Logo link to homepage

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

You are currently viewing Archived reports for the week of 12 April-18 April 2006.


















 Activity for the week of 12 April-18 April 2006

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday, notices of volcanic activity posted on these pages are preliminary and subject to change as events are studied in more detail. This is not a comprehensive list of all of Earth's volcanoes erupting during the week, but rather a summary of activity at volcanoes that meet criteria discussed in detail in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section. Carefully reviewed, detailed reports on various volcanoes are published monthly in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network.

Name Location Activity
Lascar Chile New
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) New
Ubinas Peru New

Augustine United States Ongoing
Fuego Guatemala Ongoing
Galeras Colombia Ongoing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) Ongoing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Ongoing
Manam Papua New Guinea Ongoing
Pacaya Guatemala Ongoing
Raoul Island North Kermadec Ridge (New Zealand) Ongoing
Santa Maria Guatemala Ongoing
Soufriere Hills Montserrat Ongoing
St. Helens United States Ongoing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Ongoing
Tungurahua Ecuador Ongoing
Veniaminof United States Ongoing


New Activity / Unrest


Volcano index photo  Lascar  | Chile  | 23.37°S, 67.73°W  | Elevation 5592 m

ONEMI reported that two explosive eruptions occurred at Lascar on 18 April. The first ash emission began at 1120 and the second began at 1315. According to the Buenos Aires VAAC, a significant meteorological forecast (SIGMET) was issued for Lascar on 18 April stating that a "smoke" column was at a height of 8 km (26,250 ft) a.s.l. and was drifting eastward towards Argentina. The Aviation Color Code was at Red, the highest level. Activity ended later that day, so the Aviation Color Code was reduced to Green. The Villarrica Volcano Visual Observation Project (POVI) website reported that a cloud rose to 3 km above the volcano (28,200 ft a.s.l.), no seismic activity was recorded in the area, and no evacuations occurred.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI), Villarrica Volcano Visual Surveillance Project



Volcano index photo  Merapi  | Central Java (Indonesia)  | 7.54°S, 110.446°E  | Elevation 2910 m

According to CVGHM, volcanic activity began to increase at Merapi on 11 April, and on 12 April at 1500 they raised the Alert level from 2 to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). They reported that an eruption could occur at any time and no one was permitted within 8 km of the summit. According to news reports, authorities informed people living in villages near the volcano to be prepared for possible evacuations.

Sources: Associated Press, Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Reuters



Volcano index photo  Ubinas  | Peru  | 16.355°S, 70.903°W  | Elevation 5672 m

A significant meteorological forecast (SIGMET) was issued on 15 April for an ash cloud from Ubinas at a height of 6.1-7.3 km (20,000-24,000 ft) a.s.l., and later that day for a cloud at 6.1-9.1 km (20,000-30,000 ft) a.s.l. The Aviation Color Code was Red until 16 April when the Buenos Aires VAAC received a report that activity had ceased. According to a news report on 18 April, however, officials urged residents the town of Querapi ~5 km from the volcano to evacuate.

Sources: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC), Reuters



Ongoing Activity


Volcano index photo  Augustine  | United States  | 59.363°N, 153.43°W  | Elevation 1252 m

Activity at Augustine declined to low levels during 7-14 April, with seismicity decreasing to slightly above background levels, and rockfalls and avalanches decreasing in frequency in comparison to previous weeks. Low-level eruptive activity continued, consisting of slow effusion of lava at the summit accompanied by small rockfalls and avalanches on the volcano's flanks. Satellite imagery showed a decline in thermal output consistent with the decreased activity. Sulfur-dioxide gas measurements showed continued high levels of magmatic gas emissions that may have been associated with degassing of lava at the summit of the volcano. Augustine remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Sources: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO), Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Fuego  | Guatemala  | 14.473°N, 90.88°W  | Elevation 3763 m

On 17 April, explosions at Fuego ejected incandescent material ~50-75 m high, and gas plumes to ~150-200 m above the volcano (12,800-13,000 ft a.s.l.). Incandescent landslides traveled down the volcano's S and W flanks. Lava flowed ~400 m S towards Taniluyá ravine.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Galeras  | Colombia  | 1.22°N, 77.37°W  | Elevation 4276 m

INGEOMINAS reported that Galeras remained at a critical state during 10-17 April, with a partially solidified lava dome in the main crater. Seismicity continued to decrease, with an average of 70 small earthquakes occurring at the beginning of the report week, and an average of 45 occurring at the end of the week. In addition, there were small gas emissions from the volcano. Galeras remained at Alert Level 2 (likely eruption in days or weeks).

Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)



Volcano index photo  Karymsky  | Eastern Kamchatka (Russia)  | 54.049°N, 159.443°E  | Elevation 1513 m

Strombolian-to-Vulcanian activity continued at Karymsky during 7-14 April. Satellite imagery showed ash plumes extending ~40-145 km E and SE of the volcano, and a large thermal anomaly at the volcano's crater. Karymsky remained at Concern Color Code Orange.

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)



Volcano index photo  Kilauea  | Hawaiian Islands (USA)  | 19.421°N, 155.287°W  | Elevation 1222 m

During 13-17 April, lava from Kilauea continued to flow off of a lava delta into the ocean at the East Lae`apuki entry. Background volcanic tremor was at normal levels at Kilauea's summit, with small shallow also earthquakes occurring. Volcanic tremor reached moderate levels at Pu`u `O`o.

Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)



Volcano index photo  Manam  | Papua New Guinea  | 4.08°S, 145.037°E  | Elevation 1807 m

Based on information from an aircraft report, the Darwin VAAC reported that ash emitted from Manam reached ~2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. on 12 April and drifted WNW. No ash was visible on satellite imagery. According to RVO, low-level activity occurred at Manam during 13-15 April. Roaring was heard from Main Crater on 13 April, and both summit craters emitted white vapor on the 14th.

Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Rabaul Volcano Observatory (RVO)



Volcano index photo  Pacaya  | Guatemala  | 14.382°N, 90.601°W  | Elevation 2569 m

On 17 April, lava flowed from Pacaya from a parasitic crater at the NE base of a volcanic cone. Fumaroles were active at the volcano's central crater.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Raoul Island  | North Kermadec Ridge (New Zealand)  | 29.27°S, 177.92°W  | Elevation 516 m

As of 13 April, seismicity at Raoul Island had returned to normal and Green Lake's water level was dropping. Raoul Island remained at Alert Level 2 (minor eruptive activity).

Source: GeoNet



Volcano index photo  Santa Maria  | Guatemala  | 14.757°N, 91.552°W  | Elevation 3745 m

Explosions at Santa María's Santiaguito lava-dome complex on 17 April produced ash plumes that reached heights between 500 and 900 m above the volcano (14,000-15,300 ft a.s.l.). Several pyroclastic avalanches occurred that sent material down the volcano's S flank.

Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)



Volcano index photo  Soufriere Hills  | Montserrat  | 16.72°N, 62.18°W  | Elevation 915 m

Observations of the lava dome at Soufrière Hills suggested that lava extrusion continued during 7-14 April. Growth occurred over a sector extending E to N, and an eastward-facing lobe developed on the NE side of the dome. Numerous small rockfalls continued from the active eastern flanks of the dome, adding to the talus in the upper reaches of the Tar River valley. Rockfalls were accompanied by minor ash venting. Due to the wind coming from the S in contrast to the normal prevailing wind direction (from the E) during the second half of the report period, ash fell over many parts of Montserrat: notably after a minor pyroclastic flow occurred at 0645 on 14 April. During the report period, the sulfur-dioxide flux averaged 540 metric tons per day. The hydrogen chloride to sulfur dioxide ratio on 12 April was 3.75, higher than 2.64 measured the previous week.

Sources: Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  St. Helens  | United States  | 46.2°N, 122.18°W  | Elevation 2549 m

Growth of the new lava dome inside the crater of Mount St. Helens continued during 12-17 April, accompanied by low rates of seismicity, low emissions of steam and volcanic gases, and minor production of ash. The eruption continued unabated as was demonstrated by a steady background of small earthquakes and steady westward movement (~1 m per day) of a GPS (global positioning system) station on the active lava dome. St. Helens remained at Volcano Advisory (Alert Level 2); aviation color code Orange.

Source: US Geological Survey Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO)



Volcano index photo  Suwanosejima  | Ryukyu Islands (Japan)  | 29.638°N, 129.714°E  | Elevation 796 m

Based on information from JMA and an aircraft report, the Tokyo VAAC reported that ash from Suwanose-jima was visible at a height of ~1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. on 16 April.

Source: Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Tungurahua  | Ecuador  | 1.467°S, 78.442°W  | Elevation 5023 m

During 11-17 April, small-to-moderate explosions at Tungurahua produced gas, steam, and small amounts of ash. Seismicity was at relatively high levels. Plumes rose to ~2 km above the volcano (or 23,000 ft a.s.l.) on 13 April. A small amount of ash fell in the Pondoa sector N of the volcano.

Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)



Volcano index photo  Veniaminof  | United States  | 56.17°N, 159.38°W  | Elevation 2507 m

During 7-14 April, seismicity at Veniaminof remained at low levels, but above background. Views of the volcano were obscured by clouds during the report period, and AVO received no information about ash clouds or activity at the volcano. The Concern Color Code remained at Yellow.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)



Weekly Reports Archive

Search by Volcano
Agung Fourpeaked Little Sitkin San Cristobal
Ahyi Fuego Llaima San Miguel
Aira Fujisan Loihi San Vicente
Akan Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Lokon-Empung Sangay
Alaid Galeras Lopevi Sangeang Api
Alu-Dalafilla Galunggung Machin Santa Ana
Ambae Gamalama Makian Santa Maria
Ambang Gamkonora Makushin Sarigan
Ambrym Gaua Maly Semyachik Sarychev Peak
Anatahan Gorely Manam Saunders
Antuco Great Sitkin Manda Hararo Semeru
Apoyeque Grimsvotn Marapi Semisopochnoi
Arenal Guagua Pichincha Maroa Seulawah Agam
Asamayama Guallatiri Martin Sheveluch
Askja Guntur Masaya Shishaldin
Asosan Hachijojima Mauna Loa Simbo
Augustine Hakoneyama Mayon Sinabung
Avachinsky Heard McDonald Islands Sinarka
Awu Hekla Melimoyu Siple
Axial Seamount Hierro Merapi Sirung
Azul, Cerro Hokkaido-Komagatake Metis Shoal Slamet
Azumayama Home Reef Misti, El Soputan
Bagana Hood Miyakejima Sorikmarapi
Balbi Hudson, Cerro Momotombo Sotara
Bamus Huila, Nevado del Monowai Soufriere Hills
Banda Api Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Montagu Island Soufriere St. Vincent
Bardarbunga Ibu Moyorodake [Medvezhia] South Sarigan Seamount
Barren Island Ijen Mutnovsky Spurr
Batur Iliamna Myojinsho St. Helens
Bezymianny Iliwerung Nabro Stromboli
Bogoslof Inielika Negra, Sierra Sulu Range
Brava Ioto Negro, Cerro Sumbing
Bristol Island Iya Nightingale Island Sundoro
Bulusan Izu-Torishima Nishinoshima Suretamatai
Calbuco Jackson Segment Nisyros Suwanosejima
Callaqui Kaba Novarupta Taal
Cameroon Kadovar NW Rota-1 Tair, Jebel at
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Kambalny Nyamuragira Takawangha
Cayambe Kanaga Nyiragongo Talang
Cereme Kanlaon Okataina Tambora
Chachadake [Tiatia] Karangetang Okmok Tanaga
Chaiten Karkar Ontakesan Tandikat-Singgalang
Chiginagak Karthala Oraefajokull Tangkoko-Duasudara
Chikurachki Karymsky Osorno Tangkubanparahu
Chiles-Cerro Negro Kasatochi Pacaya Tara, Batu
Chillan, Nevados de Katla Pagan Telica
Chirinkotan Kavachi Palena Volcanic Group Tenerife
Chirpoi Kelimutu Paluweh Tengger Caldera
Cleveland Kelut Panarea Three Sisters
Colima Kerinci Papandayan Tinakula
Colo Ketoi Parker Tofua
Concepcion Kharimkotan Pavlof Tokachidake
Copahue Kick 'em Jenny Peuet Sague Tolbachik
Cotopaxi Kikai Pinatubo Toliman
Cuicocha Kilauea Planchon-Peteroa Tongariro
Cumbal Kirishimayama Poas Tungurahua
Dabbahu Kizimen Popocatepetl Turrialba
Dempo Klyuchevskoy Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Ubinas
Descabezado Grande Kolokol Group Rabaul Ulawun
Dieng Volcanic Complex Korovin Ranakah Unknown Source
Dukono Koryaksky Raoul Island Unnamed
Ebeko Krakatau Rasshua Veniaminof
Ebulobo Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Raung Villarrica
Egon Kuchinoerabujima Redoubt West Mata
Ekarma Kusatsu-Shiranesan Reventador White Island
Epi Kverkfjoll Rincon de la Vieja Witori
Erebus Lamington Rinjani Wolf
Erta Ale Lamongan Ritter Island Yasur
Etna Langila Rotorua Zaozan
Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Lanin Ruang Zavodovski
Eyjafjallajokull Lascar Ruapehu Zhupanovsky
Fernandina Lengai, Ol Doinyo Ruiz, Nevado del Zubair Group
Fogo Leroboleng Sabancaya
Fonualei Lewotobi Sakar
Fournaise, Piton de la Lewotolo Salak
Search by Date
Use the dropdowns to choose the year and week for archived Weekly Reports.





 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website.




The CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management. They are similar in content to the RSS feed, but contain no active links.




A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.


Disclaimers

1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm
Contact: USGS Web Team
USGS Privacy Statement


RSS and CAP Feeds

An RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report first made available on 5 March 2008 can be utilized with the aid of various free downloadable readers. The report content of the news feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. On 12 March 2009, GeoRSS tags were added so that the latitude and longitude for each volcano could be included with the feed.

At the end of each individual report is a list of the sources used. We would like to emphasize that the World Organization of Volcano Observatories (WOVO) website (http://www.wovo.org/) lists the regional volcano observatories that have the most authoritative data for many of these events.

CAP (Common Alerting Protocol) feeds are XML files specifically formatted for disaster management.


Google Earth Placemarks

A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report was first made available on 1 April 2009. This file can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano page for that volcano and to the complete Weekly Report for that week.

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)