed Royal Gardens but that has long since been cut off by lava. Flows in the area were observed in the last few days to be feeding dozens of breakouts and to be rapidly inflating. Ground observers can often hear methane explosions from burning vegetation along the base of Pulama pali. This activity is part of the "east flow," but lava in the old "west flow" reappeared on the morning of 28 March. Overall, volcanic tremor near Pu`u `O`o was low-to-moderate and tremor at Kilauea's caldera was low. For approximately the previous 2 weeks, small low-frequency earthquakes occurred below the caldera. Tiltmeters in the summit area and along the east rift zone are showing no significant deformation.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
The KVERT reported that during 16-22 March seismic activity was above background levels, with interrupted spasmodic tremor and shallow earthquakes registered. On 18-19 March a gas and steam plume rose 50-100 m above the volcano. On 22 March the volcano was quiet. On other days, the volcano was obscured by clouds. The level of Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Krakatau
Anak Krakatau showed a significant increase in activity during the week of 12-18 March. The number of shallow volcanic earthquakes (type B) rose to 79 from 25 the previous week. Activity decreased again during 19-26 March, with only 34 shallow volcanic events. Krakatau is at hazard level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Mayon
PHIVOLCS reported that during the week ending on 25 March there had been a total of 86 low-frequency volcanic earthquakes with relative amplitudes of 45 mm. The SO2 flux during the same period averaged 2,975 metric tons/day, which is still significantly above the baseline value of 500 tons/day. Deformation monitoring showed that the volcano was inflated, but the present trend revealed insignificant change. The crater was visible, but no glow was observed. Moderate steaming was typical. Alert Level 3 remained in effect, prohibiting entry within the 6-km-radius permanent danger zone.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Merapi
Visual and instrumental monitoring by VSI personnel through 18 March revealed that volcanic activity continued at Merapi. Hot lava avalanches continued to enter the Sat, Senowo, Bebeng, and Lamat rivers, with a maximum runout distance of 3 km in the Sat River. Pyroclastic flows traveled up to 1 km down the Sat, Senowo, and Bebeng rivers. Superficial earthquakes dominated the seismicity, though the number and amplitude decreased from the previous week. Observations during a summit visit on 17 March revealed that high-pressure fumaroles remained on most of the dome's surface. The volcano remained at Alert Level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Popocatepetl
According to CENAPRED, volcanic activity remained low and relatively unchanged throughout 22-27 March. Low-intensity steam-and-gas exhalations continued, sometimes with small amounts of ash. Spoardic episodes of harmonic tremor were reported on most days, with the longest episode lasting 1.5 hours on the evening of 24 March. The volcano remained at Alert Level Yellow Phase III, with a restricted 12-km-radius area.
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Semeru
The summit of the volcano was covered by clouds during 12-18 March, but the seismic record showed increasing activity. Explosion and avalanche earthquakes still dominated seismicity and increased over the past week. There were 349 explosion earthquakes, an increase over the 303 detected during 6-12 March. The count of explosion earthquakes decreased to 259 the week of 19-26 March. Semeru is at hazard level 2 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Sheveluch
The KVERT reported that seismicity was mainly at background levels. On 18 March a 12-minute-long series of shallow earthquakes registered. On 22 March a 2-minute-long shallow earthquake swarm was followed by 20 minutes of weak spasmodic volcanic tremor. Another 2-minute earthquake swarm occurred shortly thereafter. These seismic bursts are thought to correspond to weak ash-gas explosions to heights of 2,000-3,000 m above the crater. On 18-19 and 22 March gas-and-steam plumes rose 200 m above the volcano. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Soufriere Hills
The MVO reported that during 16-23 March activity at Soufrière Hills remained at low levels. Most of the 84 detected rockfalls were small events and occurred on the eastern and southern faces of the lava dome. There has been a small amount of growth in the south part of the dome. Sulfur dioxide fluxes have also been low this week. Traverse measurements under the plume gave fluxes ranging between 120 and 190 metric tons per day for the three days of measurements.
Source: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO)
Report for Tungurahua
During the week of 18-24 March seismicity and fumarolic activity at Tungurahua continued. The IG reported that at 1915 on 22 March an eruption column with an incandescent point rose to a height of 2 km and lasted 10 minutes. Another eruption on 23 March at 1014 lasted for 30 minutes, sending a column 2 km high that moved NW. Pilot reports indicated that the plume reached an altitude of 6 km. At night a point of incandescence in the crater was observed again. Extensive meteorological clouds prevented the Washington VAAC from obtaining good satellite imagery of the 22 and 23 March plumes.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)