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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 17 March-23 March 2021
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Cleveland Chuginadak Island (USA) New
Etna Sicily (Italy) 2013 Sep 3 New
Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Iceland 2021 Mar 19 New
Pacaya Guatemala 2015 Jun 7 ± 1 days New
San Cristobal Nicaragua 2020 Dec 27 (?) New
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) 2021 Feb 2 ± 2 days New
Taal Luzon (Philippines) New
Veniaminof United States New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Dukono Halmahera (Indonesia) 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Ebeko Paramushir Island (Russia) 2016 Oct 20 Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) Continuing
Klyuchevskoy Central Kamchatka (Russia) Continuing
Laguna del Maule Central Chile-Argentina border Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island (Indonesia) 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java (Indonesia) 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevados de Chillan Chile 2016 Jan 8 Continuing
Raung Eastern Java (Indonesia) Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Sinabung Indonesia 2020 Aug 8 Continuing
Soufriere St. Vincent St. Vincent Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 17,038 individual reports over 1,081 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 315 different volcanoes.

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Agung Concepcion Ijen Little Sitkin Peuet Sague Spurr
Ahyi Copahue Iliamna Llaima Pinatubo St. Helens
Aira Cotopaxi Iliwerung Loihi Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Akan Cuicocha Inielika Lokon-Empung Poas Sulu Range
Alaid Cumbal Ioto Lopevi Popocatepetl Sumbing
Alu-Dalafilla Dabbahu Irazu Machin Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Sundoro
Ambae Dempo Iya Makian Rabaul Suretamatai
Ambang Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Suwanosejima
Ambrym Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Taal
Anatahan Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Tair, Jebel at
Aniakchak Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Takawangha
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Ebulobo Kambalny Marapi Raung Talang
Antuco Egon Kanaga Maroa Redoubt Tambora
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanlaon Martin Reventador Tanaga
Arenal Epi Karangetang Masaya Reykjanes Tandikat-Singgalang
Asamayama Erebus Karkar Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkoko-Duasudara
Askja Erta Ale Karthala Mauna Loa Rinjani Tangkuban Parahu
Asosan Etna Karymsky Mayon Ritter Island Tara, Batu
Atka Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Kasatochi McDonald Islands Rotorua Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Katla Melimoyu Ruang Tenerife
Avachinsky Fernandina Katmai Merapi Ruapehu Tengger Caldera
Awu Fogo Kavachi Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fonualei Kelimutu Misti, El Sabancaya Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fournaise, Piton de la Kelut Miyakejima Sakar Tofua
Azumayama Fourpeaked Kerinci Momotombo Salak Tokachidake
Bagana Fuego Ketoi Monowai San Cristobal Tolbachik
Balbi Fujisan Kharimkotan Montagu Island San Miguel Toliman
Bamus Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Tongariro
Banda Api Galeras Kikai Mutnovsky Sangay Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galunggung Kilauea Myojinsho Sangeang Api Turrialba
Barren Island Gamalama Kirishimayama Nabro Santa Ana Ubinas
Batur Gamkonora Kizimen Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gareloi Klyuchevskoy Negro, Cerro Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gaua Kolokol Group Nightingale Island Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gorely Korovin Nishinoshima Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Great Sitkin Koryaksky Nisyros Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Grimsvotn Krakatau Novarupta Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Guagua Pichincha Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker NW Rota-1 Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Guallatiri Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Nyamulagira Seulawah Agam West Mata
Cameroon Guntur Kuchinoerabujima Nyiragongo Sheveluch Westdahl
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Hachijojima Kurikomayama Okataina Shishaldin Whakaari/White Island
Cayambe Hakoneyama Kusatsu-Shiranesan Okmok Simbo Witori
Cereme Heard Kverkfjoll Ontakesan Sinabung Wolf
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hekla La Palma Oraefajokull Sinarka Yasur
Chaiten Helgrindur Lamington Osorno Siple Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chiginagak Hierro Lamongan Pacaya Sirung Zavodovski
Chikurachki Hokkaido-Komagatake Langila Pagan Slamet Zhupanovsky
Chiles-Cerro Negro Home Reef Lanin Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zubair Group
Chillan, Nevados de Hood Lascar Paluweh Soputan
Chirinkotan Huaynaputina Lateiki Panarea Sorikmarapi
Chirpoi Hudson, Cerro Lengai, Ol Doinyo Papandayan Sotara
Cleveland Huila, Nevado del Leroboleng Parker Soufriere Hills
Colima Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Lewotobi Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Ibu Lewotolok Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are monthly, and more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Cleveland
AVO reported that on 10 March an earthquake at Cleveland was large enough to be recorded by seismometers 100 km away on Umnak Island. On 17 March volcanic gas emissions increased and elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite images. The Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level was raised to Advisory.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Etna
INGV reported continuing episodes of lava fountaining at Etna’s Southeast Crater (SEC) on 15, 17, and 19 March, though weather conditions often prevented visual observations. Strombolian activity at SEC began at 2110 on 14 March and turned into lava fountaining at 0048 on 15 March. Lava traveled towards the Valle de Bove and an eruption plume drifted E. Lava fountaining ceased by 0343 and only weak Strombolian activity followed. The lava flows continued to advance.

Weak Strombolian activity at SEC on 17 March began to intensify at 0155 and changed into lava fountaining at 0319. An eruption plume drifted SE and lava flow advanced. Fountaining activity ceased at 0717 and was followed by explosive activity. By 1859 the lava flows had reached 2,200 m elevation. Explosions at SEC and the lava flow in the Valle de Bove were visible at 2142 on 18 March when the weather conditions allowed for partial visibility of the summit.

Explosive activity at SEC was visible at 0734 on 19 March. The activity intensified at 0915 and ash emissions were visible. Lava fountaining started at 0935 and an ash plume drifted ENE. Lava fountaining activity ceased at 1136 and changed to Strombolian activity which gradually decreased; by 1350 only sporadic explosions were visible along with minor ash emissions. Lava flows were noted late in the morning.
Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)
Report for Krysuvik-Trolladyngja
IMO reported that a small eruption in the western part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, began at around 2045 on 19 March. The eruption was first visible in webcam images and confirmed by satellite data, and an orange glow in clouds on the horizon was seen from Reykjanesbaer and Grindavík (10 km SW). The Aviation Color Code was raised to Red. Reykjanesbraut, the main road from the capital region to Reykjanesbaer and the international airport at Keflavík, was closed.

A fissure, 500-700 m long, had opened on a slope in the Geldingadalur valley about 4.7 km N of the coast and just off the SE flank of Fagradalsfjall mountain. Small lava fountains rose as high as 100 m above the fissure, and by 1110 on 20 March, the lava had covered an area less than 1 square kilometer and was approximately 500 m across. The extrusion rate was an estimated 5 cubic meters per second. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Orange because there was little to no ash production that would affect aircraft. Reykjanesbraut reopened, but Sudurstrandarvegur, the road along the S coastline, was closed between Grindavík and Thorlakshofn.

The eruption continued during 21-23 March with a consistent extrusion rate. About three cones had formed along the fissure; the tallest and widest was situated at the higher part of the fissure. Lava flows, mainly from the largest cone, fanned out to the NW, W, and SW, and also flowed S and fanned out to the E. Spatter was ejected above the cones. Video captured by visitors showed parts of the largest cone collapsing and rebuilding. The IMO periodically issued warnings about weather conditions that would cause high concentrations of volcanic gases to settle near the eruption site, causing hazardous conditions for visitors. IMO noted that through the night of 22-23 March night sulfur dioxide levels in Reykjavík had increased, though not to unsafe levels.
Source: Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO)
Report for Pacaya
INSIVUMEH reported periods of intense activity at Pacaya’s Mackenney Crater during 17-18 March. Explosions produced dense ash plumes that rose 500-1,000 m above the crater rim and drifted 25-30 km S, SW, W, NW, and N. Incandescent material was ejected 300-500 m above the crater and fell within a 600 m radius of the crater. Lava flows on the S flank were 1.5 km long and set fire to vegetation at the advancing edge. Two new lava flows were visible; one traveled 400 m E and the other traveled 500 m S. Ashfall was reported in El Rodeo (4 km WSW), Patrocinio (about 5 km W), El Cedro (9 km NNW), San Francisco de Sales (5 km N), Amatitlán (12 km N), and Villa Nueva (16 km N).

Strong explosions during 21-23 March generated dense ash plumes that rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit. The plumes drifted 25-30 km NE, E, SE, and S, causing ashfall in Los Llanos, Los Pocitos (5 km S), Los Dolores (6 km SE), El Rodeo, Patrocinio, Mesías Alta and Mesías Baja, and Santa Elena Barillas (6 km ENE). Incandescent material was ejected 500 m above the crater and fell within 300-600 m of the crater. A lava flow on the SW flank was 1.5 km long, a flow on the S flank was 300 m long, and the E-flank lava flow had lengthened to 500 m. On 23 March ash plumes drifted 50 km NW, N, and NE, causing ashfall in Pepinal San Francisco de Sales, Los Pocitos, Los Dolores, Mesías Altas and Mesías Bajas, Santa Elena Barillas, Villa Nueva, and in the capital of Guatemala City (25-30 km NNE). Ash fell at Guatemala's international airport, Aeropuerto Internacional La Aurora, 50 km N of Pacaya, causing the airport to close. Soldiers swept ash off of the runway and incoming flights were diverted to El Salvador.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), CNN
Report for San Cristobal
The Washington VAAC reported that on 19 March a notable ash cloud from San Cristóbal rose at least to 12.2 km (40,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted over 80 km ENE based on satellite data, ash dispersion models, and weather models.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that satellite data showed minor ash deposits on Semisopochnoi’s flanks and a possible gas cloud on 14 March. Two small explosions on 19 March, at 0350 and 0534, were recorded by regional infrasound sensors and prompted AVO to raise the Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level to Orange and Watch, respectively. A small explosion at 0230 on 21 March was followed by a series of smaller explosions. A volcanic gas cloud was visible in satellite data during the previous day. Three small explosions were detected during 22-23 March, though high weather cloud cover, at 9.1 km (30,000 ft) a.s.l., prevented satellite confirmation; no ash was visible above the cloud deck.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported that at Taal during 16-23 March there were 36-193 daily volcanic earthquakes and 27-156 daily periods of volcanic tremor with variable durations (1-15 minutes). Three hybrid earthquakes were recorded each day on 18 and 19 March. Diffuse steam plumes from fumarolic vents in Main Crater rose as high as 100 m. Daily measurements of sulfur dioxide emissions were 603-1,184 tonnes per day. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). PHIVOLCS strongly recommended no entry onto the island, and access to the Main Crater and Daang Kastila fissure (along the walking trail) was strictly prohibited.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Veniaminof
AVO reported that the eruption at Veniaminof continued during 17-23 March. Low surface temperatures were visible in satellite images along with steam-and-gas plumes. Low-level tremor was recorded in local seismic data. During the morning of 21 March small explosions were identified using seismic data and infrasound sensors in Chignik Lagoon. A volcanic gas cloud drifted SE at or below 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. Small explosions were detected again during 21-23 March. Sulfur dioxide plumes were identified in satellite data. Minor ash emissions rose hundreds of meters and rapidly dissipated, though on 23 March a pilot saw an ash plume rise to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. Satellite data during 22-23 March showed highly elevated surface temperatures and subsidence of the glacial ice over the flank vent where lava was erupting. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that during 15-22 March incandescence from Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) was visible nightly. An explosion on 15 March produced an eruption plume that rose 1.5 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs 500-700 m away from the crater. The explosions on 20 March generated plumes that rose as high as 1.6 km. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 1,800 tons per day on 12 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 16-23 March ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1-2.4 km (7,000-8,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted in multiple directions. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Sources: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC), Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Ebeko
Volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, observed explosions during 12-15 and 18-19 March that sent ash plumes to 2.6 km (8,500 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E, NE, and NW. Ashfall was reported in Severo-Kurilsk on 12 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that two vents on the inner NW wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued to supply the lava lake during 17-23 March. Lava flowed from both the main vent and a vent several meters NE into the lake through submerged inlets. Another lava flow emerged from about halfway up the cone structure starting at 0220 on 16 March, but had ended by the next day.

The depth of the western part of the lake rose from about 221 m to 223 m and lava continued to circulate in that part. The E half of the lake remained solidified and lower that the W half, with the crusted E half expanding towards the W. The sulfur dioxide emission rate was 650, 700, and 1,100 tons/day on 17, 18, and 19 March, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Klyuchevskoy
KVERT reported that the Strombolian eruption from vents on Klyuchevskoy’s lower NW flank continued during 12-19 March. A large, bright thermal anomaly over the vents was identified in satellite images. Kamchatka Volcanological Station scientists visited the eruption site on 16 March and observed decreased activity. A small lava flow effused from a vent at the W base of the cone and lava flowed from the N side. Every few seconds material was ejected as high as 100 m above the cone’s rim. On 22 March the cinder cone was weakly incandescent and lava effusion continued to be observed in webcam images. The temperature of the thermal anomaly identified in satellite data also significantly decreased. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale) on 22 March. Two days later, on 24 March, the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green (the lowest level); weak incandescence from the cone and flows visible in webcam images reflected cooling.
Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT), Kamchatka Volcanological Station
Report for Laguna del Maule
SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 1-15 March the seismic network at Laguna del Maule recorded a total of 123 volcano-tectonic earthquakes. The largest event was a local M 2.4 located 8.2 km WSW of the lake, at a depth of 4.4 km. One tremor event was also recorded. Recent carbon dioxide emission measurements showed an upward trend and that the area of anomalous emissions had expanded. Deformation rates were higher than maximum averages. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI maintained a Yellow Alert for San Clemente and recommended restricted access within a radius of 2 km from the center of elevated carbon dioxide emissions.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Lewotolok
PVMBG reported that the Strombolian eruption at Lewotolok continued during 17-23 March. Daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose as high as 700 m above the summit and drifted mainly E and SE. Incandescent material was ejected 300 m E of the summit on 20 March. The next day incandescent material was ejected 100 m above the summit and as far as 200 m E. On 22 March explosions ejected incandescent material 250-350 m SE. The eruptive events were accompanied by rumbling and banging sounds. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 4 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported that the lava dome just below Merapi’s SW rim and the lava dome in the summit crater both continued to grow during 12-18 March. The 2021 lava-dome volume was an estimated 840,000 cubic meters on 18 March, with a growth rate of about 12,900 cubic meters per day, and continued to shed material down the flank. A total of three pyroclastic flows traveled a maximum of 1 km down the SW flank. Incandescent avalanches, recorded 211 times, traveled as far as 1.2 km down the SW flank. The summit lava dome had grown to 65 m tall and had an estimated volume of 950,000 cubic meters with a growth rate of 12,800 cubic meters per day. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public were warned to stay 5 km away from the summit.
Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)
Report for Nevados de Chillan
SERNAGEOMIN reported that activity at Nevados de Chillán’s Nicanor Crater was ongoing with sporadic gas-and-ash emissions and continuing lava effusion during 1-15 March. Explosions produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.3 km above the crater rim, and sometimes ejected material as far as 160 m onto the NE flank. The L5 lava flow on the N flank was about 925 m long and 80 m wide at the distal end, and continued to slowly advance. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, the second lowest level on a four-color scale. ONEMI stated that Alert Level Yellow (the middle level on a three-color scale) remained in place for the communities of Pinto and Coihueco, noting that the public should stay at least 2 km away from the crater.
Sources: Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería (SERNAGEOMIN), Oficina Nacional de Emergencia-Ministerio del Interior (ONEMI)
Report for Raung
PVMBG reported that daily gray-and-white ash plumes rose 300-900 m above Raung’s summit during 16-23 March. Ash plumes drifted mainly N, E, and S. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Reventador
IG reported that a high level of activity continued to be recorded at Reventador during 16-23 March; adverse weather conditions sometimes prevented visual confirmation. Seismicity was characterized by 31-81 daily explosions, volcano-tectonic and harmonic tremor events, and long-period earthquakes as well as signals indicating emissions. Gas, steam, and ash plumes were often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC; they rose as high as 1.5 km above the summit crater and drifted mainly NE, E, and SW. Crater incandescence and incandescent blocks rolling at least down the N, NE, and E flanks were observed nightly.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Sangay
IG reported a high level of activity at Sangay during 17-23 March. Seismicity was characterized by daily explosions, long-period earthquakes, and signals indicating emissions. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual observations of the volcano, though based on the Washington VAAC, webcam images, and observer reports, ash plumes were noted most days rising as high as 1.5 km above the summit and drifting mainly N, W, and SW. A seismic station recorded occasional debris flows during 17-19 March. No ashfall was reported by residents.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 12-19 March. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Sinabung
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Sinabung continued during 16-23 March. Weather conditions often prevented visual observations of the volcano, particularly during the end of the week. Avalanches were detected daily by the seismic network and observed traveling 500-1,500 m down the E and SE flanks during 16-18 March. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), with a general exclusion zone of 3 km and extensions to 5 km in the SE sector and 4 km in the NE sector.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Soufriere St. Vincent
University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC) and National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that the lava dome in Soufrière St. Vincent’s main crater continued to slowly grow during 17-23 March, expanding to the N and S. A team visited the dome on 19 and 23 March to make observations, take measurements, and maintain monitoring equipment. Gas-and-steam continued to rise from the top of the dome as well as along the contact between the old and new domes. As of 19 March the dome was 105 m tall, 921 m long, 243 m wide, and had an estimated volume of 13.13 million cubic meters. The Alert Level remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).
Sources: University of the West Indies Seismic Research Centre (UWI-SRC), National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that the seismic network for Suwanosejima’s Ontake Crater detected a total of 11 explosions during 12-19 March. These events produced eruption plumes that rose as high as 1.7 km above the crater rim and ejected bombs up to 700 m away from the crater. Incandescence from the crater was occasionally visible at night. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale).
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)