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Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report

Weekly Volcanic Activity Map

The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is a cooperative project between the Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program and the US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program. Updated by 2300 UTC every Wednesday and averaging 16 reported volcanoes, this is not a comprehensive list of all eruptions this week, but rather a summary of activity that meet criteria discussed in the "Criteria and Disclaimers" section below.

Volcanic activity reported here is preliminary and subject to change. Carefully reviewed, detailed narratives over longer time periods are published as reports of the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network available through volcano profile pages.

Smithsonian / USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for the week of 30 March-5 April 2022
Name Location Eruption Start Date Report Status
Agung Bali New
Poas Costa Rica New
Purace Colombia New
Aira Kyushu (Japan) 2017 Mar 25 Continuing
Ambae Vanuatu 2021 Dec 5 Continuing
Ambrym Vanuatu Continuing
Bezymianny Central Kamchatka (Russia) 2010 May 21 (?) Continuing
Dukono Halmahera 1933 Aug 13 Continuing
Fuego South-Central Guatemala 2002 Jan 4 Continuing
Great Sitkin Andreanof Islands (USA) 2021 May 25 Continuing
Ibu Halmahera 2008 Apr 5 Continuing
Karymsky Eastern Kamchatka (Russia) 2020 Apr 1 Continuing
Kavachi Solomon Islands 2021 Oct 2 Continuing
Kikai Ryukyu Islands (Japan) Continuing
Kilauea Hawaiian Islands (USA) 2021 Sep 29 Continuing
Kirishimayama Kyushu (Japan) Continuing
Krakatau Sunda Strait 2021 May 25 Continuing
Lewotolok Lembata Island 2020 Nov 27 Continuing
Merapi Central Java 2020 Dec 31 Continuing
Nevados de Chillan Central Chile 2016 Jan 8 Continuing
Pavlof Alaska Peninsula, Alaska 2021 Aug 5 Continuing
Popocatepetl Mexico 2005 Jan 9 Continuing
Reventador Ecuador 2008 Jul 27 Continuing
Rincon de la Vieja Costa Rica 2021 Jun 28 Continuing
Ruapehu North Island (New Zealand) Continuing
Sangay Ecuador 2019 Mar 26 Continuing
Santa Maria Southwestern Guatemala 1922 Jun 22 Continuing
Sao Jorge Azores Continuing
Semeru Eastern Java 2014 Apr 1 ± 15 days Continuing
Semisopochnoi Aleutian Islands (USA) Continuing
Sheveluch Central Kamchatka (Russia) 1999 Aug 15 Continuing
Sirung Pantar Island Continuing
Suwanosejima Ryukyu Islands (Japan) 2004 Oct 23 Continuing
Taal Luzon (Philippines) Continuing
Telica Sierra de los Marrabios Continuing
Whakaari/White Island North Island (New Zealand) Continuing
Wolf Isla Isabela (Galapagos) Continuing
Yasur Vanuatu 1774 Jul 2 (in or before) ± 182 days Continuing
All times are local unless otherwise stated.
Weekly Reports Archive

Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report began in November 2000, there have been 18,190 individual reports over 1,134 weeks (average of 16 per week) on 327 different volcanoes.

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Agung Cotopaxi Iliamna Little Sitkin Planchon-Peteroa Stromboli
Ahyi Cuicocha Iliwerung Llaima Poas Sulu Range
Aira Cumbal Inielika Lokon-Empung Popocatepetl Sumbing
Akan Dabbahu Ioto Lonquimay Purace Sundoro
Alaid Davidof Irazu Lopevi Puyehue-Cordon Caulle Suretamatai
Alu-Dalafilla Dempo Iya Machin Rabaul Suwanosejima
Ambae Descabezado Grande Izu-Torishima Makushin Raikoke Taal
Ambang Dieng Volcanic Complex Jackson Segment Maly Semyachik Ranakah Tair, Jebel at
Ambrym Dukono Kaba Manam Raoul Island Takawangha
Anatahan Ebeko Kadovar Manda Hararo Rasshua Talang
Aniakchak Ebulobo Kaitoku Seamount Marapi Raung Tambora
Antillanca Volcanic Complex Edgecumbe Kama'ehuakanaloa Maroa Redoubt Tanaga
Antuco Egon Kambalny Martin Reventador Tandikat-Singgalang
Apoyeque Ekarma Kanaga Masaya Reykjanes Tangkoko-Duasudara
Arenal Epi Kanlaon Maule, Laguna del Rincon de la Vieja Tangkuban Parahu
Asamayama Erebus Karangetang Mauna Loa Rinjani Tara, Batu
Askja Erta Ale Karkar Mayon Ritter Island Ta'u
Asosan Etna Karthala McDonald Islands Rotorua Taupo
Atka Volcanic Complex Etorofu-Yakeyama [Grozny Group] Karymsky Melimoyu Ruang Telica
Augustine Eyjafjallajokull Kasatochi Merapi Ruapehu Tenerife
Avachinsky Fagradalsfjall Katla Midagahara Ruiz, Nevado del Tengger Caldera
Awu Fernandina Katmai Misti, El Sabancaya Three Sisters
Axial Seamount Fogo Kavachi Miyakejima Sakar Tinakula
Azul, Cerro Fonualei Kelimutu Momotombo Salak Tofua
Azumayama Fournaise, Piton de la Kelud Monowai San Cristobal Tokachidake
Bagana Fourpeaked Kerinci Montagu Island San Miguel Tolbachik
Balbi Fuego Ketoi Moyorodake [Medvezhia] San Vicente Toliman
Bamus Fujisan Kharimkotan Mutnovsky Sangay Tongariro
Banda Api Fukutoku-Oka-no-Ba Kick 'em Jenny Myojinsho Sangeang Api Tungurahua
Bardarbunga Galeras Kie Besi Nabro Santa Ana Turrialba
Barren Island Galunggung Kikai Negra, Sierra Santa Maria Ubinas
Batur Gamalama Kilauea Negro, Cerro Sao Jorge Ugashik-Peulik
Bezymianny Gamkonora Kirishimayama Nightingale Island Sarigan Ukinrek Maars
Bogoslof Gareloi Kita-Ioto Nishinoshima Sarychev Peak Ulawun
Brava Gaua Kizimen Nisyros Saunders Unnamed
Bristol Island Gorely Klyuchevskoy Novarupta Savo Unnamed
Bulusan Great Sitkin Kolokol Group NW Rota-1 Semeru Veniaminof
Calbuco Grimsvotn Koryaksky Nyamulagira Semisopochnoi Villarrica
Callaqui Guagua Pichincha Krakatau Nyiragongo Seulawah Agam Vulcano
Cameroon Guallatiri Krummel-Garbuna-Welcker Ofu-Olosega Sheveluch West Mata
Campi Flegrei del Mar di Sicilia Guntur Krysuvik-Trolladyngja Okataina Shishaldin Westdahl
Cayambe Hachijojima Kuchinoerabujima Okmok Simbo Whakaari/White Island
Chachadake [Tiatia] Hakoneyama Kurikomayama Ontakesan Sinabung Witori
Chaiten Heard Kusatsu-Shiranesan Oraefajokull Sinarka Wolf
Chiginagak Hekla Kverkfjoll Osorno Siple Yakedake
Chikurachki Helgrindur La Palma Pacaya Sirung Yasur
Chiles-Cerro Negro Hierro Lamington Pagan Slamet Yufu-Tsurumi
Chillan, Nevados de Hokkaido-Komagatake Lamongan Palena Volcanic Group Snaefellsjokull Zaozan [Zaosan]
Chirinkotan Home Reef Langila Paluweh Soputan Zavodovski
Chirpoi Hood Lanin Panarea Sorikmarapi Zhupanovsky
Ciremai Huaynaputina Lascar Papandayan Sotara Zubair Group
Cleveland Hudson, Cerro Lateiki Parker Soufriere Hills
Colima Huila, Nevado del Lengai, Ol Doinyo Pavlof Soufriere St. Vincent
Colo Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai Leroboleng Pelee South Sarigan Seamount
Concepcion Ibu Lewotobi Peuet Sague Spurr
Copahue Ijen Lewotolok Pinatubo St. Helens
 News Feeds and Google Placemarks


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The RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feed is identical to the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report minus some features including the header information (latitude and longitude and summit elevation), the Geologic Summary, and a link to the volcano's page from the Global Volcanism Program. At the end of each report is a list of the sources used. Each volcano report includes a link from the volcano's name back to the more complete information in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report on the Smithsonian website. This feature was first made available on 5 March 2008.



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A Google Earth network link for the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report can be loaded into the free Google Earth software, and in turn will load placemarks for volcanoes in the current weekly report. Placemark balloons include the volcano name, report date, report text, sources, and links back to the GVP volcano profile page and to the complete Weekly Report for that week. This feature was first made available on 1 April 2009.

 Criteria & Disclaimers

Criteria



The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report does not necessarily include all volcanic activity that occurred on Earth during the week. More than a dozen volcanoes globally have displayed more-or-less continuous eruptive activity for decades or longer, and such routine activity is typically not reported here. Moreover, Earth's sea-floor volcanism is seldom reported even though in theory it represents the single most prolific source of erupted material. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report summarizes volcanic activity that meets one or more of the following criteria:

- A volcano observatory raises or lowers the alert level at the volcano.
- A volcanic ash advisory has been released by a volcanic ash advisory center (VAAC) stating that an ash cloud has been produced from the volcano.
- A verifiable news report of new activity or a change in activity at the volcano has been issued.
- Observers have reported a significant change in volcanic activity. Such activity can include, but is not restricted to, pyroclastic flows, lahars, lava flows, dome collapse, or increased unrest.

Volcanoes are included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report if the activity occurs after at least 3 months of quiescence. Once a volcano is included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section, updates will remain in that section unless the activity continues for more than 1 month without escalating, after which time updates will be listed in the "Continuing Activity" section. Volcanoes are also included in the "New Activity/Unrest" section if the volcano is undergoing a period of relatively high unrest, or increasing unrest. This is commonly equal to Alert Level Orange on a scale of Green, Yellow, Orange, Red, where Red is the highest alert. Or alert level 3 on a scale of 1-4 or 1-5.

It is important to note that volcanic activity meeting one or more of these criteria may occur during the week, but may not be included in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report because we did not receive a report.

Disclaimers



1. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is intended to provide timely information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Consequently, the report is generated rapidly by summarizing volcanic reports from various sources, with little time for fact checking. The accuracy of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is dependent upon the quality of the volcanic activity reports we receive. Reports published in the Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network are cover longer time periods and are more carefully reviewed, although all of the volcanoes discussed in the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report are not necessarily reported in the Bulletin. Because of our emphasis on rapid reporting on the web we have avoided diacritical marks. Reports are updated on the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report web page as they are received, therefore information may be included regarding events that occurred before the current report period.

2. Rapidly developing events lead to coverage that is often fragmentary. Volcanoes, their eruptions, and their plumes and associated atmospheric effects are complex phenomena that may require months to years of data analysis in order to create a comprehensive summary and interpretation of events.

3. Preliminary accounts sometimes contain exaggerations and "false alarms," and accordingly, this report may include some events ultimately found to be erroneous or misleading.

4. Many news agencies do not archive the articles they post on the Internet, and therefore the links to some sources may not be active. To obtain information about the cited articles that are no longer available on the Internet contact the source.

5. USGS Disclaimer Statement for this Website:

Information presented on this website is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credit is requested. We strongly recommend that USGS data be acquired directly from a USGS server and not through other sources that may change the data in some way. While USGS makes every effort to provide accurate and complete information, various data such as names, telephone numbers, etc. may change prior to updating. USGS welcomes suggestions on how to improve our home page and correct errors. USGS provides no warranty, expressed or implied, as to the accuracy, reliability or completeness of furnished data.

Some of the documents on this server may contain live references (or pointers) to information created and maintained by other organizations. Please note that USGS does not control and cannot guarantee the relevance, timeliness, or accuracy of these outside materials.

For site security purposes and to ensure that this service remains available to all users, this government computer system employs software programs to monitor network traffic to identify unauthorized attempts to upload or change information, or otherwise cause damage. Unauthorized attempts to upload information or change information on this website are strictly prohibited and may be punishable under the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the National Information Infrastructure Protection Act. Information may also be used for authorized law enforcement investigations. (Last modified September 21, 1999.)

U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA
URL: https://volcano.si.edu/reports_weekly.cfm

 Acronyms and Abbreviations

a.s.l. - above sea level

AVO - Alaska Volcano Observatory

AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

CENAPRED - Centro Nacionale de Prevencion de Desastres (México)

CONRED - Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres

COSPEC - Correlation Spectrometer

CVGHM (formerly VSI) - Center of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation

CVO - Cascades Volcano Observatory (USGS)

GMS - Geostationary Meteorological Satellite

GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

GVO - Goma Volcano Observatory

GVP - Global Volcanism Program (Smithsonian Institution)

HVO - Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (USGS)

ICE - Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (Costa Rica)

IG - Instituto Geofísico (Ecuador)

IGNS - Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (New Zealand) - now GNS Science

INETER - Instituto Nicaragüense de Estudios Territoriales (Nicaragua)

INGEMMET - Instituto Geológical Minero y Metalúrgico (Peru)

INGEOMINAS - Instituto Colombiano de Geología y Minería (Colombia)

INGV-CT - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - Sezione di Catania (Italy)

INSIVUMEH - Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia e Hidrologia (Guatemala)

IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (France)

JMA - Japanese Meteorological Agency

KEMSD - Kamchatkan Experimental and Methodical Seismilogical Department

KVERT - Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team

M - magnitude

METEOSAT - Meteorological Satellite

MEVO - Mount Erebus Volcano Observatory

MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MVO - Montserrat Volcano Observatory

MWO - Meteorological Watch Office

NEIC - National Earthquake Information Center

NIED - National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (Japan)

NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOTAM - Notice to Airmen

OVDAS - Observatorio Volcanologico de los Andes del Sur (Chile)

OFDA - Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance

ONEMI - Oficina Nacional de Emergencia - Ministerio del Interior (Chile)

OVPDLF - Observatoire Volcanologique du Piton de la Fournaise (France)

OVSICORI-UNA - Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica, Universidad Nacional (Costa Rica)

PHIVOLCS - Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Philippines)

RSAM - Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement

RVO - Rabaul Volcano Observatory

SERNAGEOMIN - Servicio Nacional de Geologia y Mineria (Chile)

SIGMET - Significant Meteorological Information

SNET - Servicio Nacional de Estudios Territoriales (El Salvador)

SVERT - Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (Russia)

USAID - US Agency for International Development

USGS - United States Geological Survey

UTC - Coordinated Universal Time

VAAC - Volcanic Ash Advisory Center

VAFTAD - Volcanic Ash Forecast Transport And Dispersion

VDAP - Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (USGS)

VHP - Volcano Hazards Program (USGS)

VRC - Volcano Research Center (Japan)

Report for Agung
Based on ground reports, satellite imagery, and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 3 April an ash plume from Agung rose to 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 1-4).
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Poas
OVSICORI-UNA reported that on 6 April at 0242 a phreatic explosion was detected at the N wall crater wall at Poás, generating a plume that rose 500 m above the crater. Activity lasted for three minutes.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Purace
The Popayán Observatory, part of the Servicio Geologico Colombiano (SGC) reported that there was an increase in the number of volcano-tectonic earthquakes associated with rock fractures at Puracé. On 28 March, 479 volcanic tremors, 183 long-period (LP), and 119 volcanic tremor (TR) events were detected. Seismicity was detected 800 m SE from the crater at average depths of 2 km. An earthquake that occurred at 1214 on 29 March had a magnitude of 3.3. That same day, two cracks approximately 40 m long produced gas-and-steam emissions. On 30 March the Volcano Alert Level rose to 3 or Yellow (the second lowest on a four-color scale).
Source: Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC)
Report for Aira
JMA reported that very small eruptive events were recorded at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera’s Sakurajima volcano) during 29 March through 4 April. After 2 April, incandescence was observed at night with a high-sensitivity surveillance camera. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Ambae
On 31 March the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards (VMGD) reported that explosions at the cone in Ambae’s Lake Voui continued to produce steam and ash emissions. Wet tephra that was also ejected from the cone during this activity remained within the caldera. Light ashfall was reported in nearby villages. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5) and the public was warned to stay outside of the Danger Zone, defined as a 2-km radius around the active vents in Lake Voui, and away from drainages during heavy rains.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Ambrym
On 31 March the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD) reported that nighttime crater incandescence from Ambrym’s Benbow Crater was no longer visible, though steam emissions persisted. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 0-5). VMGD warned the public to stay outside of Permanent Danger Zone A, defined as a 1-km radius around Benbow Crater and a 2-km radius around Marum Crater, and additionally to stay 500 m away from the ground cracks created by the December 2018 eruption.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)
Report for Bezymianny
KVERT reported that a daily thermal anomaly over Bezymianny was visible in satellite images during 26 March through 1 April. Strong fumarolic activity, incandescence at the lava dome, and avalanches were also reported. Dome collapses were detected on 25 and 31 March and ash clouds rose to 4 km (13,000 ft) a.s.l., expanding 40 km E and 20 km SW, respectively. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow (the second lowest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Dukono
Based on satellite and wind model data, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 29 March through 4 April ash plumes from Dukono rose to 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, S, E, and ENE. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to remain outside of the 2-km exclusion zone.
Source: Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Fuego
INSIVUMEH reported that 4-8 explosions per hour were detected at Fuego during 30 March through 5 April, generating gas-and-ash emissions that rose to 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 30 km NW, W, SW, and S. Block avalanches descended the Las Lajas (SE), Seca (W), Ceniza (SSW), Taniluyá (SW), Trinidad (S), Honda, and Santa Teresa drainages. At night, incandescence was observed up to 150 m above the crater. Fine ashfall was reported in Panimaché I and II (8 km SW), Morelia (9 km SW), Santa Sofía (12 km SW), Finca Palo Verde, Yepocapa (8 km NW), El Porvenir (8 km ENE), and Sangre de Cristo (8 km WSW). Shock waves from the explosions and rumbling sounds rattled local structures. Based on satellite and wind model data, the Washington VAAC reported that during 29 March through 4 April ash plumes from Fuego rose to 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE, E, SW, S, WNW, WSW.
Sources: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH), Coordinadora Nacional para la Reducción de Desastres (CONRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Great Sitkin
AVO reported that slow lava effusion at Great Sitkin continued during 30 March through 5 April and low seismicity persisted. Cloud cover prevented views of the volcano most of the week, but slow lava effusion continued; minor flow fronts advanced from the W and S lobes, as well as the E margin. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Ibu
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Ibu continued during 25-31 March. On 30 March at 1048 an ash plume rose 1 km above the summit that drifted S. Roughly 58 avalanches traveled 100-400 m N and NW. The Alert Level remained at a 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the active crater and 3.5 km away on the N side.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Karymsky
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was visible in satellite images during 24-26 March. The volcano was either quiet or obscured by clouds on the other days during 27 March through 1 April. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Kavachi
Satellite data showed discolored water around Kavachi on 31 March. The discolored water fanned out to the S over a short distance, though it was not clearly observed due to cloudy weather.
Sources: Sentinel Hub, Culture Volcan
Report for Kikai
JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Satsuma Iwo-jima, a subaerial part of Kikai’s NW caldera rim, during 29 March through 4 April. White gas-and-steam plumes rose 1 km above the crater rim. Surveillance cameras observed nightly incandescence. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 500 m away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Kilauea
HVO reported that lava effusion from vents in the lower W wall of Kilauea’s Halema`uma`u Crater continued at variable rates during 30 March through 5 April. Lava from a vent flowed into the active W part of the lava lake and onto the crater floor. Numerous and sustained ooze outs of lava along the lake’s margins; effusion along interior surface fractures persisted during the week but showed decreasing activity. On 31 March a hornito that was forming on the E side of the lake exhibited spattering throughout the day. HVO noted that by 29 March about 64 million cubic meters of lava had been erupted since the current eruption began, raising the crater floor by 96 m (315 ft). The sulfur dioxide emission rate was approximately 3,100 tons/day, based on measurements made on 31 March. During 2-5 April continued ooze outs were occurring along the E half of the crater floor and NW margin, but at a decreased rate, and crustal overturning occurred occasionally on the NW margin. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.
Source: US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
Report for Kirishimayama
JMA reported a high number of volcanic earthquakes just below Shinmoedake (Shinmoe peak, a stratovolcano of the Kirishimayama volcano group). On 31 March the number of volcanic earthquakes increased below Ebino Kogen (located on the NW flank of the Karakunidake stratovolcano, about 5 km NW of Shinmoedake). Fumarolic plumes continued to rise from a fissure on the W flank. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater. The public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Krakatau
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Anak Krakatau continued during 25-31 March. On 1326 on 30 March an eruption that lasted 96 seconds generated a gray-black ash plume that rose 700 m above the summit and drifted NE based on webcam images. White gas-and-steam emissions rose 25-100 m above the summit. The Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay at least 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Lewotolok
The eruption at Lewotolok continued during 25-31 March according to PVMBG. White-and-gray emissions rose 50-500 m above the summit and drifted W and NW. Ash emissions rose 200-500 m above the summit. On 31 March at 1204 an ash plume rose 800 m above the summit and drifted NW according to a ground observer. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4) and the public was warned to stay 3 km away from the summit crater.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Merapi
BPPTKG reported no significant morphological changes at Merapi’s summit lava dome during 25-31 March, though the height of the dome below the SW rim had increased by 4 m. Based on photo analyses, the volume of the SW lava dome had a volume of 1.7 million cubic meters while the central lava dome was 2.6 million cubic meters. Seismicity remained at high levels. As many as 118 lava avalanches originating from the SW dome traveled a maximum of 2.5 km down the Bebeng drainage on the SW flank. On 28 March two pyroclastic flows were recorded on a seismogram that descended 2.5 km SW, one of which occurred at 1509. On 1 April a pyroclastic flow at 1500 descended 1.5 km down the SW flank. Based webcam, satellite, and wind data, the Darwin VAAC reported re-suspended ash that rose to 100 m (300 ft) a.s.l. As many as 37 avalanches were detected, but the distance and direction were not observed. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-5 km away from the summit based on location.
Sources: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Nevados de Chillan
Based on satellite and webcam data, isolated ash pulses from Nevados de Chillán were reported by the Buenos Aires VAAC during 31 March that rose to 4.9 km (16,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and NNE. Intermittent hotspots were observed in satellite imagery on 1 April.
Source: Buenos Aires Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Pavlof
AVO reported that weak eruptive activity was ongoing at Pavlof during 30 March through 4 April, and seismic tremor persisted. Weak explosive activity was detected during 31 March and 2-3 April with low-level plumes visible in the mornings, though satellite and webcam views were mostly obscured by clouds. During 3-4 April elevated surface temperatures were detected in satellite images despite the cloudy weather. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch and the Aviation Color Code remained at Orange.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Popocatepetl
CENAPRED reported that the eruption at Popocatépetl continued during 30 March through 5 April. Each day there were 11-29 diffuse gas-and-steam emissions with ash rising from the crater and drifting S, E, NE, and SE. Based on webcam, satellite and wind models, the Washington VAAC reported ash plumes that rose to 7.3 km (24,000 ft) a.s.l. that drifted E and SE. A moderate explosion was recorded at 2022 on 29 March, resulting in light ashfall in San Pedro Benito Juárez, a municipality of Atlixco. Three volcano-tectonic (VT) earthquakes were recorded on 30 March at 1129, 1146, and 1514. Intermittent VT earthquakes continued during the week. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (the middle level on a three-color scale).
Sources: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Reventador
IG reported that a high level of activity continued at Reventador during 30 March through 5 April, though cloudy weather conditions sometimes prevented visual observations. Gas-and-ash plumes, often observed multiple times a day with the webcam or reported by the Washington VAAC, rose as high as 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted mainly NW, W, and SW. As many as 68 daily explosions were detected, in addition to long-period (LP) and emission tremors. Daily thermal anomalies were also reported. On clear weather nights, incandescence could be observed in the upper part of the E flank of the volcano. Blocks were recorded rolling 400 m below the crater on all flanks during 4 April, in addition to the incandescence in the crater.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Rincon de la Vieja
OVSICORI-UNA reported that 10 eruptive events at Rincón de la Vieja had been recorded since 15 March, one of which was detected on 27 March. Between 28 and 29 March a swarm of long-period earthquakes were detected. On 4 April at 1042 an eruption that lasted 1.5 minutes produced a plume, but the height was not observed due to weather conditions.
Source: Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico de Costa Rica-Universidad Nacional (OVSICORI-UNA)
Report for Ruapehu
On 28 March and 5 April GeoNet reported that unrest continued at Ruapehu with elevated levels of tremor and increasing crater lake water temperatures from 32 degrees Celsius to 36 degrees Celsius. The Volcanic Alert Level remained at 2 (on a scale from 0-5) and the Aviation Color Code was raised to Yellow on 28 March.
Source: GeoNet
Report for Sangay
IG reported that the eruption at Sangay continued during 30 March through 5 April. Weather clouds and rain often prevented visual and webcam observations, though daily gas-and-ash plumes that rose to 6.7 km (22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W, SW, WSW, and NW were identified in satellite images by the Washington VAAC or in webcam views. As many as 96 daily explosions were detected along with frequent long-period events and emission tremors. Daily thermal anomalies were also visible in satellite data. Incandescent material was visible on the flanks in webcam imagery on clear weather days.
Sources: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG), Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Santa Maria
INSIVUMEH reported that the eruption at Santa María’s Santiaguito lava-dome complex continued during 30 March through 5 April. Incandescence from Caliente crater and the lava flows on the W and SW flanks were visible during the night and early morning, accompanied by weak-to-moderate block-and-ash avalanches along its path down the W, SW, and S flanks that reached the base of the dome. The avalanches generated ash plumes that drifted W. Fine ashfall occurred near the volcano on 3 April, including in San Marcos (8 km SW) and Loma Linda Palajunoj (7 km SW). The smell of sulfur was sometimes detected in Las Marias.
Source: Instituto Nacional de Sismologia, Vulcanologia, Meteorologia, e Hidrologia (INSIVUMEH)
Report for Sao Jorge
A seismic swarm beneath the W half of São Jorge began at 1605 on 19 March, with earthquakes along the Manadas volcanic fissure system between Velas (S side of the island) and Fajã do Ouvidor (N coast). On 31 March there were 714 seismic events detected, according to a preliminary analysis of seismic records. As the week progressed, the number of daily events fluctuated from 397 on 1 April to 592 on 5 April; magnitudes were relatively low. The Alert Level remained at V4 (on a scale of V0-V6).
Source: Centro de Informação e Vigilância Sismovulcânica dos Açores (CIVISA)
Report for Semeru
PVMBG reported that the eruption at Semeru continued during 25-31 March. Activity included a pyroclastic flow, ash plumes that rose 300-700 m and drifted mainly N and NW, and gas-and-steam emissions reaching 200-300 m above the summit. Ground observers, webcam images, and satellite data detected ash plumes that rose to 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N and W, according to MAGMA Indonesia and the Darwin VAAC. Avalanches were reported on 1 April. On 3 April a strong thermal anomaly was detected in infrared satellite imagery. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The public was warned to stay at least 500 m away from Kobokan drainages within 17 km of the summit, along with other drainages originating on Semeru, including the Bang, Kembar, and Sat, due to lahar, avalanche, and pyroclastic flow hazards.
Sources: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM), Darwin Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)
Report for Semisopochnoi
AVO reported that low-level eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus cone continued during 30 March-4 April. Periods of seismic tremor and occasional small explosions were detected daily in seismic and regional infrasound data. Daily minor ash emissions rose no higher than 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and occasional steam emissions were visible in webcam and satellite images; clouds sometimes prevented satellite views. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Watch.
Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)
Report for Sheveluch
KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 26 March through 1 April. The lava dome continued to grow and strong fumarolic activity, incandescence, and avalanches accompanied this activity. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale). Dates are based on UTC times; specific events are in local time where noted.
Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)
Report for Sirung
PVMBG reported that white emissions rose 10-50 m above the summit of Sirung and drifted NE, E, and SE. Seismicity was relatively low and showed a consistent decrease since July 2021. As a result, the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4) at 1800 on 1 April.
Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)
Report for Suwanosejima
JMA reported that eruptive activity continued to be recorded at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater during 29 March through 4 April. As many as 122 explosions were recorded, and crater incandescence was visible nightly. Eruption plumes rose as high as 2.8 km above the crater rim and ejected blocks as far as 900 m from the crater. Ashfall was reported in Toshima village (3.5 km SSW). The Alert Level remained at 3 and the public was warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.
Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)
Report for Taal
PHIVOLCS reported that hot volcanic fluids circulated and upwelled in Taal’s Main Crater lake during 30 March through 6 April, producing plumes that rose as high as 2 km above the lake’s surface and drifted SW. Sulfur dioxide emissions averaged 265-7,856 tonnes/day during the week. Tremor events persisted daily until 5 April. Three phreatomagmatic bursts from the Main Crater were detected at 1039, 1047, and 1055, based on seismic data and webcam images, which produced plumes 500-900 m tall that drifted SW. PHIVOLCS noted that Alert Level 3 (magmatic unrest) means that there has been a magmatic intrusion and evacuation of high-risk barangays is recommended.
Source: Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS)
Report for Telica
Based on webcam images, the Washington VAAC reported that on 29 March ash emissions at Telica rose as high as 1.5 km (5,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted W.
Source: Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC)
Report for Whakaari/White Island
On 4 April GeoNet reported that the ash emissions at Whakaari/White Island had not been observed since late February 2022; gas temperatures had declined to below 300 degrees Celsius. As a result, the Volcanic Alert Level was lowered to 1 and the Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green.
Source: GeoNet
Report for Wolf
IG reported that the eruption at Wolf continued during 30 March through 5 April. Daily thermal alert counts, as many as around 145, indicated active and advancing lava flows.
Source: Instituto Geofísico-Escuela Politécnica Nacional (IG)
Report for Yasur
On 31 March the Vanuatu Meteorology and Geohazards Department (VMGD) reported that activity at Yasur continued at a high level of “major unrest,” as defined by the Alert Level 2 status (the middle level on a scale of 0-4). Ash-and-gas emissions and loud explosions continued to be recorded, with bombs falling in and around the crater. The public was reminded not to enter the restricted area within 600 m around the cone, defined by Danger Zone A on the hazard map.
Source: Vanuatu Meteorology and Geo-Hazards Department (VMGD)