Report on Gamalama (Indonesia) — August 1991
Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, vol. 16, no. 8 (August 1991)
Managing Editor: Lindsay McClelland.
Gamalama (Indonesia) Explosions eject white clouds
Please cite this report as:
Global Volcanism Program, 1991. Report on Gamalama (Indonesia) (McClelland, L., ed.). Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network, 16:8. Smithsonian Institution. https://doi.org/10.5479/si.GVP.BGVN199108-268060
0.81°N, 127.3322°E; summit elev. 1714 m
All times are local (unless otherwise noted)
Two strong explosions were seen from Ternate, 6 km ESE of the summit, on 15 June, ejecting mainly white clouds. A 20 June climb revealed only white vapor filling the summit crater.
Geological Summary. Gamalama is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera, and is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. The island was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the extensive documentation of activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit. Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano; the S-flank Ngade maar formed after about 14,500–13,000 cal. BP (Faral et al., 2022). Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63.
Information Contacts: V. Clavel and P. Vetsch, SVG, Switzerland.